2024

  • M. R. Paul, D. T. Demie, S. J. Seidel, and T. F. Döring, “Evaluation of multiple spring wheat cultivars in diverse intercropping systems,” European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 152, p. 127024, 2024. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2023.127024
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Re-diversifying agriculture through cereal-legume intercropping could provide higher productivity, but the cultivars and traits associated with agronomic performance of intercropping are currently unclear. Moreover, the impact of different cultivars on intercropping performance under diverse environmental and management conditions is largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated various cultivar combinations of spring wheat (SW, Triticum aestivum L.) and faba bean (FB, Vicia faba L.) under diverse intercropping conditions, and evaluated their mixing abilities. We used variability in terms of plant height among cultivars and assessed the effects of height on total grain yield in the mixture. Twelve entries (ten cultivars and two cultivar mixtures) of SW and two cultivars of FB were sown as sole crops and all possible 1:1 species mixtures, with each of these treatments grown at two sowing densities and in three environments. Our results did not show any significant main effect of SW and FB cultivars on the total grain yield in the mixture. However, there were significant two-way interaction effects of SW cultivars with all the other factors (environment, FB cultivar, and sowing density) on the mixtures’ grain yield advantage over sole crops. Spearman’s rank correlation (ρ) among SW cultivars between SW yield in monoculture and total yield in mixture was variable, depending on the trial environment with ρ ranging from 0.42 (non-significant) to 0.90 (P < 0.001). In addition, a highly significant effect of environments and crop densities on the total grain yield in the mixture was observed. A significant but weak positive correlation of SW plant height with the total grain yield in the mixture was detected in one of the three environments. We conclude that selecting a site-specific partner combination of cereals and legumes with appropriate management practices is a key element to enhance functional complementarity and improve total productivity in intercropping, though the complexity of the interactions makes this a difficult task.

    @article{PAUL2024127024,
    title = {Evaluation of multiple spring wheat cultivars in diverse intercropping systems},
    journal = {European Journal of Agronomy},
    volume = {152},
    pages = {127024},
    year = {2024},
    issn = {1161-0301},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2023.127024},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1161030123002927},
    author = {Madhuri R. Paul and Dereje T. Demie and Sabine J. Seidel and Thomas F. Döring},
    keywords = {Crop mixture, Crop synergy, Diversification, Sustainable agriculture, Competition, Cooperation, Compensation, Varietal choice},
    abstract = {Re-diversifying agriculture through cereal-legume intercropping could provide higher productivity, but the cultivars and traits associated with agronomic performance of intercropping are currently unclear. Moreover, the impact of different cultivars on intercropping performance under diverse environmental and management conditions is largely unexplored. Therefore, we investigated various cultivar combinations of spring wheat (SW, Triticum aestivum L.) and faba bean (FB, Vicia faba L.) under diverse intercropping conditions, and evaluated their mixing abilities. We used variability in terms of plant height among cultivars and assessed the effects of height on total grain yield in the mixture. Twelve entries (ten cultivars and two cultivar mixtures) of SW and two cultivars of FB were sown as sole crops and all possible 1:1 species mixtures, with each of these treatments grown at two sowing densities and in three environments. Our results did not show any significant main effect of SW and FB cultivars on the total grain yield in the mixture. However, there were significant two-way interaction effects of SW cultivars with all the other factors (environment, FB cultivar, and sowing density) on the mixtures’ grain yield advantage over sole crops. Spearman’s rank correlation (ρ) among SW cultivars between SW yield in monoculture and total yield in mixture was variable, depending on the trial environment with ρ ranging from 0.42 (non-significant) to 0.90 (P < 0.001). In addition, a highly significant effect of environments and crop densities on the total grain yield in the mixture was observed. A significant but weak positive correlation of SW plant height with the total grain yield in the mixture was detected in one of the three environments. We conclude that selecting a site-specific partner combination of cereals and legumes with appropriate management practices is a key element to enhance functional complementarity and improve total productivity in intercropping, though the complexity of the interactions makes this a difficult task.}
    }

  • S. L. Bauke, S. J. Seidel, M. Athmann, A. E. Berns, M. Braun, M. I. Gocke, J. Guigue, T. Kautz, I. Kögel-Knabner, J. Ohan, M. Rillig, M. Schloter, O. Schmittmann, S. Schulz, D. Uhlig, A. Schnepf, and W. Amelung, "Short-term effects of subsoil management by strip-wise loosening and incorporation of organic material," Soil and Tillage Research, vol. 236, p. 105936, 2024. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2023.105936
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Agricultural production in Central Europe increasingly suffers from extreme drought events. Improving root access to nutrient and water resources in the subsoil below the plow layer is a potential option to maintain productivity during dry summers. Here, we tested a strip-wise subsoil amelioration method that combines subsoil loosening with organic matter incorporation into the subsoil (biowaste or green waste compost) and compared it with a treatment of only subsoil loosening and a non-ameliorated control. A field experiment with randomized block design was conducted on a Luvisol with an argic horizon (Bt), with a rotation of spring barley and winter wheat. In the first two years after amelioration, we monitored soil physico-chemical parameters, microbial biomass, and shoot and root growth at anthesis as well as harvested grain yield and quality. Subsoil loosening with organic matter incorporation significantly decreased soil bulk density at the depth of compost incorporation when biowaste compost was used, but not when green waste compost had been incorporated. Nutrient stocks, nutrient availability and microbial biomass were not consistently affected by the subsoil amelioration. Nevertheless, the incorporation of organic material, especially biowaste compost, significantly increased root growth into the subsoil and subsequently significantly enhanced crop nutrient uptake, biomass and grain yield production. Green waste compost incorporation had less pronounced effects, with an increase in grain yield only in the second year after amelioration. Differences in crop development could not be explained by any single soil parameter, suggesting that it was rather a combined effect of loosened subsoil and better supply of subsoil resources that resulted in an increase in subsoil root length density and subsequently led to better crop performance.

    @article{BAUKE2024105936,
    title = {Short-term effects of subsoil management by strip-wise loosening and incorporation of organic material},
    journal = {Soil and Tillage Research},
    volume = {236},
    pages = {105936},
    year = {2024},
    issn = {0167-1987},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2023.105936},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167198723003033},
    author = {Sara L. Bauke and Sabine J. Seidel and Miriam Athmann and Anne E. Berns and Melanie Braun and Martina I. Gocke and Julien Guigue and Timo Kautz and Ingrid Kögel-Knabner and Juliette Ohan and Matthias Rillig and Michael Schloter and Oliver Schmittmann and Stefanie Schulz and David Uhlig and Andrea Schnepf and Wulf Amelung},
    keywords = {Subsoil management, Microbial biomass, Soil nutrients, Stable isotopes, Root growth, Grain yield},
    abstract = {Agricultural production in Central Europe increasingly suffers from extreme drought events. Improving root access to nutrient and water resources in the subsoil below the plow layer is a potential option to maintain productivity during dry summers. Here, we tested a strip-wise subsoil amelioration method that combines subsoil loosening with organic matter incorporation into the subsoil (biowaste or green waste compost) and compared it with a treatment of only subsoil loosening and a non-ameliorated control. A field experiment with randomized block design was conducted on a Luvisol with an argic horizon (Bt), with a rotation of spring barley and winter wheat. In the first two years after amelioration, we monitored soil physico-chemical parameters, microbial biomass, and shoot and root growth at anthesis as well as harvested grain yield and quality. Subsoil loosening with organic matter incorporation significantly decreased soil bulk density at the depth of compost incorporation when biowaste compost was used, but not when green waste compost had been incorporated. Nutrient stocks, nutrient availability and microbial biomass were not consistently affected by the subsoil amelioration. Nevertheless, the incorporation of organic material, especially biowaste compost, significantly increased root growth into the subsoil and subsequently significantly enhanced crop nutrient uptake, biomass and grain yield production. Green waste compost incorporation had less pronounced effects, with an increase in grain yield only in the second year after amelioration. Differences in crop development could not be explained by any single soil parameter, suggesting that it was rather a combined effect of loosened subsoil and better supply of subsoil resources that resulted in an increase in subsoil root length density and subsequently led to better crop performance.}
    }

2023

  • J. Rückin, F. Magistri, C. Stachniss, and M. Popović, "An Informative Path Planning Framework for Active Learning in UAV-Based Semantic Mapping," IEEE Transactions on Robotics, vol. 39, iss. 6, pp. 4279-4296, 2023. doi:10.1109/TRO.2023.3313811
    [BibTeX] [Code]
    @ARTICLE{10264196,
    author={Rückin, Julius and Magistri, Federico and Stachniss, Cyrill and Popović, Marija},
    journal={IEEE Transactions on Robotics},
    title={An Informative Path Planning Framework for Active Learning in UAV-Based Semantic Mapping},
    year={2023},
    volume={39},
    number={6},
    pages={4279-4296},
    codeurl={https://github.com/dmar-bonn/ipp-al-framework},
    doi={10.1109/TRO.2023.3313811}}

  • E. Martinsson, H. Hansson, K. Mittenzwei, and H. Storm, "Evaluating environmental effects of adopting automatic milking systems on Norwegian dairy farms," European Review of Agricultural Economics, p. jbad041, 2023. doi:10.1093/erae/jbad041
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {We present a novel procedure based on eco-efficiency for assessing farm-level effects of technology adoption while considering secondary effects. Secondary effects are defined as structural and behavioural adaptations to technology that may impact environmental, social or economic outcomes. We apply the procedure to automatic milking systems (AMS) in Norway and find that AMS induces secondary effects, most strongly by decreasing labour per cow and increasing herd sizes. For estimating effects of AMS we employ a novel causal machine learning approach. AMS induce heterogenous effects on eco-efficiency, negatively associated with herd expansion and labour per cow.}

    @article{10.1093/erae/jbad041,
    author = {Martinsson, Elin and Hansson, Helena and Mittenzwei, Klaus and Storm, Hugo},
    title = "{Evaluating environmental effects of adopting automatic milking systems on Norwegian dairy farms}",
    journal = {European Review of Agricultural Economics},
    pages = {jbad041},
    year = {2023},
    month = {12},
    abstract = "{We present a novel procedure based on eco-efficiency for assessing farm-level effects of technology adoption while considering secondary effects. Secondary effects are defined as structural and behavioural adaptations to technology that may impact environmental, social or economic outcomes. We apply the procedure to automatic milking systems (AMS) in Norway and find that AMS induces secondary effects, most strongly by decreasing labour per cow and increasing herd sizes. For estimating effects of AMS we employ a novel causal machine learning approach. AMS induce heterogenous effects on eco-efficiency, negatively associated with herd expansion and labour per cow.}",
    issn = {0165-1587},
    doi = {10.1093/erae/jbad041},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbad041},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/erae/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/erae/jbad041/54424173/jbad041.pdf},
    }

  • T. T. Stomberg, J. Leonhardt, I. Weber, and R. Roscher, "Recognizing protected and anthropogenic patterns in landscapes using interpretable machine learning and satellite imagery," Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, vol. 6, 2023. doi:10.3389/frai.2023.1278118
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The accurate and comprehensive mapping of land cover has become a central task in modern environmental research, with increasing emphasis on machine learning approaches. However, a clear technical definition of the land cover class is a prerequisite for learning and applying a machine learning model. One of the challenging classes is naturalness and human influence, yet mapping it is important due to its critical role in biodiversity conservation, habitat assessment, and climate change monitoring. We present an interpretable machine learning approach to map patterns related to territorial protected and anthropogenic areas as proxies of naturalness and human influence using satellite imagery. To achieve this, we train a weakly-supervised convolutional neural network and subsequently apply attribution methods such as Grad-CAM and occlusion sensitivity mapping. We propose a novel network architecture that consists of an image-to-image network and a shallow, task-specific head. Both sub-networks are connected by an intermediate layer that captures high-level features in full resolution, allowing for detailed analysis with a wide range of attribution methods. We further analyze how intermediate layer activations relate to their attributions across the training dataset to establish a consistent relationship. This makes attributions consistent across different scenes and allows for a large-scale analysis of remote sensing data. The results highlight that our approach is a promising way to observe and assess naturalness and territorial protection.

    @ARTICLE{10.3389/frai.2023.1278118,
    AUTHOR={Stomberg, Timo T. and Leonhardt, Johannes and Weber, Immanuel and Roscher, Ribana},
    TITLE={Recognizing protected and anthropogenic patterns in landscapes using interpretable machine learning and satellite imagery},
    JOURNAL={Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence},
    VOLUME={6},
    YEAR={2023},
    URL={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frai.2023.1278118},
    DOI={10.3389/frai.2023.1278118},
    ISSN={2624-8212},
    ABSTRACT={The accurate and comprehensive mapping of land cover has become a central task in modern environmental research, with increasing emphasis on machine learning approaches. However, a clear technical definition of the land cover class is a prerequisite for learning and applying a machine learning model. One of the challenging classes is naturalness and human influence, yet mapping it is important due to its critical role in biodiversity conservation, habitat assessment, and climate change monitoring. We present an interpretable machine learning approach to map patterns related to territorial protected and anthropogenic areas as proxies of naturalness and human influence using satellite imagery. To achieve this, we train a weakly-supervised convolutional neural network and subsequently apply attribution methods such as Grad-CAM and occlusion sensitivity mapping. We propose a novel network architecture that consists of an image-to-image network and a shallow, task-specific head. Both sub-networks are connected by an intermediate layer that captures high-level features in full resolution, allowing for detailed analysis with a wide range of attribution methods. We further analyze how intermediate layer activations relate to their attributions across the training dataset to establish a consistent relationship. This makes attributions consistent across different scenes and allows for a large-scale analysis of remote sensing data. The results highlight that our approach is a promising way to observe and assess naturalness and territorial protection.}
    }

  • A. Roychoudhury, S. Khorshidi, S. Agrawal, and M. Bennewitz, "Perception for Humanoid Robots," Current Robotics Reports - Springer Nature, 2023. doi:10.1007/s43154-023-00107-x
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{RoychoudhuryCurrentRoboticReports2023,
    title = {Perception for Humanoid Robots},
    journal = {Current Robotics Reports - Springer Nature},
    year = {2023},
    author = {Roychoudhury, Arindam and Khorshidi, Shahram and Agrawal, Subham and Bennewitz, Maren},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s43154-023-00107-x},
    publisher = {Springer Nature},
    doi = {10.1007/s43154-023-00107-x}}

  • A. Barreto, L. Reifenrath, R. Vogg, F. Sinz, and A. Mahlein, "Data Augmentation for Mask-Based Leaf Segmentation of UAV-Images as a Basis to Extract Leaf-Based Phenotyping Parameters," KI - Künstliche Intelligenz, 2023. doi:10.1007/s13218-023-00815-8
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    In crop protection, disease quantification parameters such as disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) are the principal indicators for decision making, aimed at ensuring the safety and productivity of crop yield. The quantification is standardized with leaf organs, defined as individual scoring units. This study focuses on identifying and segmenting individual leaves in agricultural fields using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), multispectral imagery of sugar beet fields, and deep instance segmentation networks (Mask R-CNN). Five strategies for achieving network robustness with limited labeled images are tested and compared, employing simple and copy-paste image augmentation techniques. The study also evaluates the impact of environmental conditions on network performance. Metrics of performance show that multispectral UAV images recorded under sunny conditions lead to a performance drop. Focusing on the practical application, we employ Mask R-CNN models in an image-processing pipeline to calculate leaf-based parameters including DS and DI. The pipeline was applied in time-series in an experimental trial with five varieties and two fungicide strategies to illustrate epidemiological development. Disease severity calculated with the model with highest Average Precision (AP) shows the strongest correlation with the same parameter assessed by experts. The time-series development of disease severity and disease incidence demonstrates the advantages of multispectral UAV-imagery in contrasting varieties for resistance, as well as the limits for disease control measurements. This study identifies key components for automatic leaf segmentation of diseased plants using UAV imagery, such as illumination and disease condition. It also provides a tool for delivering leaf-based parameters relevant to optimize crop production through automated disease quantification by imaging tools.

    @article{BarretoKI2023,
    title = {Data Augmentation for Mask-Based Leaf Segmentation of UAV-Images as a Basis to Extract Leaf-Based Phenotyping Parameters},
    journal = {KI - Künstliche Intelligenz},
    year = {2023},
    author = {Barreto, Abel and Reifenrath, Lasse and Vogg, Richard and Sinz, Fabian and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-023-00815-8},
    doi = {10.1007/s13218-023-00815-8},
    abstract = {In crop protection, disease quantification parameters such as disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) are the principal indicators for decision making, aimed at ensuring the safety and productivity of crop yield. The quantification is standardized with leaf organs, defined as individual scoring units. This study focuses on identifying and segmenting individual leaves in agricultural fields using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), multispectral imagery of sugar beet fields, and deep instance segmentation networks (Mask R-CNN). Five strategies for achieving network robustness with limited labeled images are tested and compared, employing simple and copy-paste image augmentation techniques. The study also evaluates the impact of environmental conditions on network performance. Metrics of performance show that multispectral UAV images recorded under sunny conditions lead to a performance drop. Focusing on the practical application, we employ Mask R-CNN models in an image-processing pipeline to calculate leaf-based parameters including DS and DI. The pipeline was applied in time-series in an experimental trial with five varieties and two fungicide strategies to illustrate epidemiological development. Disease severity calculated with the model with highest Average Precision (AP) shows the strongest correlation with the same parameter assessed by experts. The time-series development of disease severity and disease incidence demonstrates the advantages of multispectral UAV-imagery in contrasting varieties for resistance, as well as the limits for disease control measurements. This study identifies key components for automatic leaf segmentation of diseased plants using UAV imagery, such as illumination and disease condition. It also provides a tool for delivering leaf-based parameters relevant to optimize crop production through automated disease quantification by imaging tools.}}

  • V. Sushko, R. Wang, and J. Gall, "Smoothness Similarity Regularization for Few-Shot GAN Adaptation," in International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) , 2023.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{SushkoICCV2023,
    title={Smoothness Similarity Regularization for Few-Shot GAN Adaptation},
    year = {2023},
    author={Vadim Sushko and Ruyu Wang and Juergen Gall},
    booktitle = {International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)},
    url = {https://openaccess.thecvf.com/content/ICCV2023/papers/Sushko_Smoothness_Similarity_Regularization_for_Few-Shot_GAN_Adaptation_ICCV_2023_paper.pdf}}

  • J. Leonhardt, L. Drees, J. Gall, and R. Roscher, "Leveraging Bioclimatic Context for Supervised and Self-Supervised Land Cover Classification," in DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition , 2023.
    [BibTeX] [Code]
    @inproceedings{LeonhardtDAGM23,
    title={Leveraging Bioclimatic Context for Supervised and Self-Supervised Land Cover Classification},
    year = {2023},
    author={Johannes Leonhardt and Lukas Drees and Jürgen Gall and Ribana Roscher},
    booktitle = {DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/johannes-leonhardt/leveraging-bioclimatic-context-for-land-cover-classification-public}}

  • D. Wang, X. He, M. Baer, K. Lami, B. Yu, A. Tassinari, S. Salvi, G. Schaaf, F. Hochholdinger, and P. Yu, "Lateral root enriched Massilia associated with plant flowering in maize," Preprint, 2023. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-3369311/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{Wangmassilia2023,
    author = {Wang, Danning and He, Xiaoming and Baer, Marcel and Lami, Klea and Yu, Biogang and Tassinari, Alberto and Salvi, Silvio and Schaaf, Gabriel and Hochholdinger, Frank and Yu, Peng},
    title = {Lateral root enriched Massilia associated with plant flowering in maize},
    journal = {Preprint},
    year = {2023},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-3369311/v1},
    doi = {10.21203/rs.3.rs-3369311/v1}}

  • E. Agathokleous, M. Frei, O. M. Knopf, O. Muller, Y. Xu, T. H. Nguyen, T. Gaiser, X. Liu, B. Liu, C. J. Saitanis, B. Shang, M. S. Alam, Y. Feng, F. Ewert, and Z. Feng, "Adapting crop production to climate change and air pollution at different scales," Nature Food, 2023. doi:10.1038/s43016-023-00858-y
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Air pollution and climate change are tightly interconnected and jointly affect field crop production and agroecosystem health. Although our understanding of the individual and combined impacts of air pollution and climate change factors is improving, the adaptation of crop production to concurrent air pollution and climate change remains challenging to resolve. Here we evaluate recent advances in the adaptation of crop production to climate change and air pollution at the plant, field and ecosystem scales. The main approaches at the plant level include the integration of genetic variation, molecular breeding and phenotyping. Field-level techniques include optimizing cultivation practices, promoting mixed cropping and diversification, and applying technologies such as antiozonants, nanotechnology and robot-assisted farming. Plant- and field-level techniques would be further facilitated by enhancing soil resilience, incorporating precision agriculture and modifying the hydrology and microclimate of agricultural landscapes at the ecosystem level. Strategies and opportunities for crop production under climate change and air pollution are discussed.

    @article{Agathokleous2023,
    author = {Agathokleous, Evgenios and Frei, Michael and Knopf, Oliver M. and Muller, Onno and Xu, Yansen and Nguyen, Thuy Huu and Gaiser, Thomas and Liu, Xiaoyu and Liu, Bing and Saitanis, Costas J. and Shang, Bo and Alam, Muhammad Shahedul and Feng, Yanru and Ewert, Frank and Feng, Zhaozhong},
    year = {2023},
    title = {Adapting crop production to climate change and air pollution at different scales},
    journal = {Nature Food},
    abstract = {Air pollution and climate change are tightly interconnected and jointly affect field crop production and agroecosystem health. Although our understanding of the individual and combined impacts of air pollution and climate change factors is improving, the adaptation of crop production to concurrent air pollution and climate change remains challenging to resolve. Here we evaluate recent advances in the adaptation of crop production to climate change and air pollution at the plant, field and ecosystem scales. The main approaches at the plant level include the integration of genetic variation, molecular breeding and phenotyping. Field-level techniques include optimizing cultivation practices, promoting mixed cropping and diversification, and applying technologies such as antiozonants, nanotechnology and robot-assisted farming. Plant- and field-level techniques would be further facilitated by enhancing soil resilience, incorporating precision agriculture and modifying the hydrology and microclimate of agricultural landscapes at the ecosystem level. Strategies and opportunities for crop production under climate change and air pollution are discussed.},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-023-00858-y},
    doi = {10.1038/s43016-023-00858-y}
    }

  • D. Schulz and J. Börner, "No impact of repeated digital advisory service to Haitian peanut producers," Q Open, p. qoad023, 2023. doi:10.1093/qopen/qoad023
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {Digital farm advisory services can be a cost-effective way to provide relevant information to smallholders in developing countries. Information provision has been shown to generate positive impacts on agricultural practices and farmer's income across various settings. We conducted a pre-registered randomized control trial among peanut farmers in Haiti to evaluate the impact of short text messages. We administered two waves of digital information provision and follow-up surveys. Results suggest no measurable impact of digital information delivery on agricultural knowledge, practice adoption or productivity. We discuss internal and external validity of these findings and derive recommendations for future interventions.}

    @article{10.1093/qopen/qoad023,
    author = {Schulz, Dario and Börner, Jan},
    title = {No impact of repeated digital advisory service to Haitian peanut producers},
    journal = {Q Open},
    pages = {qoad023},
    year = {2023},
    month = {09},
    abstract = "{Digital farm advisory services can be a cost-effective way to provide relevant information to smallholders in developing countries. Information provision has been shown to generate positive impacts on agricultural practices and farmer's income across various settings. We conducted a pre-registered randomized control trial among peanut farmers in Haiti to evaluate the impact of short text messages. We administered two waves of digital information provision and follow-up surveys. Results suggest no measurable impact of digital information delivery on agricultural knowledge, practice adoption or productivity. We discuss internal and external validity of these findings and derive recommendations for future interventions.}",
    issn = {2633-9048},
    doi = {10.1093/qopen/qoad023},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/qopen/qoad023},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/qopen/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/qopen/qoad023/51792545/qoad023.pdf},
    }

  • G. Roggiolani, F. Magistri, T. Guadagnino, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Unsupervised Pre-Training for 3D Leaf Instance Segmentation," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, iss. 11, pp. 7448-7455, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2023.3320018
    [BibTeX]
    @ARTICLE{10265122,
    author={Roggiolani, Gianmarco and Magistri, Federico and Guadagnino, Tiziano and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={Unsupervised Pre-Training for 3D Leaf Instance Segmentation},
    year={2023},
    volume={8},
    number={11},
    pages={7448-7455},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2023.3320018}}

  • C. Hubert, K. Luhmer, M. Moll, and R. Pude, "Einfluss von Stickstoff und Zink auf den Gehalt an ätherischen Ölen in verschiedenen Mentha-Genotypen," in Mitt. Ges. Pflanzenbauwiss. , 2023, p. 227–228.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{hubertmenthapflanzenbau,
    author = {Hubert, Charlotte and Luhmer, Katharina and Moll, Marcel and Pude, Ralf},
    year = {2023},
    month = {09},
    title = {Einfluss von Stickstoff und Zink auf den Gehalt an ätherischen Ölen in verschiedenen Mentha-Genotypen},
    booktitle = {Mitt. Ges. Pflanzenbauwiss.},
    volume = {33},
    pages = {227–228},
    issn ={ISSN 0934-5116}
    }

  • C. Hubert, S. Bartoschek, K. Luhmer, M. D. Moll, and R. Pude, "Einfluss einer Mykorrhizierung auf den ätherischen Ölgehalt und die physiologische Reaktion von Mentha-Genotypen unter verschiedenen UV-Behandlungen," 9. Tagung für Arznei- und Gewürzpflanzenforschung : Sicherheit vom Anbau bis zum Verbraucher – Spitzenklasse oder auf die Spitze getrieben? ; Freising, 11. - 14. September 2023 ; Kurzfassungen der Vorträge und Poster, vol. 476, p. 44–48, 2023. doi:10.5073/20230821-132157-0
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Mentha sp. dient sowohl zur Teeproduktion als auch zur Gewinnung von ätherischen Ölen. Ätherische Öle sind aufgrund von aromatischen und gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften Bestandteil vieler Produkte der Lebensmittel-, Kosmetik- und Pharmaindustrie. Ein möglichst hoher ätherischer Ölgehalt in der Pflanze ist somit wünschenswert. Deswegen befasst sich diese Studie mit dem Gehalt an ätherischem Öl und der physiologischen Reaktion von verschiedenen Mentha Genotypen zum einen unter unterschiedlichen Lichtbedingungen und zum anderen unter Einfluss von einer Mykorrhizierung. Dazu wurden drei verschiedene Mentha Genotypen (Mentha {\texttimes} piperita 'Multimentha', Mentha {\texttimes} piperita 'Fränkische Blaue' und Mentha rotundifolia 'Apfelminze') unterschiedlichen UV-Behandlungen ausgesetzt (Kontrolle (Einstrahlung unter Gewächshausbedingugen), erhöhte UV-B-Strahlung (1,4 W/m{\texttwosuperior}, 700 {\%} der Kontrolle) und schattierte Bedingungen (30 {\%} der Kontrolle)) und teilweise mit arbuskulärer Mykorrhiza geimpft. Die Pflanzenvitalität wurde mithilfe von Vegetationsindizes (VIs) ermittelt. Unabhängig der Lichtbedingungen wurde vor allem die 'Multimentha' durch die Mykorrhizierung beeinflusst. Sie wies signifikant höhere Werte für Pflanzenhöhe, Trockenmasse und ätherischen Ölgehalt als die 'Apfelminze' und 'Fränkische Blaue' auf. Zusammenfassend kann gesagt werden, dass sich eine Mykorrhizierung nur auf einzelne Genotypen positiv auswirkt und somit eine weitere Auswahl von Genotypen betrachtet werden sollte.

    @Article{openagrar_mods_00089191,
    author = {Hubert, Charlotte and Bartoschek, Sonja and Luhmer, Katharina and Moll, Marcel Dieter and Pude, Ralf},
    editor = {Henning, Volker and Heuberger, Heidi and Marthe, Frank},
    title = {Einfluss einer Mykorrhizierung auf den {\"a}therischen {\"O}lgehalt und die physiologische Reaktion von Mentha-Genotypen unter verschiedenen UV-Behandlungen},
    journal = {9. Tagung f{\"u}r Arznei- und Gew{\"u}rzpflanzenforschung : Sicherheit vom Anbau bis zum Verbraucher -- Spitzenklasse oder auf die Spitze getrieben? ; Freising, 11. - 14. September 2023 ; Kurzfassungen der Vortr{\"a}ge und Poster},
    year = {2023},
    month = {Sep},
    day = {14},
    publisher = {Julius K{\"u}hn-Institute},
    address = {Quedlinburg},
    volume = {476},
    pages = {44--48},
    keywords = {Mentha {\texttimes} piperita; Mentha rotundifolia; UV-Strahlung; Mykorrhiza; UV-radiation; mycorrhiza},
    abstract = {Mentha sp. dient sowohl zur Teeproduktion als auch zur Gewinnung von {\"a}therischen {\"O}len. {\"A}therische {\"O}le sind aufgrund von aromatischen und gesundheitsf{\"o}rdernden Eigenschaften Bestandteil vieler Produkte der Lebensmittel-, Kosmetik- und Pharmaindustrie. Ein m{\"o}glichst hoher {\"a}therischer {\"O}lgehalt in der Pflanze ist somit w{\"u}nschenswert. Deswegen befasst sich diese Studie mit dem Gehalt an {\"a}therischem {\"O}l und der physiologischen Reaktion von verschiedenen Mentha Genotypen zum einen unter unterschiedlichen Lichtbedingungen und zum anderen unter Einfluss von einer Mykorrhizierung. Dazu wurden drei verschiedene Mentha Genotypen (Mentha {\texttimes} piperita 'Multimentha', Mentha {\texttimes} piperita 'Fr{\"a}nkische Blaue' und Mentha rotundifolia 'Apfelminze') unterschiedlichen UV-Behandlungen ausgesetzt (Kontrolle (Einstrahlung unter Gew{\"a}chshausbedingugen), erh{\"o}hte UV-B-Strahlung (1,4 W/m{\texttwosuperior}, 700 {\%} der Kontrolle) und schattierte Bedingungen (30 {\%} der Kontrolle)) und teilweise mit arbuskul{\"a}rer Mykorrhiza geimpft. Die Pflanzenvitalit{\"a}t wurde mithilfe von Vegetationsindizes (VIs) ermittelt. Unabh{\"a}ngig der Lichtbedingungen wurde vor allem die 'Multimentha' durch die Mykorrhizierung beeinflusst. Sie wies signifikant h{\"o}here Werte f{\"u}r Pflanzenh{\"o}he, Trockenmasse und {\"a}therischen {\"O}lgehalt als die 'Apfelminze' und 'Fr{\"a}nkische Blaue' auf. Zusammenfassend kann gesagt werden, dass sich eine Mykorrhizierung nur auf einzelne Genotypen positiv auswirkt und somit eine weitere Auswahl von Genotypen betrachtet werden sollte.},
    isbn = {978-3-95547-134-7},
    issn = {1868-9892},
    doi = {10.5073/20230821-132157-0},
    url = {https://www.openagrar.de/receive/openagrar_mods_00089191},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.5073/20230821-132157-0},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.5073/20230821-142701-0},
    file = {:https://www.openagrar.de/servlets/MCRFileNodeServlet/openagrar_derivate_00054523/JKA_476_2023_8.pdf:PDF},
    language = {en}
    }

  • Y. Wang, S. Schaub, D. Wuepper, and R. Finger, "Culture and agricultural biodiversity conservation," Food Policy, vol. 120, p. 102482, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2023.102482
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Farmers’ behavior towards sustainable agricultural production is key to reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture and conserving biodiversity. We investigate the causal effect of culture on pro-environmental behaviors of farmers, and how policy instruments interact with culture to influence behavior. We exploit a unique natural experiment in Switzerland, which consists of two parts. First, there is an inner-Swiss cultural border between German- and French-speaking farmers who share the same natural environment, economy, and institutions, but differ culturally in their norms and values. Second, we exploit the effects of an agri-environmental policy reform that increased the monetary incentives to enroll land into biodiversity conservation. Using a spatial difference-in-discontinuities design and panel census data of all Swiss farms between 2010 and 2017, we show the following findings: Before the reform, farmers on the French-speaking side of the cultural border systematically enrolled less land into biodiversity conservation, compared to the German-speaking side. With increased monetary incentives following the policy reform in 2014, the French-speaking farmers enrolled relatively more additional land than the German-speaking farmers, shrinking the discontinuity. These findings indicate that while there exist cultural differences in pro-environmental behaviors, increased monetary incentives can reduce the importance of cultural differences. We discuss the implications for policy.

    @article{WANG2023102482,
    title = {Culture and agricultural biodiversity conservation},
    journal = {Food Policy},
    volume = {120},
    pages = {102482},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0306-9192},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2023.102482},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919223000805},
    author = {Yanbing Wang and Sergei Schaub and David Wuepper and Robert Finger},
    keywords = {Biodiversity, Conservation, Culture and policy, Environmental behavior, Agri-environmental schemes, Result-based schemes},
    abstract = {Farmers’ behavior towards sustainable agricultural production is key to reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture and conserving biodiversity. We investigate the causal effect of culture on pro-environmental behaviors of farmers, and how policy instruments interact with culture to influence behavior. We exploit a unique natural experiment in Switzerland, which consists of two parts. First, there is an inner-Swiss cultural border between German- and French-speaking farmers who share the same natural environment, economy, and institutions, but differ culturally in their norms and values. Second, we exploit the effects of an agri-environmental policy reform that increased the monetary incentives to enroll land into biodiversity conservation. Using a spatial difference-in-discontinuities design and panel census data of all Swiss farms between 2010 and 2017, we show the following findings: Before the reform, farmers on the French-speaking side of the cultural border systematically enrolled less land into biodiversity conservation, compared to the German-speaking side. With increased monetary incentives following the policy reform in 2014, the French-speaking farmers enrolled relatively more additional land than the German-speaking farmers, shrinking the discontinuity. These findings indicate that while there exist cultural differences in pro-environmental behaviors, increased monetary incentives can reduce the importance of cultural differences. We discuss the implications for policy.}
    }

  • D. Wuepper, H. Wang, W. Schlenker, M. Jain, and R. Finger, "Institutions and Global Crop Yields," National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper 31426, 2023. doi:10.3386/w31426
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    We estimate annual discontinuities in remotely-sensed crop yields at all international land borders and link them to changes in the economic freedom index by the Fraser Institute, a country-level measure of institutional quality. Each point of the ten-point index increases the discontinuity by 2.2% over the next five years, highlighting that institutional reforms have the potential to close some of the observed crop yield gap. Three subcategories are consistently significant: credit market regulation, inflation, and the top marginal tax rate. We present suggestive evidence that higher average yields are achieved through increased use of irrigation and mechanization. Yield variability remains unchanged, and reforms lead to cropland expansion through deforestation.

    @techreport{NBERw31426,
    title = "Institutions and Global Crop Yields",
    author = "Wuepper, David and Wang, Haoyu and Schlenker, Wolfram and Jain, Meha and Finger, Robert",
    institution = "National Bureau of Economic Research",
    type = "Working Paper",
    series = "Working Paper Series",
    number = "31426",
    year = "2023",
    month = "July",
    doi = {10.3386/w31426},
    URL = "http://www.nber.org/papers/w31426",
    abstract = {We estimate annual discontinuities in remotely-sensed crop yields at all international land borders and link them to changes in the economic freedom index by the Fraser Institute, a country-level measure of institutional quality. Each point of the ten-point index increases the discontinuity by 2.2% over the next five years, highlighting that institutional reforms have the potential to close some of the observed crop yield gap. Three subcategories are consistently significant: credit market regulation, inflation, and the top marginal tax rate. We present suggestive evidence that higher average yields are achieved through increased use of irrigation and mechanization. Yield variability remains unchanged, and reforms lead to cropland expansion through deforestation.},
    }

  • J. A. Tanke, O. Kwon, F. B. Mueller, A. Doering, and J. Gall, "Humans in Kitchens: A Dataset for Multi-Person Human Motion Forecasting with Scene Context," in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2023) , 2023.
    [BibTeX]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{tankehumans,
    author={Julian Alexander Tanke and Oh-Hun Kwon and Felix Benjamin Mueller and Andreas Doering and Juergen Gall},
    booktitle={Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS 2023)},
    title={Humans in Kitchens: A Dataset for Multi-Person Human Motion Forecasting with Scene Context},
    year={2023},
    }

  • O. Kwon and E. Zell, "Image-Coupled Volume Propagation for Stereo Matching," in 2023 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP) , 2023, pp. 2510-2514. doi:10.1109/ICIP49359.2023.10222247
    [BibTeX]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{10222247,
    author={Kwon, Oh-Hun and Zell, Eduard},
    booktitle={2023 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP)},
    title={Image-Coupled Volume Propagation for Stereo Matching},
    year={2023},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={2510-2514},
    doi={10.1109/ICIP49359.2023.10222247}}

  • F. R. Ispizua Yamati, M. Günder, A. A. Barreto Alcántara, J. Bömer, D. Laufer, C. Bauckhage, and A. Mahlein, "Automatic scoring of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot affected sugar beet fields from orthorectified UAV images using Machine Learning," Plant Disease, 2023. doi:10.1094/PDIS-04-23-0779-RE
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, can cause severe yield and quality losses in sugar beet. The most common strategy to control the disease is the development of resistant varieties. In the breeding process, field experiments with artificial inoculation are carried out to evaluate the performance of genotypes and varieties. The phenotyping process in breeding trials requires constant monitoring and scoring by skilled experts. This work is time demanding and shows bias and heterogeneity according to the experience and capacity of each individual person. Optical sensors and artificial intelligence have demonstrated a great potential to achieve higher accuracy than human raters and the possibility to standardize phenotyping applications. A workflow combining red-green-blue (RGB) and multispectral imagery coupled to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and machine learning techniques was applied to score diseased plants and plots affected by RCRR. Georeferenced annotation of UAV orthorectified images. With the annotated images, five convolutional neural networks were trained to score individual plants. The training was carried out with different image analysis strategies and data augmentation, respectively. The custom convolutional neural network trained from scratch together with a pre-trained MobileNet showed the best precision in scoring RCRR (0.73 to 0.85). The average per plot of spectral information was used to score plots, and the benefit of adding the information obtained from the score of individual plants was compared. For this purpose, machine learning models were trained together with data management strategies, and the best-performing model was chosen. A combined pipeline of Random Forest and k-Nearest neighbors have shown the best weighted precision (0.67). This research provides a reliable workflow for detecting and scoring RCRR based on aerial imagery. RCRR is often distributed heterogeneously in trial plots, therefore, considering the information from individual plants of the plots showed a significant improvement of UAV based automated monitoring routines.

    @article{doi:10.1094/PDIS-04-23-0779-RE,
    author = {Ispizua Yamati, Facundo Ram\'{o}n and G\"{u}nder, Maurice and Barreto Alc\'{a}ntara, Abel Andree and B\"{o}mer, Jonas and Laufer, Daniel and Bauckhage, Christian and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    title = {Automatic scoring of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot affected sugar beet fields from orthorectified UAV images using Machine Learning},
    journal = {Plant Disease},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1094/PDIS-04-23-0779-RE},
    note ={PMID: 37755420},
    URL = {https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-23-0779-RE},
    eprint = {https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-04-23-0779-RE},
    abstract = {Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, can cause severe yield and quality losses in sugar beet. The most common strategy to control the disease is the development of resistant varieties. In the breeding process, field experiments with artificial inoculation are carried out to evaluate the performance of genotypes and varieties. The phenotyping process in breeding trials requires constant monitoring and scoring by skilled experts. This work is time demanding and shows bias and heterogeneity according to the experience and capacity of each individual person. Optical sensors and artificial intelligence have demonstrated a great potential to achieve higher accuracy than human raters and the possibility to standardize phenotyping applications. A workflow combining red-green-blue (RGB) and multispectral imagery coupled to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and machine learning techniques was applied to score diseased plants and plots affected by RCRR. Georeferenced annotation of UAV orthorectified images. With the annotated images, five convolutional neural networks were trained to score individual plants. The training was carried out with different image analysis strategies and data augmentation, respectively. The custom convolutional neural network trained from scratch together with a pre-trained MobileNet showed the best precision in scoring RCRR (0.73 to 0.85). The average per plot of spectral information was used to score plots, and the benefit of adding the information obtained from the score of individual plants was compared. For this purpose, machine learning models were trained together with data management strategies, and the best-performing model was chosen. A combined pipeline of Random Forest and k-Nearest neighbors have shown the best weighted precision (0.67). This research provides a reliable workflow for detecting and scoring RCRR based on aerial imagery. RCRR is often distributed heterogeneously in trial plots, therefore, considering the information from individual plants of the plots showed a significant improvement of UAV based automated monitoring routines.}
    }

  • A. Dreier, B. Jost, H. Kuhlmann, and L. Klingbeil, "Investigations of the scan characteristics with special focus on multi-target capability for the 2D laser scanner RIEGL miniVUX-2UAV," Journal of Applied Geodesy, 2023. doi:10.1515/jag-2022-0029
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{DreierJostKuhlmannKlingbeil+2023,
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2022-0029},
    title = {Investigations of the scan characteristics with special focus on multi-target capability for the 2D laser scanner RIEGL miniVUX-2UAV},
    author = {Ansgar Dreier and Berit Jost and Heiner Kuhlmann and Lasse Klingbeil},
    journal = {Journal of Applied Geodesy},
    doi = {10.1515/jag-2022-0029},
    year = {2023},
    lastchecked = {2023-10-04}
    }

  • A. Dreier, H. Kuhlmann, and L. Klingbeil, "Quality Investigation of UAV-Based Laser Scanning with Detailed Study of Multi-Target Capability," in Ingenieurvermessung 23, Beiträge zum 20. Internationalen Ingenieurvermessungskurs , 2023.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{dreieringenieuervermessungskurs2023,
    author = {Dreier, Ansgar and Kuhlmann, Heiner and Klingbeil, Lasse},
    year = {2023},
    month = {04},
    publisher = {Wichmann Verlag},
    booktitle={Ingenieurvermessung 23, Beiträge zum 20. Internationalen Ingenieurvermessungskurs},
    title = {Quality Investigation of UAV-Based Laser Scanning with Detailed Study of Multi-Target Capability}
    }

  • L. Drees, D. T. Demie, M. Paul, S. Seidel, T. Döring, and R. Roscher, "Data-driven Crop Growth Simulation on Time-varying Generated Images using Multi-conditional Generative Adversarial Networks," Preprint, 2023.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{dreescropgrowth,
    author={Lukas Drees and Dereje T. Demie and Madhuri Paul and Sabine Seidel and Thomas Döring and Ribana Roscher},
    title={Data-driven Crop Growth Simulation on Time-varying Generated Images using Multi-conditional Generative Adversarial Networks},
    journal={Preprint},
    year={2023}}

  • L. Huang, B. Ökmen, S. C. Stolze, M. Kastl, M. Khan, D. Hilbig, H. Nakagami, A. Djamei, and G. Doehlemann, "The fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis targets the maize corepressor TPL2 to modulate host transcription for tumorigenesis," bioRxiv, 2023. doi:10.1101/2023.06.12.544564
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic fungus that causes tumor formation on all aerial parts of maize. U. maydis secretes effector proteins during penetration and colonization to successfully overcome the plant immune response and reprogram host physiology to promote infection. In this study, we functionally characterized the U. maydis effector protein Topless (TPL) interacting protein 6 (Tip6). We found that Tip6 interacts with the N-terminus of ZmTPL2 through its two EAR (Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression) motifs. We show that the EAR motifs are essential for the virulence function of Tip6 and critical for altering the nuclear distribution pattern of ZmTPL2. We propose that Tip6 mimics the recruitment of ZmTPL2 by plant repressor proteins, thus disrupting host transcriptional regulation. We show that a large group of AP2/ERF B1 subfamily transcription factors are misregulated in the presence of Tip6. Our study suggests a regulatory mechanism where the U. maydis effector Tip6 utilizes repressive domains to recruit the corepressor ZmTPL2 to disrupt the transcriptional networks of the host plant.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

    @article {Huang2023.06.12.544564,
    author = {Luyao Huang and Bilal {\"O}kmen and Sara Christina Stolze and Melanie Kastl and Mamoona Khan and Daniel Hilbig and Hirofumi Nakagami and Armin Djamei and Gunther Doehlemann},
    title = {The fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis targets the maize corepressor TPL2 to modulate host transcription for tumorigenesis},
    elocation-id = {2023.06.12.544564},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1101/2023.06.12.544564},
    publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory},
    abstract = {Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic fungus that causes tumor formation on all aerial parts of maize. U. maydis secretes effector proteins during penetration and colonization to successfully overcome the plant immune response and reprogram host physiology to promote infection. In this study, we functionally characterized the U. maydis effector protein Topless (TPL) interacting protein 6 (Tip6). We found that Tip6 interacts with the N-terminus of ZmTPL2 through its two EAR (Ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression) motifs. We show that the EAR motifs are essential for the virulence function of Tip6 and critical for altering the nuclear distribution pattern of ZmTPL2. We propose that Tip6 mimics the recruitment of ZmTPL2 by plant repressor proteins, thus disrupting host transcriptional regulation. We show that a large group of AP2/ERF B1 subfamily transcription factors are misregulated in the presence of Tip6. Our study suggests a regulatory mechanism where the U. maydis effector Tip6 utilizes repressive domains to recruit the corepressor ZmTPL2 to disrupt the transcriptional networks of the host plant.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.},
    URL = {https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2023/06/12/2023.06.12.544564},
    eprint = {https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2023/06/12/2023.06.12.544564.full.pdf},
    journal = {bioRxiv}
    }

  • M. Khan, S. Uhse, J. Bindics, B. Kogelmann, N. Nagarajan, K. D. Ingole, and A. Djamei, "Tip of the iceberg? Three novel TOPLESS interacting effectors of the gall-inducing fungus Ustilago maydis," bioRxiv, 2023. doi:10.1101/2023.06.12.544640
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic pathogen causing smut disease in maize. It secretes a cocktail of effector proteins during its biotrophic stages in the host plant, which target different host proteins. One such class of proteins we identified previously is TOPLESS (TPL) and TOPLESS RELATED (TPR) transcriptional corepressors.Here we screen 297 U. maydis effector candidates for their ability to interact with maize TPL protein RAMOSA 1 ENHANCER LOCUS 2 Like 2 (RELK2) and their ability to induce auxin signaling and thereby identified three novel TPL /TPR interacting effector proteins (Tip6, Tip7 and Tip8). Two of them, Tip6 and Tip7 contain a classical ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif and interact with maize TPL protein RELK2 in nuclear compartments, whereas Tip8 lacks known TPL interaction motifs and its overexpression in non-host plant leads to cell death indicating recognition of the effector.By using structural modeling, we show an interaction of Tip6 and Tip7 with the previously crystallized EAR motif binding domain of RELK2. Furthermore, by infection assays with an octuple deletion mutant of U. maydis, we demonstrate a role of Tips in U. maydis virulence. Our findings suggest the TOPLESS class of corepressors as a major hub of U. maydis effector proteins.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

    @article {Khan2023.06.12.544640,
    author = {Mamoona Khan and Simon Uhse and Janos Bindics and Benjamin Kogelmann and Nithya Nagarajan and Kishor D. Ingole and Armin Djamei},
    title = {Tip of the iceberg? Three novel TOPLESS interacting effectors of the gall-inducing fungus Ustilago maydis},
    elocation-id = {2023.06.12.544640},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1101/2023.06.12.544640},
    publisher = {Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory},
    abstract = {Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic pathogen causing smut disease in maize. It secretes a cocktail of effector proteins during its biotrophic stages in the host plant, which target different host proteins. One such class of proteins we identified previously is TOPLESS (TPL) and TOPLESS RELATED (TPR) transcriptional corepressors.Here we screen 297 U. maydis effector candidates for their ability to interact with maize TPL protein RAMOSA 1 ENHANCER LOCUS 2 Like 2 (RELK2) and their ability to induce auxin signaling and thereby identified three novel TPL /TPR interacting effector proteins (Tip6, Tip7 and Tip8). Two of them, Tip6 and Tip7 contain a classical ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif and interact with maize TPL protein RELK2 in nuclear compartments, whereas Tip8 lacks known TPL interaction motifs and its overexpression in non-host plant leads to cell death indicating recognition of the effector.By using structural modeling, we show an interaction of Tip6 and Tip7 with the previously crystallized EAR motif binding domain of RELK2. Furthermore, by infection assays with an octuple deletion mutant of U. maydis, we demonstrate a role of Tips in U. maydis virulence. Our findings suggest the TOPLESS class of corepressors as a major hub of U. maydis effector proteins.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.},
    URL = {https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2023/06/13/2023.06.12.544640},
    eprint = {https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2023/06/13/2023.06.12.544640.full.pdf},
    journal = {bioRxiv}
    }

  • Y. Müller, P. Patwari, T. Stöcker, V. Zeisler-Diehl, U. Steiner, C. Campoli, L. Grewe, M. Kuczkowska, M. M. Dierig, S. Jose, A. M. Hetherington, I. F. Acosta, H. Schoof, L. Schreiber, and P. Dörmann, "Isolation and characterization of the gene HvFAR1 encoding acyl-CoA reductase from the cer-za.227 mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and analysis of the cuticular barrier functions," New Phytologist, vol. 239, iss. 5, pp. 1903-1918, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.19063
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Summary The cuticle is a protective layer covering aerial plant organs. We studied the function of waxes for the establishment of the cuticular barrier in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The barley eceriferum mutants cer-za.227 and cer-ye.267 display reduced wax loads, but the genes affected, and the consequences of the wax changes for the barrier function remained unknown. Cuticular waxes and permeabilities were measured in cer-za.227 and cer-ye.267. The mutant loci were isolated by bulked segregant RNA sequencing. New cer-za alleles were generated by genome editing. The CER-ZA protein was characterized after expression in yeast and Arabidopsis cer4-3. Cer-za.227 carries a mutation in HORVU5Hr1G089230 encoding acyl-CoA reductase (FAR1). The cer-ye.267 mutation is located to HORVU4Hr1G063420 encoding β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KAS1) and is allelic to cer-zh.54. The amounts of intracuticular waxes were strongly decreased in cer-ye.267. The cuticular water loss and permeability of cer-za.227 were similar to wild-type (WT), but were increased in cer-ye.267. Removal of epicuticular waxes revealed that intracuticular, but not epicuticular waxes are required to regulate cuticular transpiration. The differential decrease in intracuticular waxes between cer-za.227 and cer-ye.267, and the removal of epicuticular waxes indicate that the cuticular barrier function mostly depends on the presence of intracuticular waxes.

    @article{https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.19063,
    author = {Müller, Yannic and Patwari, Payal and Stöcker, Tyll and Zeisler-Diehl, Viktoria and Steiner, Ulrike and Campoli, Chiara and Grewe, Lea and Kuczkowska, Magdalena and Dierig, Maya Marita and Jose, Sarah and Hetherington, Alistair M. and Acosta, Ivan F. and Schoof, Heiko and Schreiber, Lukas and Dörmann, Peter},
    title = {Isolation and characterization of the gene HvFAR1 encoding acyl-CoA reductase from the cer-za.227 mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and analysis of the cuticular barrier functions},
    journal = {New Phytologist},
    volume = {239},
    number = {5},
    pages = {1903-1918},
    keywords = {barley, cuticle, cutin, eceriferum, permeability, wax},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.19063},
    url = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.19063},
    eprint = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/nph.19063},
    abstract = {Summary The cuticle is a protective layer covering aerial plant organs. We studied the function of waxes for the establishment of the cuticular barrier in barley (Hordeum vulgare). The barley eceriferum mutants cer-za.227 and cer-ye.267 display reduced wax loads, but the genes affected, and the consequences of the wax changes for the barrier function remained unknown. Cuticular waxes and permeabilities were measured in cer-za.227 and cer-ye.267. The mutant loci were isolated by bulked segregant RNA sequencing. New cer-za alleles were generated by genome editing. The CER-ZA protein was characterized after expression in yeast and Arabidopsis cer4-3. Cer-za.227 carries a mutation in HORVU5Hr1G089230 encoding acyl-CoA reductase (FAR1). The cer-ye.267 mutation is located to HORVU4Hr1G063420 encoding β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KAS1) and is allelic to cer-zh.54. The amounts of intracuticular waxes were strongly decreased in cer-ye.267. The cuticular water loss and permeability of cer-za.227 were similar to wild-type (WT), but were increased in cer-ye.267. Removal of epicuticular waxes revealed that intracuticular, but not epicuticular waxes are required to regulate cuticular transpiration. The differential decrease in intracuticular waxes between cer-za.227 and cer-ye.267, and the removal of epicuticular waxes indicate that the cuticular barrier function mostly depends on the presence of intracuticular waxes.},
    year = {2023}
    }

  • S. Paulus and B. Leiding, "Can Distributed Ledgers Help to Overcome the Need of Labeled Data for Agricultural Machine Learning Tasks?," Plant Phenomics, vol. 5, 2023. doi:10.34133/plantphenomics.0070
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{doi:10.34133/plantphenomics.0070,
    author = {Paulus, Stefan and Leiding, Benjamin},
    title = {Can Distributed Ledgers Help to Overcome the Need of Labeled Data for Agricultural Machine Learning Tasks?},
    journal = {Plant Phenomics},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.34133/plantphenomics.0070},
    URL = {https://spj.science.org/doi/abs/10.34133/plantphenomics.0070}}

  • A. Barreto, F. R. Ispizua Yamati, M. Varrelmann, S. Paulus, and A. Mahlein, "Disease Incidence and Severity of Cercospora Leaf Spot in Sugar Beet Assessed by Multispectral Unmanned Aerial Images and Machine Learning," Plant Disease, vol. 107, iss. 1, pp. 188-200, 2023. doi:10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Disease incidence (DI) and metrics of disease severity are relevant parameters for decision making in plant protection and plant breeding. To develop automated and sensor-based routines, a sugar beet variety trial was inoculated with Cercospora beticola and monitored with a multispectral camera system mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over the vegetation period. A pipeline based on machine learning methods was established for image data analysis and extraction of disease-relevant parameters. Features based on the digital surface model, vegetation indices, shadow condition, and image resolution improved classification performance in comparison with using single multispectral channels in 12 and 6\% of diseased and soil regions, respectively. With a postprocessing step, area-related parameters were computed after classification. Results of this pipeline also included extraction of DI and disease severity (DS) from UAV data. The calculated area under disease progress curve of DS was 2,810.4 to 7,058.8\%.days for human visual scoring and 1,400.5 to 4,343.2\%.days for UAV-based scoring. Moreover, a sharper differentiation of varieties compared with visual scoring was observed in area-related parameters such as area of complete foliage (AF), area of healthy foliage (AH), and mean area of lesion by unit of foliage (Ac¯/F). These advantages provide the option to replace the laborious work of visual disease assessments in the field with a more precise, nondestructive assessment via multispectral data acquired by UAV flights. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

    @article{doi:10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE,
    author = {Barreto, Abel and Ispizua Yamati, Facundo Ram\'{o}n and Varrelmann, Mark and Paulus, Stefan and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    title = {Disease Incidence and Severity of Cercospora Leaf Spot in Sugar Beet Assessed by Multispectral Unmanned Aerial Images and Machine Learning},
    journal = {Plant Disease},
    volume = {107},
    number = {1},
    pages = {188-200},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE},
    note ={PMID: 35581914},
    URL = {https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE},
    eprint = {https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE},
    abstract = {Disease incidence (DI) and metrics of disease severity are relevant parameters for decision making in plant protection and plant breeding. To develop automated and sensor-based routines, a sugar beet variety trial was inoculated with Cercospora beticola and monitored with a multispectral camera system mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over the vegetation period. A pipeline based on machine learning methods was established for image data analysis and extraction of disease-relevant parameters. Features based on the digital surface model, vegetation indices, shadow condition, and image resolution improved classification performance in comparison with using single multispectral channels in 12 and 6\% of diseased and soil regions, respectively. With a postprocessing step, area-related parameters were computed after classification. Results of this pipeline also included extraction of DI and disease severity (DS) from UAV data. The calculated area under disease progress curve of DS was 2,810.4 to 7,058.8\%.days for human visual scoring and 1,400.5 to 4,343.2\%.days for UAV-based scoring. Moreover, a sharper differentiation of varieties compared with visual scoring was observed in area-related parameters such as area of complete foliage (AF), area of healthy foliage (AH), and mean area of lesion by unit of foliage (Ac¯/F). These advantages provide the option to replace the laborious work of visual disease assessments in the field with a more precise, nondestructive assessment via multispectral data acquired by UAV flights. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.}
    }

  • L. Lärm, F. M. Bauer, N. Hermes, J. van der Kruk, H. Vereecken, J. Vanderborght, T. H. Nguyen, G. Lopez, S. J. Seidel, F. Ewert, A. Schnepf, and A. Klotzsche, "Multi-year belowground data of minirhizotron facilities in Selhausen," Scientific Data, 2023. doi:10.1038/s41597-023-02570-9
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The production of crops secure the human food supply, but climate change is bringing new challenges. Dynamic plant growth and corresponding environmental data are required to uncover phenotypic crop responses to the changing environment. There are many datasets on above-ground organs of crops, but roots and the surrounding soil are rarely the subject of longer term studies. Here, we present what we believe to be the first comprehensive collection of root and soil data, obtained at two minirhizotron facilities located close together that have the same local climate but differ in soil type. Both facilities have 7m-long horizontal tubes at several depths that were used for crosshole ground-penetrating radar and minirhizotron camera systems. Soil sensors provide observations at a high temporal and spatial resolution. The ongoing measurements cover five years of maize and wheat trials, including drought stress treatments and crop mixtures. We make the processed data available for use in investigating the processes within the soil–plant continuum and the root images to develop and compare image analysis methods.

    @article{Lärm2023,
    title={Multi-year belowground data of minirhizotron facilities in Selhausen},
    author={Lärm, Lena and Bauer, Felix Maximilian and Hermes, Normen and van der Kruk, Jan and Vereecken, Harry and Vanderborght, Jan and Nguyen, Thuy Huu and Lopez, Gina and Seidel, Sabine J. and Ewert, Frank and Schnepf, Andrea and Klotzsche, Anja},
    journal={Scientific Data},
    year={2023},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-023-02570-9},
    doi={10.1038/s41597-023-02570-9},
    abstract= {The production of crops secure the human food supply, but climate change is bringing new challenges. Dynamic plant growth and corresponding environmental data are required to uncover phenotypic crop responses to the changing environment. There are many datasets on above-ground organs of crops, but roots and the surrounding soil are rarely the subject of longer term studies. Here, we present what we believe to be the first comprehensive collection of root and soil data, obtained at two minirhizotron facilities located close together that have the same local climate but differ in soil type. Both facilities have 7m-long horizontal tubes at several depths that were used for crosshole ground-penetrating radar and minirhizotron camera systems. Soil sensors provide observations at a high temporal and spatial resolution. The ongoing measurements cover five years of maize and wheat trials, including drought stress treatments and crop mixtures. We make the processed data available for use in investigating the processes within the soil–plant continuum and the root images to develop and compare image analysis methods.}
    }

  • T. Selzner, J. Horn, M. Landl, A. Pohlmeier, D. Helmrich, K. Huber, J. Vanderborght, H. Vereecken, S. Behnke, and A. Schnepf, "3D U-Net Segmentation Improves Root System Reconstruction from 3D MRI Images in Automated and Manual Virtual Reality Work Flows," Plant Phenomics, vol. 5, p. 76, 2023. doi:10.34133/plantphenomics.0076
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{doi:10.34133/plantphenomics.0076,
    author = {Tobias Selzner and Jannis Horn and Magdalena Landl and Andreas Pohlmeier and Dirk Helmrich and Katrin Huber and Jan Vanderborght and Harry Vereecken and Sven Behnke and Andrea Schnepf},
    title = {3D U-Net Segmentation Improves Root System Reconstruction from 3D MRI Images in Automated and Manual Virtual Reality Work Flows},
    journal = {Plant Phenomics},
    volume = {5},
    pages = {0076},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.34133/plantphenomics.0076},
    url = {https://spj.science.org/doi/abs/10.34133/plantphenomics.0076},
    }

  • S. Hadir, T. F. Döring, E. Justes, D. T. Demie, M. R. Paul, N. Legner, R. Kemper, T. Gaiser, O. Weedon, F. Ewert, and S. J. Seidel, "Root growth and belowground interactions in spring wheat - faba bean intercrops," Preprint, 2023. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-3164021/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{hadirinteractions,
    author={Hadir, Sofia and Döring, Thomas F. and Justes, Eric and Demie, Dereje T. and Paul, Madhuri R. and Legner, Nicole and Kemper, Roman and Gaiser, Thomas and Weedon, Odette and Ewert, Frank and Seidel, Sabine J.},
    title={Root growth and belowground interactions in spring wheat - faba bean intercrops},
    journal={Preprint},
    url={https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-3164021/v1},
    year={2023},
    doi={10.21203/rs.3.rs-3164021/v1}}

  • M. I. Gocke, J. Guigue, S. L. Bauke, D. Barkusky, M. Baumecker, A. E. Berns, E. Hobley, B. Honermeier, I. Kögel-Knabner, S. Koszinski, A. Sandhage-Hofmann, U. Schmidhalter, F. Schneider, K. Schweitzer, S. Seidel, S. Siebert, L. E. Skadell, M. Sommer, S. von Tucher, A. Don, and W. Amelung, "Interactive effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon accrual: A synthesis of long-term field experiments in Germany," Geoderma, vol. 438, p. 116616, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2023.116616
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Crop production often leads to soil organic carbon (SOC) losses. However, under good management practice it is possible to maintain and even re-accumulate SOC. We evaluated how different cropland management techniques affected SOC stocks in the topsoil (0–30 cm depth) of 10 long-term experiments (LTE) in Germany. We found that SOC stocks were particularly enhanced by mineral fertilization and organic amendments like straw incorporation and to a smaller degree by irrigation, but only slightly affected by the choice of preceding crops. In agreement with global meta-analyses, liming and reduced tillage had little or even negative effects on SOC storage, but effects also depended on fertilization. Management effects on SOC stocks were dependent on soil texture: sandy soils showed the lowest SOC stocks of 20.9 ± 2.3 (standard error of the mean) Mg ha−1, but exhibited the largest relative response to different management options. Annual changes in SOC stocks ranged from −3.0 ‰ with no mineral N fertilization, to + 6.1 ‰ with farmyard manure application, using the mineral-fertilized and limed treatment as reference. Even higher rates of up to + 10.6 ‰ yr−1 were reached with the combination of irrigation and straw incorporation. Note that the contribution of organic amendments to SOC accrual and thus to climate change mitigation must be adjusted for reduction in SOC at sites from which straw was removed. Overall, the potential of agricultural management to influence and enhance SOC stocks is significant. This potential is controlled by soil type and land-use duration, is largest for sandy soils with overall lowest SOC stocks, and is characterized by antagonistic and synergistic effects of different management practices.

    @article{GOCKE2023116616,
    title = {Interactive effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon accrual: A synthesis of long-term field experiments in Germany},
    journal = {Geoderma},
    volume = {438},
    pages = {116616},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0016-7061},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2023.116616},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016706123002938},
    author = {Martina I. Gocke and Julien Guigue and Sara L. Bauke and Dietmar Barkusky and Michael Baumecker and Anne E. Berns and Eleanor Hobley and Bernd Honermeier and Ingrid Kögel-Knabner and Sylvia Koszinski and Alexandra Sandhage-Hofmann and Urs Schmidhalter and Florian Schneider and Kathlin Schweitzer and Sabine Seidel and Stefan Siebert and Laura E. Skadell and Michael Sommer and Sabine {von Tucher} and Axel Don and Wulf Amelung},
    keywords = {Carbon stocks, Fertilization, Arable topsoil, Agricultural soil management, Soil health, Nutrients},
    abstract = {Crop production often leads to soil organic carbon (SOC) losses. However, under good management practice it is possible to maintain and even re-accumulate SOC. We evaluated how different cropland management techniques affected SOC stocks in the topsoil (0–30 cm depth) of 10 long-term experiments (LTE) in Germany. We found that SOC stocks were particularly enhanced by mineral fertilization and organic amendments like straw incorporation and to a smaller degree by irrigation, but only slightly affected by the choice of preceding crops. In agreement with global meta-analyses, liming and reduced tillage had little or even negative effects on SOC storage, but effects also depended on fertilization. Management effects on SOC stocks were dependent on soil texture: sandy soils showed the lowest SOC stocks of 20.9 ± 2.3 (standard error of the mean) Mg ha−1, but exhibited the largest relative response to different management options. Annual changes in SOC stocks ranged from −3.0 ‰ with no mineral N fertilization, to + 6.1 ‰ with farmyard manure application, using the mineral-fertilized and limed treatment as reference. Even higher rates of up to + 10.6 ‰ yr−1 were reached with the combination of irrigation and straw incorporation. Note that the contribution of organic amendments to SOC accrual and thus to climate change mitigation must be adjusted for reduction in SOC at sites from which straw was removed. Overall, the potential of agricultural management to influence and enhance SOC stocks is significant. This potential is controlled by soil type and land-use duration, is largest for sandy soils with overall lowest SOC stocks, and is characterized by antagonistic and synergistic effects of different management practices.}
    }

  • D. Wallach, T. Palosuo, P. Thorburn, H. Mielenz, S. Buis, Z. Hochman, E. Gourdain, F. Andrianasolo, B. Dumont, R. Ferrise, T. Gaiser, C. Garcia, S. Gayler, M. Harrison, S. Hiremath, H. Horan, G. Hoogenboom, P. Jansson, Q. Jing, E. Justes, K. Kersebaum, M. Launay, E. Lewan, K. Liu, F. Mequanint, M. Moriondo, C. Nendel, G. Padovan, B. Qian, N. Schütze, D. Seserman, V. Shelia, A. Souissi, X. Specka, A. K. Srivastava, G. Trombi, T. K. D. Weber, L. Weihermüller, T. Wöhling, and S. J. Seidel, "Proposal and extensive test of a calibration protocol for crop phenology models," Agronomy for Sustainable Development, vol. 43, iss. 4, 2023. doi:10.1007/s13593-023-00900-0
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    A major effect of environment on crops is through crop phenology, and therefore, the capacity to predict phenology for new environments is important. Mechanistic crop models are a major tool for such predictions, but calibration of crop phenology models is difficult and there is no consensus on the best approach. We propose an original, detailed approach for calibration of such models, which we refer to as a calibration protocol. The protocol covers all the steps in the calibration workflow, namely choice of default parameter values, choice of objective function, choice of parameters to estimate from the data, calculation of optimal parameter values, and diagnostics. The major innovation is in the choice of which parameters to estimate from the data, which combines expert knowledge and data-based model selection. First, almost additive parameters are identified and estimated. This should make bias (average difference between observed and simulated values) nearly zero. These are “obligatory” parameters, that will definitely be estimated. Then candidate parameters are identified, which are parameters likely to explain the remaining discrepancies between simulated and observed values. A candidate is only added to the list of parameters to estimate if it leads to a reduction in BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion), which is a model selection criterion. A second original aspect of the protocol is the specification of documentation for each stage of the protocol. The protocol was applied by 19 modeling teams to three data sets for wheat phenology. All teams first calibrated their model using their “usual” calibration approach, so it was possible to compare usual and protocol calibration. Evaluation of prediction error was based on data from sites and years not represented in the training data. Compared to usual calibration, calibration following the new protocol reduced the variability between modeling teams by 22% and reduced prediction error by 11%.

    @article{wallachcalibrationprotocol,
    author={Wallach, Daniel and Palosuo, Taru and Thorburn, Peter and Mielenz, Henrike and Buis, Samuel and Hochman, Zvi and Gourdain, Emmanuelle and Andrianasolo, Fety and Dumont, Benjamin and Ferrise, Roberto and Gaiser, Thomas and Garcia, Cecile and Gayler, Sebastian and Harrison, Matthew and Hiremath, Santosh and Horan, Heidi and Hoogenboom, Gerrit and Jansson, Per-Erik and Jing, Qi and Justes, Eric and Kersebaum, Kurt-Christian and Launay, Marie and Lewan, Elisabet and Liu, Ke and Mequanint, Fasil and Moriondo, Marco and Nendel, Claas and Padovan, Gloria and Qian, Budong and Schütze, Niels and Seserman, Diana-Maria and Shelia, Vakhtang and Souissi, Amir and Specka, Xenia and Srivastava, Amit Kumar and Trombi, Giacomo and Weber, Tobias K. D. and Weihermüller, Lutz and Wöhling, Thomas and Seidel, Sabine J.},
    year={2023},
    journal={Agronomy for Sustainable Development},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-023-00900-0},
    doi={10.1007/s13593-023-00900-0},
    volume={43},
    title={Proposal and extensive test of a calibration protocol for crop phenology models},
    number={4},
    abstract={A major effect of environment on crops is through crop phenology, and therefore, the capacity to predict phenology for new environments is important. Mechanistic crop models are a major tool for such predictions, but calibration of crop phenology models is difficult and there is no consensus on the best approach. We propose an original, detailed approach for calibration of such models, which we refer to as a calibration protocol. The protocol covers all the steps in the calibration workflow, namely choice of default parameter values, choice of objective function, choice of parameters to estimate from the data, calculation of optimal parameter values, and diagnostics. The major innovation is in the choice of which parameters to estimate from the data, which combines expert knowledge and data-based model selection. First, almost additive parameters are identified and estimated. This should make bias (average difference between observed and simulated values) nearly zero. These are “obligatory” parameters, that will definitely be estimated. Then candidate parameters are identified, which are parameters likely to explain the remaining discrepancies between simulated and observed values. A candidate is only added to the list of parameters to estimate if it leads to a reduction in BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion), which is a model selection criterion. A second original aspect of the protocol is the specification of documentation for each stage of the protocol. The protocol was applied by 19 modeling teams to three data sets for wheat phenology. All teams first calibrated their model using their “usual” calibration approach, so it was possible to compare usual and protocol calibration. Evaluation of prediction error was based on data from sites and years not represented in the training data. Compared to usual calibration, calibration following the new protocol reduced the variability between modeling teams by 22% and reduced prediction error by 11%.}}

  • M. Giraud, S. L. Gall, M. Harings, M. Javaux, D. Leitner, F. Meunier, Y. Rothfuss, D. van Dusschoten, J. Vanderborght, H. Vereecken, G. Lobet, and A. Schnepf, "CPlantBox: a fully coupled modelling platform for the water and carbon fluxes in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum," in silico Plants, vol. 5, iss. 2, p. diad009, 2023. doi:10.1093/insilicoplants/diad009
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {A plant’s development is strongly linked to the water and carbon flows in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. Expected climate shifts will alter the water and carbon cycles and will affect plant phenotypes. Comprehensive models that simulate mechanistically and dynamically the feedback loops between a plant’s three-dimensional development and the water and carbon flows are useful tools to evaluate the sustainability of genotype–environment–management combinations which do not yet exist. In this study, we present the latest version of the open-source three-dimensional Functional–Structural Plant Model CPlantBox with PiafMunch and DuMu\\$\\{\\}^\\{\\text\\{x\\}\\}\\$ coupling. This new implementation can be used to study the interactions between known or hypothetical processes at the plant scale. We simulated semi-mechanistically the development of generic C3 monocots from 10 to 25 days after sowing and undergoing an atmospheric dry spell of 1 week (no precipitation). We compared the results for dry spells starting on different days (Day 11 or 18) against a wetter and colder baseline scenario. Compared with the baseline, the dry spells led to a lower instantaneous water-use efficiency. Moreover, the temperature-induced increased enzymatic activity led to a higher maintenance respiration which diminished the amount of sucrose available for growth. Both of these effects were stronger for the later dry spell compared with the early dry spell. We could thus use CPlantBox to simulate diverging emerging processes (like carbon partitioning) defining the plants’ phenotypic plasticity response to their environment. The model remains to be validated against independent observations of the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum.}

    @article{10.1093/insilicoplants/diad009,
    author = {Giraud, Mona and Gall, Samuel Le and Harings, Moritz and Javaux, Mathieu and Leitner, Daniel and Meunier, Félicien and Rothfuss, Youri and van Dusschoten, Dagmar and Vanderborght, Jan and Vereecken, Harry and Lobet, Guillaume and Schnepf, Andrea},
    title = "{CPlantBox: a fully coupled modelling platform for the water and carbon fluxes in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum}",
    journal = {in silico Plants},
    volume = {5},
    number = {2},
    pages = {diad009},
    year = {2023},
    month = {07},
    abstract = "{A plant’s development is strongly linked to the water and carbon flows in the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum. Expected climate shifts will alter the water and carbon cycles and will affect plant phenotypes. Comprehensive models that simulate mechanistically and dynamically the feedback loops between a plant’s three-dimensional development and the water and carbon flows are useful tools to evaluate the sustainability of genotype–environment–management combinations which do not yet exist. In this study, we present the latest version of the open-source three-dimensional Functional–Structural Plant Model CPlantBox with PiafMunch and DuMu\\$\\{\\}^\\{\\text\\{x\\}\\}\\$ coupling. This new implementation can be used to study the interactions between known or hypothetical processes at the plant scale. We simulated semi-mechanistically the development of generic C3 monocots from 10 to 25 days after sowing and undergoing an atmospheric dry spell of 1 week (no precipitation). We compared the results for dry spells starting on different days (Day 11 or 18) against a wetter and colder baseline scenario. Compared with the baseline, the dry spells led to a lower instantaneous water-use efficiency. Moreover, the temperature-induced increased enzymatic activity led to a higher maintenance respiration which diminished the amount of sucrose available for growth. Both of these effects were stronger for the later dry spell compared with the early dry spell. We could thus use CPlantBox to simulate diverging emerging processes (like carbon partitioning) defining the plants’ phenotypic plasticity response to their environment. The model remains to be validated against independent observations of the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum.}",
    issn = {2517-5025},
    doi = {10.1093/insilicoplants/diad009},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/insilicoplants/diad009},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/insilicoplants/article-pdf/5/2/diad009/51684855/diad009.pdf},
    }

  • J. Yi, G. Lopez, S. Hadir, J. Weyler, L. Klingbeil, M. Deichmann, J. Gall, and S. J. Seidel, "Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies in Winter Wheat and Winter Rye Using Uav-Based Rgb Images," Available at SSRN 4549653, 2023.
    [BibTeX]
    @article{yi4549653non,
    title={Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies in Winter Wheat and Winter Rye Using Uav-Based Rgb Images},
    author={Yi, Jinhui and Lopez, Gina and Hadir, Sofia and Weyler, Jan and Klingbeil, Lasse and Deichmann, Marion and Gall, Juergen and Seidel, Sabine J},
    journal={Available at SSRN 4549653},
    year={2023}
    }

  • R. A. Rosu and S. Behnke, "PermutoSDF: Fast Multi-View Reconstruction with Implicit Surfaces Using Permutohedral Lattices," in 2023 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR) , 2023, pp. 8466-8475. doi:10.1109/CVPR52729.2023.00818
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{10203691,
    author={Rosu, Radu Alexandru and Behnke, Sven},
    booktitle={2023 IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
    title={PermutoSDF: Fast Multi-View Reconstruction with Implicit Surfaces Using Permutohedral Lattices},
    year={2023},
    volume={},
    number={},
    url={https://www.ais.uni-bonn.de/papers/CVPR_2023_Rosu.pdf},
    codeurl={https://github.com/RaduAlexandru/permuto_sdf},
    pages={8466-8475},
    doi={10.1109/CVPR52729.2023.00818}}

  • F. Esser, R. A. Rosu, A. Cornelißen, L. Klingbeil, H. Kuhlmann, and S. Behnke, "Field Robot for High-Throughput and High-Resolution 3D Plant Phenotyping: Towards Efficient and Sustainable Crop Production," IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, pp. 2-11, 2023. doi:10.1109/MRA.2023.3321402
    [BibTeX]
    @ARTICLE{10302421,
    author={Esser, Felix and Rosu, Radu Alexandru and Cornelißen, André and Klingbeil, Lasse and Kuhlmann, Heiner and Behnke, Sven},
    journal={IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine},
    title={Field Robot for High-Throughput and High-Resolution 3D Plant Phenotyping: Towards Efficient and Sustainable Crop Production},
    year={2023},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={2-11},
    doi={10.1109/MRA.2023.3321402}}

  • T. Zaenker, J. Rückin, M. Popovic, and M. Bennewitz, "Graph-based View Motion Planning for Fruit Detection," in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2023.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{zaenkerirosfruitdetection,
    author={Zaenker, Tobias and Rückin, Julius and Popovic, Marija and Bennewitz, Maren},
    booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    title={Graph-based View Motion Planning for Fruit Detection},
    year={2023},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2303.03048}}

  • C. Liu, A. Mentzelopoulou, F. Papagavriil, P. Ramachandran, A. Perraki, L. Claus, S. Barg, P. Dörmann, Y. Jaillais, P. Johnen, E. Russinova, E. Gizeli, G. Schaaf, and P. N. Moschou, "SEC14-like condensate phase transitions at plasma membranes regulate root growth in Arabidopsis," PLoS biology, 2023. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.3002305.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Protein function can be modulated by phase transitions in their material properties, which can range from liquid- to solid-like; yet, the mechanisms that drive these transitions and whether they are important for physiology are still unknown. In the model plant Arabidopsis, we show that developmental robustness is reinforced by phase transitions of the plasma membrane-bound lipid-binding protein SEC14-like. Using imaging, genetics, and in vitro reconstitution experiments, we show that SEC14-like undergoes liquid-like phase separation in the root stem cells. Outside the stem cell niche, SEC14-like associates with the caspase-like protease separase and conserved microtubule motors at unique polar plasma membrane interfaces. In these interfaces, SEC14-like undergoes processing by separase, which promotes its liquid-to-solid transition. This transition is important for root development, as lines expressing an uncleavable SEC14-like variant or mutants of separase and associated microtubule motors show similar developmental phenotypes. Furthermore, the processed and solidified but not the liquid form of SEC14-like interacts with and regulates the polarity of the auxin efflux carrier PINFORMED2. This work demonstrates that robust development can involve liquid-to-solid transitions mediated by proteolysis at unique plasma membrane interfaces.

    @article{liuplos,
    title={SEC14-like condensate phase transitions at plasma membranes regulate root growth
    in Arabidopsis},
    abstract={Protein function can be modulated by phase transitions in their material
    properties, which can range from liquid- to solid-like; yet, the mechanisms that
    drive these transitions and whether they are important for physiology are still
    unknown. In the model plant Arabidopsis, we show that developmental robustness is
    reinforced by phase transitions of the plasma membrane-bound lipid-binding
    protein SEC14-like. Using imaging, genetics, and in vitro reconstitution
    experiments, we show that SEC14-like undergoes liquid-like phase separation in
    the root stem cells. Outside the stem cell niche, SEC14-like associates with the
    caspase-like protease separase and conserved microtubule motors at unique polar
    plasma membrane interfaces. In these interfaces, SEC14-like undergoes processing
    by separase, which promotes its liquid-to-solid transition. This transition is
    important for root development, as lines expressing an uncleavable SEC14-like
    variant or mutants of separase and associated microtubule motors show similar
    developmental phenotypes. Furthermore, the processed and solidified but not the
    liquid form of SEC14-like interacts with and regulates the polarity of the auxin
    efflux carrier PINFORMED2. This work demonstrates that robust development can
    involve liquid-to-solid transitions mediated by proteolysis at unique plasma
    membrane interfaces.},
    author={Liu, Chen and Mentzelopoulou, Andriani and Papagavriil, Fotini and Ramachandran, Prashanth and Perraki, Artemis and Claus, Lucas and Barg, Sebastian and Dörmann, Peter and Jaillais, Yvon and Johnen, Philipp and Russinova, Eugenia and Gizeli, Electra and Schaaf, Gabriel and Moschou, Panagiotis Nikolaou},
    journal={PLoS biology},
    doi={10.1371/journal.pbio.3002305.},
    url={https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37721949/},
    year={2023}}

  • R. Menon, T. Zaenker, N. Dengler, and M. Bennewitz, "NBV-SC: Next Best View Planning based on Shape Completion for Fruit Mapping and Reconstruction," in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2023.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{menon2023nbvsc,
    title={NBV-SC: Next Best View Planning based on Shape Completion for Fruit Mapping and Reconstruction},
    author={Rohit Menon and Tobias Zaenker and Nils Dengler and Maren Bennewitz},
    year={2023},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2209.15376},
    eprint={2209.15376},
    booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)}
    }

  • S. Marangoz, R. Menon, N. Dengler, and M. Bennewitz, "DawnIK: Decentralized Collision-Aware Inverse Kinematics Solver for Heterogeneous Multi-Arm Systems," arXiv preprint, 2023. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2307.12750
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{marangoz2023dawnik,
    title={DawnIK: Decentralized Collision-Aware Inverse Kinematics Solver for Heterogeneous Multi-Arm Systems},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2307.12750.pdf},
    author={Salih Marangoz and Rohit Menon and Nils Dengler and Maren Bennewitz},
    year={2023},
    eprint={2307.12750},
    doi={10.48550/arXiv.2307.12750},
    journal={arXiv preprint}
    }

  • M. Li, M. Halstead, and C. McCool, "Knowledge Distillation for Efficient Panoptic Semantic Segmentation: Applied to Agriculture," in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2023.
    [BibTeX]
    @InProceedings{Li23_panopticknowledgedistillation,
    author = {M. Li and M. Halstead and C. McCool},
    title = {Knowledge Distillation for Efficient Panoptic Semantic
    Segmentation: Applied to Agriculture},
    booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2023},
    }

  • I. M. Hernández-Ochoa, T. Gaiser, H. Hüging, and F. Ewert, "Yield components and yield quality of old and modern wheat cultivars as affected by cultivar release date, N fertilization and environment in Germany," Field Crops Research, vol. 302, p. 109094, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2023.109094
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main staple crop worldwide. Understanding the genotype × management × environment (G × M × E) interaction is critical for breeding, yield, grain quality estimation and to develop sustainable production systems that meet food and feed demand. Many studies have explored grain yield changes and yield stability over time, as well as G × M × E (i.e., the effect of breeding progress), but limited studies have looked at these effects on yield components and grain quality parameters. A field experiment was conducted to understand the G × M × E interactions for yield components of winter wheat cultivars. The study was carried out for three seasons (2015–2018) using a split plot design with four replications, with nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels (0, 120 and 240 kg N ha-1), in the main plot and cultivars in the subplot. Three old cultivars (released before 1960), Heines II, Heines Rot, Heines VII and three modern cultivars (released after 1960), Jubilar, Sperber and Tommi, were selected. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB), grain yield, harvest index (HI), thousand kernel weight (TKW), grains m-2, grain protein and hectoliter weight (HLW) were collected at harvest. The three-way interaction was significant for most variables except for grain protein, but after applying the AIC method, the three-way interaction was just relevant for HI. The 0 N level always resulted in lowest TAGB, grain yield, grains m-2, grain protein and HLW for all cultivars. All cultivars showed a positive response in grain yield when applying 120 kg ha-1 of N but no significant further yield increase was observed with higher N levels. With regards to HI, cultivar differences were more apparent during the wettest year 2016. The HI tends to decrease with increasing N levels and was the highest in modern cultivars with Tommi and Sperber, though in 2017, also Heines VII showed one of the highest HI across treatments. Grain protein content progressively increased with N level, but newer cultivars like Tommi and Sperber, showed some of the lowest protein contents. Yield component contribution to grain yield has changed over time with grain number, grain size and HI, becoming more important for yield realization. Modern cultivars, especially Tommi, performed better than the rest of the cultivars under sufficient N supply. Optimal N-rates among cultivars differ for grain yield and grain protein, posing a challenge to maintain wheat supply to the increasing wheat demand in the future but also to meeting sustainability targets to reduce and optimize resource use.

    @article{HERNANDEZOCHOA2023109094,
    title = {Yield components and yield quality of old and modern wheat cultivars as affected by cultivar release date, N fertilization and environment in Germany},
    journal = {Field Crops Research},
    volume = {302},
    pages = {109094},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0378-4290},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2023.109094},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378429023002873},
    author = {Ixchel M. Hernández-Ochoa and Thomas Gaiser and Hubert Hüging and Frank Ewert},
    keywords = {Breeding progress, Winter wheat, Nitrogen supply, Cereals, Crop nutrients},
    abstract = {Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main staple crop worldwide. Understanding the genotype × management × environment (G × M × E) interaction is critical for breeding, yield, grain quality estimation and to develop sustainable production systems that meet food and feed demand. Many studies have explored grain yield changes and yield stability over time, as well as G × M × E (i.e., the effect of breeding progress), but limited studies have looked at these effects on yield components and grain quality parameters. A field experiment was conducted to understand the G × M × E interactions for yield components of winter wheat cultivars. The study was carried out for three seasons (2015–2018) using a split plot design with four replications, with nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels (0, 120 and 240 kg N ha-1), in the main plot and cultivars in the subplot. Three old cultivars (released before 1960), Heines II, Heines Rot, Heines VII and three modern cultivars (released after 1960), Jubilar, Sperber and Tommi, were selected. Total aboveground biomass (TAGB), grain yield, harvest index (HI), thousand kernel weight (TKW), grains m-2, grain protein and hectoliter weight (HLW) were collected at harvest. The three-way interaction was significant for most variables except for grain protein, but after applying the AIC method, the three-way interaction was just relevant for HI. The 0 N level always resulted in lowest TAGB, grain yield, grains m-2, grain protein and HLW for all cultivars. All cultivars showed a positive response in grain yield when applying 120 kg ha-1 of N but no significant further yield increase was observed with higher N levels. With regards to HI, cultivar differences were more apparent during the wettest year 2016. The HI tends to decrease with increasing N levels and was the highest in modern cultivars with Tommi and Sperber, though in 2017, also Heines VII showed one of the highest HI across treatments. Grain protein content progressively increased with N level, but newer cultivars like Tommi and Sperber, showed some of the lowest protein contents. Yield component contribution to grain yield has changed over time with grain number, grain size and HI, becoming more important for yield realization. Modern cultivars, especially Tommi, performed better than the rest of the cultivars under sufficient N supply. Optimal N-rates among cultivars differ for grain yield and grain protein, posing a challenge to maintain wheat supply to the increasing wheat demand in the future but also to meeting sustainability targets to reduce and optimize resource use.}
    }

  • L. T. Dinh, Y. Ueda, D. Gonzalez, J. P. Tanaka, H. Takanashi, and M. Wissuwa, "Novel QTL for Lateral Root Density and Length Improve Phosphorus Uptake in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)," Rice, vol. 16, 2023. doi:10.1186/s12284-023-00654-z
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The rice root system consists of two types of lateral roots, indeterminate larger L-types capable of further branching, and determinate, short, unbranched S-types. L-type laterals correspond to the typical lateral roots of cereals whereas S-type laterals are unique to rice. Both types contribute to nutrient and water uptake and genotypic variation for density and length of these laterals could be exploited in rice improvement to enhance adaptations to nutrient and water-limited environments. Our objectives were to determine how best to screen for lateral root density and length and to identify markers linked to genotypic variation for these traits. Using different growing media showed that screening in nutrient solution exposed genotypic variation for S-type and L-type density, but only the lateral roots of soil-grown plants varied for their lengths. A QTL mapping population developed from parents contrasting for lateral root traits was grown in a low-P field, roots were sampled, scanned and density and length of lateral roots measured. One QTL each was detected for L-type density (LDC), S-type density on crown root (SDC), S-type density on L-type (SDL), S-type length on L-type (SLL), and crown root number (RNO). The QTL for LDC on chromosome 5 had a major effect, accounting for 46% of the phenotypic variation. This strong positive effect was confirmed in additional field experiments, showing that lines with the donor parent allele at qLDC5 had 50% higher LDC. Investigating the contribution of lateral root traits to P uptake using stepwise regressions indicated LDC and RNO were most influential, followed by SDL. Simulating effects of root trait differences conferred by the main QTL in a P uptake model confirmed that qLDC5 was most effective in improving P uptake followed by qRNO9 for RNO and qSDL9 for S-type lateral density on L-type laterals. Pyramiding qLDC5 with qRNO9 and qSDL9 would be possible given that trade-offs between traits were not detected. Phenotypic selection for the RNO trait during variety development would be feasible, however, the costs of doing so reliably for lateral root density traits is prohibitive and markers identified here therefore provide the first opportunity to incorporate such traits into a breeding program.

    @article{dinhrice,
    author = {Lam Thi Dinh and Yoshiaki Ueda and Daniel Gonzalez and Juan Pariasca Tanaka and Hideki Takanashi and Matthias Wissuwa},
    title = {Novel QTL for Lateral Root Density and Length Improve Phosphorus Uptake in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)},
    journal = {Rice},
    volume = {16},
    year = {2023},
    issue = {1},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1186/s12284-023-00654-z},
    doi = {10.1186/s12284-023-00654-z},
    abstract = {The rice root system consists of two types of lateral roots, indeterminate larger L-types capable of further branching, and determinate, short, unbranched S-types. L-type laterals correspond to the typical lateral roots of cereals whereas S-type laterals are unique to rice. Both types contribute to nutrient and water uptake and genotypic variation for density and length of these laterals could be exploited in rice improvement to enhance adaptations to nutrient and water-limited environments. Our objectives were to determine how best to screen for lateral root density and length and to identify markers linked to genotypic variation for these traits. Using different growing media showed that screening in nutrient solution exposed genotypic variation for S-type and L-type density, but only the lateral roots of soil-grown plants varied for their lengths. A QTL mapping population developed from parents contrasting for lateral root traits was grown in a low-P field, roots were sampled, scanned and density and length of lateral roots measured. One QTL each was detected for L-type density (LDC), S-type density on crown root (SDC), S-type density on L-type (SDL), S-type length on L-type (SLL), and crown root number (RNO). The QTL for LDC on chromosome 5 had a major effect, accounting for 46% of the phenotypic variation. This strong positive effect was confirmed in additional field experiments, showing that lines with the donor parent allele at qLDC5 had 50% higher LDC. Investigating the contribution of lateral root traits to P uptake using stepwise regressions indicated LDC and RNO were most influential, followed by SDL. Simulating effects of root trait differences conferred by the main QTL in a P uptake model confirmed that qLDC5 was most effective in improving P uptake followed by qRNO9 for RNO and qSDL9 for S-type lateral density on L-type laterals. Pyramiding qLDC5 with qRNO9 and qSDL9 would be possible given that trade-offs between traits were not detected. Phenotypic selection for the RNO trait during variety development would be feasible, however, the costs of doing so reliably for lateral root density traits is prohibitive and markers identified here therefore provide the first opportunity to incorporate such traits into a breeding program.}
    }

  • T. A. P. West, S. Wunder, E. O. Sills, J. Börner, S. W. Rifai, A. N. Neidermeier, G. P. Frey, and A. Kontoleon, "Action needed to make carbon offsets from forest conservation work for climate change mitigation," Science, vol. 381, iss. 6660, pp. 873-877, 2023. doi:10.1126/science.ade3535
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Carbon offsets from voluntary avoided-deforestation projects are generated on the basis of performance in relation to ex ante deforestation baselines. We examined the effects of 26 such project sites in six countries on three continents using synthetic control methods for causal inference. We found that most projects have not significantly reduced deforestation. For projects that did, reductions were substantially lower than claimed. This reflects differences between the project ex ante baselines and ex post counterfactuals according to observed deforestation in control areas. Methodologies used to construct deforestation baselines for carbon offset interventions need urgent revisions to correctly attribute reduced deforestation to the projects, thus maintaining both incentives for forest conservation and the integrity of global carbon accounting. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) projects are intended to decrease carbon emissions from forests to offset other carbon emissions and are often claimed as credits to be used in calculating carbon emission budgets. West et al. compared the actual effects of these projects with measurable baseline values and found that most of them have not reduced deforestation significantly, and those that did had benefits substantially lower than claimed (see the Perspective by Jones and Lewis). Thus, most REDD projects are less beneficial than is often claimed. —H. Jesse Smith Most REDD projects deliver little to no decrease in deforestation and forest degradation.

    @article{doi:10.1126/science.ade3535,
    author = {Thales A. P. West and Sven Wunder and Erin O. Sills and Jan Börner and Sami W. Rifai and Alexandra N. Neidermeier and Gabriel P. Frey and Andreas Kontoleon},
    title = {Action needed to make carbon offsets from forest conservation work for climate change mitigation},
    journal = {Science},
    volume = {381},
    number = {6660},
    pages = {873-877},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1126/science.ade3535},
    URL = {https://www.science.org/doi/abs/10.1126/science.ade3535},
    eprint = {https://www.science.org/doi/pdf/10.1126/science.ade3535},
    abstract = {Carbon offsets from voluntary avoided-deforestation projects are generated on the basis of performance in relation to ex ante deforestation baselines. We examined the effects of 26 such project sites in six countries on three continents using synthetic control methods for causal inference. We found that most projects have not significantly reduced deforestation. For projects that did, reductions were substantially lower than claimed. This reflects differences between the project ex ante baselines and ex post counterfactuals according to observed deforestation in control areas. Methodologies used to construct deforestation baselines for carbon offset interventions need urgent revisions to correctly attribute reduced deforestation to the projects, thus maintaining both incentives for forest conservation and the integrity of global carbon accounting. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) projects are intended to decrease carbon emissions from forests to offset other carbon emissions and are often claimed as credits to be used in calculating carbon emission budgets. West et al. compared the actual effects of these projects with measurable baseline values and found that most of them have not reduced deforestation significantly, and those that did had benefits substantially lower than claimed (see the Perspective by Jones and Lewis). Thus, most REDD projects are less beneficial than is often claimed. —H. Jesse Smith Most REDD projects deliver little to no decrease in deforestation and forest degradation.}}

  • C. Hubert, S. Tsiaparas, L. Kahlert, K. Luhmer, M. D. Moll, M. Passon, M. Wüst, A. Schieber, and R. Pude, "Effect of Different Postharvest Methods on Essential Oil Content and Composition of Three Mentha Genotypes," Horticulturae, vol. 9, iss. 9, 2023. doi:10.3390/horticulturae9090960
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Mentha sp. is commonly used for essential oil (EO) extraction and incorporated in multiple products of food and pharmaceutical industries. Postharvest management is a key factor in line of production to preserve quality-determining plant ingredients. This study focused on the effects of two different postharvest processes on EO content and the composition of three different Mentha genotypes (Mentha × piperita ‘Multimentha’, Mentha × piperita ‘Fränkische Blaue’ and Mentha rotundifolia ‘Apfelminze’). They were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. One postharvest treatment consisted of drying Mentha as whole plant after harvesting and later separating leaves from stems. In the second treatment, leaves were separated from stems directly after harvesting and then dried. EO content was determined by steam distillation and composition of EO was characterized by GC/MS analysis. Key findings of the study are that the postharvest processing treatments had no significant influence on the content or composition of the EO. Only the genotype ‘Fränkische Blaue’ showed a significantly higher EO content in the dry separated treatment at the third harvest (2.9 ± 0.15 mL/100 g DM (sD)) than separated fresh (2.4 ± 0.24 mL/100 g DM (sF)). However, genotype selection and harvest time had a clear impact on EO content and composition.

    @Article{horticulturae9090960,
    AUTHOR = {Hubert, Charlotte and Tsiaparas, Saskia and Kahlert, Liane and Luhmer, Katharina and Moll, Marcel Dieter and Passon, Maike and Wüst, Matthias and Schieber, Andreas and Pude, Ralf},
    TITLE = {Effect of Different Postharvest Methods on Essential Oil Content and Composition of Three Mentha Genotypes},
    JOURNAL = {Horticulturae},
    VOLUME = {9},
    YEAR = {2023},
    NUMBER = {9},
    ARTICLE-NUMBER = {960},
    URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/2311-7524/9/9/960},
    ISSN = {2311-7524},
    ABSTRACT = {Mentha sp. is commonly used for essential oil (EO) extraction and incorporated in multiple products of food and pharmaceutical industries. Postharvest management is a key factor in line of production to preserve quality-determining plant ingredients. This study focused on the effects of two different postharvest processes on EO content and the composition of three different Mentha genotypes (Mentha × piperita ‘Multimentha’, Mentha × piperita ‘Fränkische Blaue’ and Mentha rotundifolia ‘Apfelminze’). They were cultivated under greenhouse conditions. One postharvest treatment consisted of drying Mentha as whole plant after harvesting and later separating leaves from stems. In the second treatment, leaves were separated from stems directly after harvesting and then dried. EO content was determined by steam distillation and composition of EO was characterized by GC/MS analysis. Key findings of the study are that the postharvest processing treatments had no significant influence on the content or composition of the EO. Only the genotype ‘Fränkische Blaue’ showed a significantly higher EO content in the dry separated treatment at the third harvest (2.9 ± 0.15 mL/100 g DM (sD)) than separated fresh (2.4 ± 0.24 mL/100 g DM (sF)). However, genotype selection and harvest time had a clear impact on EO content and composition.},
    DOI = {10.3390/horticulturae9090960}
    }

  • M. Tazifor Tchantcho, E. Zimmermann, J. A. Huisman, M. Dick, A. Mester, and S. van Waasen, "Low-Pass Filters for a Temperature Drift Correction Method for Electromagnetic Induction Systems," Sensors, vol. 23, iss. 17, 2023. doi:10.3390/s23177322
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems are used for mapping the soil’s electrical conductivity in near-surface applications. EMI measurements are commonly affected by time-varying external environmental factors, with temperature fluctuations being a big contributing factor. This makes it challenging to obtain stable and reliable data from EMI measurements. To mitigate these temperature drift effects, it is customary to perform a temperature drift calibration of the instrument in a temperature-controlled environment. This involves recording the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) values at specific temperatures to obtain a look-up table that can subsequently be used for static ECa drift correction. However, static drift correction does not account for the delayed thermal variations of the system components, which affects the accuracy of drift correction. Here, a drift correction approach is presented that accounts for delayed thermal variations of EMI system components using two low-pass filters (LPF). Scenarios with uniform and non-uniform temperature distributions in the measurement device are both considered. The approach is developed using a total of 15 measurements with a custom-made EMI device in a wide range of temperature conditions ranging from 10 °C to 50 °C. The EMI device is equipped with eight temperature sensors spread across the device that simultaneously measure the internal ambient temperature during measurements. To parameterize the proposed correction approach, a global optimization algorithm called Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA) was used for efficient estimation of the calibration parameters. Using the presented drift model to perform corrections for each individual measurement resulted in a root mean square error (RMSE) of <1 mSm−1 for all 15 measurements. This shows that the drift model can properly describe the drift of the measurement device. Performing a drift correction simultaneously for all datasets resulted in a RMSE <1.2 mSm−1, which is considerably lower than the RMSE values of up to 4.5 mSm−1 obtained when using only a single LPF to perform drift corrections. This shows that the presented drift correction method based on two LPFs is more appropriate and effective for mitigating temperature drift effects.

    @Article{s23177322,
    AUTHOR = {Tazifor Tchantcho, Martial and Zimmermann, Egon and Huisman, Johan Alexander and Dick, Markus and Mester, Achim and van Waasen, Stefan},
    TITLE = {Low-Pass Filters for a Temperature Drift Correction Method for Electromagnetic Induction Systems},
    JOURNAL = {Sensors},
    VOLUME = {23},
    YEAR = {2023},
    NUMBER = {17},
    ARTICLE-NUMBER = {7322},
    URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/23/17/7322},
    ISSN = {1424-8220},
    ABSTRACT = {Electromagnetic induction (EMI) systems are used for mapping the soil’s electrical conductivity in near-surface applications. EMI measurements are commonly affected by time-varying external environmental factors, with temperature fluctuations being a big contributing factor. This makes it challenging to obtain stable and reliable data from EMI measurements. To mitigate these temperature drift effects, it is customary to perform a temperature drift calibration of the instrument in a temperature-controlled environment. This involves recording the apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) values at specific temperatures to obtain a look-up table that can subsequently be used for static ECa drift correction. However, static drift correction does not account for the delayed thermal variations of the system components, which affects the accuracy of drift correction. Here, a drift correction approach is presented that accounts for delayed thermal variations of EMI system components using two low-pass filters (LPF). Scenarios with uniform and non-uniform temperature distributions in the measurement device are both considered. The approach is developed using a total of 15 measurements with a custom-made EMI device in a wide range of temperature conditions ranging from 10 °C to 50 °C. The EMI device is equipped with eight temperature sensors spread across the device that simultaneously measure the internal ambient temperature during measurements. To parameterize the proposed correction approach, a global optimization algorithm called Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA) was used for efficient estimation of the calibration parameters. Using the presented drift model to perform corrections for each individual measurement resulted in a root mean square error (RMSE) of <1 mSm−1 for all 15 measurements. This shows that the drift model can properly describe the drift of the measurement device. Performing a drift correction simultaneously for all datasets resulted in a RMSE <1.2 mSm−1, which is considerably lower than the RMSE values of up to 4.5 mSm−1 obtained when using only a single LPF to perform drift corrections. This shows that the presented drift correction method based on two LPFs is more appropriate and effective for mitigating temperature drift effects.},
    DOI = {10.3390/s23177322}
    }

  • J. Westheider, J. Rückin, and M. Popović, "Multi-UAV Adaptive Path Planning Using Deep Reinforcement Learning," arXiv preprint, 2023. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2303.01150
    [BibTeX]
    @article{westheider2023multi,
    title={Multi-UAV Adaptive Path Planning Using Deep Reinforcement Learning},
    author={Westheider, Jonas and R{\"u}ckin, Julius and Popovi{\'c}, Marija},
    journal={arXiv preprint},
    eprint={2303.01150},
    doi = {10.48550/arXiv.2303.01150},
    year={2023}
    }

  • A. Pandey, L. Wu, V. Murugaiyan, G. Schaaf, J. Ali, and M. Frei, "Differential effects of arsenite and arsenate on rice (Oryza sativa) plants differing in glutathione S-transferase gene expression," Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2023. doi:10.1007/s11356-023-28833-x
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Contamination of paddy soils with arsenic (As) can cause phytotoxicity in rice and increase the accumulation of arsenic in grains. The uptake and accumulation of As in rice depends on the different As species present in the soil. Plants detoxify As by conjugating and sequestering xenobiotic compounds into vacuoles using various enzymes. However, the severity of damage induced by arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), as well as the roles of glutathione S-transferase in detoxifying these As species in rice, are not fully understood. In this study, we developed plant materials overexpressing a glutathione S-transferase gene OsGSTU40 under the control of the maize UBIL promoter. Through systematic investigations of both wild-type Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L., ssp. japonica) and OsGSTU40 overexpression lines under chronic or acute stress of As, we aimed to understand the toxic effects of both As(III) and As(V) on rice plants at the vegetative growth stage. We hypothesized that (i) As(III) and As(V) have different toxic effects on rice plants and (ii) OsGSTU40 played positive roles in As toxicity tolerance. Our results showed that As(III) was more detrimental to plant growth than As(V) in terms of plant growth, biomass, and lipid peroxidation in both chronic and acute exposure. Furthermore, overexpression of OsGSTU40 led to better plant growth even though uptake of As(V), but not As(III), into shoots was enhanced in transgenic plants. In acute As(III) stress, transgenic plants exhibited a lower level of lipid peroxidation than wild-type plants. The element composition of plants was dominated by the different As stress treatments rather than by the genotype, while the As concentration was negatively correlated with phosphorus and silicon. Overall, our findings suggest that As(III) is more toxic to plants than As(V) and that glutathione S-transferase OsGSTU40 differentially affects plant reactions and tolerance to different species of arsenic.

    @article{arsenite_aresnate,
    author = {Pandey, Ambika and Wu, Lin-Bo and Murugaiyan, Varunseelan and Schaaf, Gabriel and Ali, Jauhar and Frei, Michael},
    title = {Differential effects of arsenite and arsenate on rice (Oryza sativa) plants differing in glutathione S-transferase gene expression},
    journal = {Environmental Science and Pollution Research},
    year = {2023},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-28833-x},
    doi = {10.1007/s11356-023-28833-x},
    abstract = {Contamination of paddy soils with arsenic (As) can cause phytotoxicity in rice and increase the accumulation of arsenic in grains. The uptake and accumulation of As in rice depends on the different As species present in the soil. Plants detoxify As by conjugating and sequestering xenobiotic compounds into vacuoles using various enzymes. However, the severity of damage induced by arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)), as well as the roles of glutathione S-transferase in detoxifying these As species in rice, are not fully understood. In this study, we developed plant materials overexpressing a glutathione S-transferase gene OsGSTU40 under the control of the maize UBIL promoter. Through systematic investigations of both wild-type Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L., ssp. japonica) and OsGSTU40 overexpression lines under chronic or acute stress of As, we aimed to understand the toxic effects of both As(III) and As(V) on rice plants at the vegetative growth stage. We hypothesized that (i) As(III) and As(V) have different toxic effects on rice plants and (ii) OsGSTU40 played positive roles in As toxicity tolerance. Our results showed that As(III) was more detrimental to plant growth than As(V) in terms of plant growth, biomass, and lipid peroxidation in both chronic and acute exposure. Furthermore, overexpression of OsGSTU40 led to better plant growth even though uptake of As(V), but not As(III), into shoots was enhanced in transgenic plants. In acute As(III) stress, transgenic plants exhibited a lower level of lipid peroxidation than wild-type plants. The element composition of plants was dominated by the different As stress treatments rather than by the genotype, while the As concentration was negatively correlated with phosphorus and silicon. Overall, our findings suggest that As(III) is more toxic to plants than As(V) and that glutathione S-transferase OsGSTU40 differentially affects plant reactions and tolerance to different species of arsenic.}
    }

  • T. Rajonandraina, Y. Ueda, M. Wissuwa, G. J. D. Kirk, T. Rakotoson, H. Manwaring, A. Andriamananjara, and T. Razafimbelo, "Magnesium supply alleviates iron toxicity-induced leaf bronzing in rice through exclusion and tissue-tolerance mechanisms," Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 14, 2023. doi:10.3389/fpls.2023.1213456
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    IntroductionIron (Fe) toxicity is a widespread nutritional disorder in lowland rice causing growth retardation and leaf symptoms referred to as leaf bronzing. It is partly caused by an imbalance of nutrients other than Fe and supply of these is known to mitigate the toxicity. But the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown.MethodsWe investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg) on Fe toxicity tolerance in a field study in the Central Highlands of Madagascar and in hydroponic experiments with excess Fe (300 mg Fe L-1). An RNA-seq analysis was conducted in a hydroponic experiment to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying Mg effects.Results and discussionAddition of Mg consistently decreased leaf bronzing under both field and hydroponic conditions, whereas potassium (K) addition caused minor effects. Plants treated with Mg tended to have smaller shoot Fe concentrations in the field, suggesting enhanced exclusion at the whole-plant level. However, analysis of multiple genotypes showed that Fe toxicity symptoms were also mitigated without a concomitant decrease of Fe concentration, suggesting that increased Mg supply confers tolerance at the tissue level. The hydroponic experiments also suggested that Mg mitigated leaf bronzing without significantly decreasing Fe concentration or oxidative stress as assessed by the content of malondialdehyde, a biomarker for oxidative stress. An RNA-seq analysis revealed that Mg induced more changes in leaves than roots. Subsequent cis-element analysis suggested that NAC transcription factor binding sites were enriched in genes induced by Fe toxicity in leaves. Addition of Mg caused non-significant enrichment of the same binding sites, suggesting that NAC family proteins may mediate the effect of Mg. This study provides clues for mitigating Fe toxicity-induced leaf bronzing in rice.

    @ARTICLE{10.3389/fpls.2023.1213456,
    AUTHOR={Rajonandraina, Toavintsoa and Ueda, Yoshiaki and Wissuwa, Matthias and Kirk, Guy J. D. and Rakotoson, Tovohery and Manwaring, Hanna and Andriamananjara, Andry and Razafimbelo, Tantely},
    TITLE={Magnesium supply alleviates iron toxicity-induced leaf bronzing in rice through exclusion and tissue-tolerance mechanisms},
    JOURNAL={Frontiers in Plant Science},
    VOLUME={14},
    YEAR={2023},
    URL={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2023.1213456},
    DOI={10.3389/fpls.2023.1213456},
    ISSN={1664-462X},
    ABSTRACT={IntroductionIron (Fe) toxicity is a widespread nutritional disorder in lowland rice causing growth retardation and leaf symptoms referred to as leaf bronzing. It is partly caused by an imbalance of nutrients other than Fe and supply of these is known to mitigate the toxicity. But the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved are unknown.MethodsWe investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg) on Fe toxicity tolerance in a field study in the Central Highlands of Madagascar and in hydroponic experiments with excess Fe (300 mg Fe L-1). An RNA-seq analysis was conducted in a hydroponic experiment to elucidate possible mechanisms underlying Mg effects.Results and discussionAddition of Mg consistently decreased leaf bronzing under both field and hydroponic conditions, whereas potassium (K) addition caused minor effects. Plants treated with Mg tended to have smaller shoot Fe concentrations in the field, suggesting enhanced exclusion at the whole-plant level. However, analysis of multiple genotypes showed that Fe toxicity symptoms were also mitigated without a concomitant decrease of Fe concentration, suggesting that increased Mg supply confers tolerance at the tissue level. The hydroponic experiments also suggested that Mg mitigated leaf bronzing without significantly decreasing Fe concentration or oxidative stress as assessed by the content of malondialdehyde, a biomarker for oxidative stress. An RNA-seq analysis revealed that Mg induced more changes in leaves than roots. Subsequent cis-element analysis suggested that NAC transcription factor binding sites were enriched in genes induced by Fe toxicity in leaves. Addition of Mg caused non-significant enrichment of the same binding sites, suggesting that NAC family proteins may mediate the effect of Mg. This study provides clues for mitigating Fe toxicity-induced leaf bronzing in rice.}
    }

  • D. Qiu, E. Lange, T. M. Haas, I. Prucker, S. Masuda, Y. L. Wang, G. Felix, G. Schaaf, and H. J. Jessen, "Bacterial Pathogen Infection Triggers Magic Spot Nucleotide Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana Chloroplasts through Specific RelA/SpoT Homologues," Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 145, iss. 29, pp. 16081-16089, 2023. doi:10.1021/jacs.3c04445
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{doi:10.1021/jacs.3c04445,
    author = {Qiu, Danye and Lange, Esther and Haas, Thomas M. and Prucker, Isabel and Masuda, Shinji and Wang, Yan L. and Felix, Georg and Schaaf, Gabriel and Jessen, Henning J.},
    title = {Bacterial Pathogen Infection Triggers Magic Spot Nucleotide Signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana Chloroplasts through Specific RelA/SpoT Homologues},
    journal = {Journal of the American Chemical Society},
    volume = {145},
    number = {29},
    pages = {16081-16089},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1021/jacs.3c04445},
    note ={PMID: 37437195},
    URL = {https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.3c04445},
    eprint = {https://doi.org/10.1021/jacs.3c04445}
    }

  • J. Kierdorf and R. Roscher, "Reliability Scores From Saliency Map Clusters for Improved Image-Based Harvest-Readiness Prediction in Cauliflower," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 20, pp. 1-5, 2023. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2023.3293802
    [BibTeX]
    @ARTICLE{10177737,
    author={Kierdorf, Jana and Roscher, Ribana},
    journal={IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters},
    title={Reliability Scores From Saliency Map Clusters for Improved Image-Based Harvest-Readiness Prediction in Cauliflower},
    year={2023},
    volume={20},
    number={},
    pages={1-5},
    doi={10.1109/LGRS.2023.3293802}}

  • A. Bonerath, J. Haunert, J. S. B. Mitchell, and B. Niedermann, "Shortcut Hulls: Vertex-restricted Outer Simplifications of Polygons," Computational Geometry Theory and Applications, p. 101983, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comgeo.2023.101983
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Let P be a polygon and C a set of shortcuts, where each shortcut is a directed straight-line segment connecting two vertices of P. A shortcut hull of P is another polygon that encloses P and whose oriented boundary is composed of elements from C. We require P and the output shortcut hull to be weakly simple polygons, which we define as a generalization of simple polygons. Shortcut hulls find their application in cartography, where a common task is to compute simplified representations of area features. We aim at a shortcut hull that has a small area and a small perimeter. Our optimization objective is to minimize a convex combination of these two criteria. If no holes in the shortcut hull are allowed, the problem admits a straight-forward solution via computation of shortest paths. For the more challenging case in which the shortcut hull may contain holes, we present a polynomial-time algorithm that is based on computing a constrained, weighted triangulation of the input polygon's exterior. We use this problem as a starting point for investigating further variants, e.g., restricting the number of edges or bends. We demonstrate that shortcut hulls can be used for the schematization of polygons.

    @article{BONERATH2023101983,
    abstract = {Let P be a polygon and C a set of shortcuts, where each shortcut is a directed straight-line segment connecting two vertices of P. A shortcut hull of P is another polygon that encloses P and whose oriented boundary is composed of elements from C. We require P and the output shortcut hull to be weakly simple polygons, which we define as a generalization of simple polygons. Shortcut hulls find their application in cartography, where a common task is to compute simplified representations of area features. We aim at a shortcut hull that has a small area and a small perimeter. Our optimization objective is to minimize a convex combination of these two criteria. If no holes in the shortcut hull are allowed, the problem admits a straight-forward solution via computation of shortest paths. For the more challenging case in which the shortcut hull may contain holes, we present a polynomial-time algorithm that is based on computing a constrained, weighted triangulation of the input polygon's exterior. We use this problem as a starting point for investigating further variants, e.g., restricting the number of edges or bends. We demonstrate that shortcut hulls can be used for the schematization of polygons.},
    author = {Annika Bonerath and Jan-Henrik Haunert and Joseph S.B. Mitchell and Benjamin Niedermann},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comgeo.2023.101983},
    issn = {0925-7721},
    journal = {Computational Geometry Theory and Applications},
    pages = {101983},
    title = {Shortcut Hulls: Vertex-restricted Outer Simplifications of Polygons},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925772123000032},
    year = {2023}}

  • L. Jin, X. Chen, J. Rückin, and M. Popović, "NeU-NBV: Next Best View Planning Using Uncertainty Estimation in Image-Based Neural Rendering," arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.01284, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2303.01284
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{jin2023neu,
    title={NeU-NBV: Next Best View Planning Using Uncertainty Estimation in Image-Based Neural Rendering},
    author={Jin, Liren and Chen, Xieyuanli and R{\"u}ckin, Julius and Popovi{\'c}, Marija},
    journal={arXiv preprint arXiv:2303.01284},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2303.01284},
    url={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2303.01284},
    year={2023}
    }

  • K. Gutbrod, J. Romer, and P. Dörmann, "Analysis of isoprenyl-phosphates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry," in Methods in Enzymology, Elsevier, 2023, vol. 683, p. 171–190. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2022.08.026
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    AB - Isoprenoids in plants are synthesized following the plastidial methylerythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway or the mevalonate pathway localized to the cytosol and peroxisomes. Isoprenyl-diphosphates (isoprenyl-PP) are important intermediates for the synthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoids, sterols, and other isoprenoids in plants. The quantification of isoprenyl-PP is challenging due to the amphipathic structure, the low abundance, and the susceptibility to hydrolysis during extraction and storage. Different methods for the measurement of isoprenyl-phosphates have been developed. Isoprenyl-phosphates can be measured after radioactive labeling or after derivatization. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) methods provide enhanced sensitivity, but still require the extraction from large amounts of sample material. In the protocol presented here, the monophosphates and diphosphates of farnesol, geranylgeraniol and phytol are isolated from plant material with an isopropanol-containing buffer and quantified by LC-MS using citronellyl-P and citronellyl-PP as internal standards. With a low limit of detection for phytyl-P, geranylgeranyl-P, phytyl-PP, and geranylgeranyl-PP, isoprenyl-phosphates can be accurately measured in Arabidopsis leaves or seeds starting with only 20mg of fresh weight.

    @incollection{gutbrod2023analysis,
    title={Analysis of isoprenyl-phosphates by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry},
    author={Gutbrod, Katharina and Romer, Jill and D{\"o}rmann, Peter},
    booktitle={Methods in Enzymology},
    volume={683},
    pages={171--190},
    year={2023},
    abstract={AB - Isoprenoids in plants are synthesized following the plastidial
    methylerythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway or the mevalonate pathway localized to
    the cytosol and peroxisomes. Isoprenyl-diphosphates (isoprenyl-PP) are important
    intermediates for the synthesis of chlorophyll, carotenoids, sterols, and other
    isoprenoids in plants. The quantification of isoprenyl-PP is challenging due to
    the amphipathic structure, the low abundance, and the susceptibility to
    hydrolysis during extraction and storage. Different methods for the measurement
    of isoprenyl-phosphates have been developed. Isoprenyl-phosphates can be measured
    after radioactive labeling or after derivatization. Liquid chromatography-mass
    spectrometry (LC-MS) methods provide enhanced sensitivity, but still require the
    extraction from large amounts of sample material. In the protocol presented here,
    the monophosphates and diphosphates of farnesol, geranylgeraniol and phytol are
    isolated from plant material with an isopropanol-containing buffer and quantified
    by LC-MS using citronellyl-P and citronellyl-PP as internal standards. With a low
    limit of detection for phytyl-P, geranylgeranyl-P, phytyl-PP, and
    geranylgeranyl-PP, isoprenyl-phosphates can be accurately measured in Arabidopsis
    leaves or seeds starting with only 20mg of fresh weight.},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0076687922003512},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.mie.2022.08.026},
    publisher={Elsevier}
    }

  • M. H. ur Rahman, H. E. Ahrends, A. Raza, and T. Gaiser, "Current approaches for modeling ecosystem services and biodiversity in agroforestry systems: Challenges and ways forward," Frontiers in Forests and Global Change, vol. 5, 2023. doi:10.3389/ffgc.2022.1032442
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Limited modeling studies are available for the process-based simulation of ecosystem services (ESS) and biodiversity (BD) in agroforestry systems (AFS). To date, limited field scale AFs models are available to simulate all possible ESS and BD together. We conducted an extensive systematic review of available agroforestry (AF), BD, and soil erosion models for the simulation potential of seven most desirable ESS in AFS. Simple to complex AF models have an inherent limitation of being objective-specific. A few complex and dynamic AF models did not meet the recent interest and demands for the simulation of ESS under AFS. Further, many ESS modules especially soil erosion, GHGs emission, groundwater recharge, onsite water retention, nutrients and pesticide leaching, and BD are often missing in available AF models, while some existing soil erosion models can be used in combination with AF models. Likewise mechanistic and process-based BD diversity models are lacking or found limited simulation potential for ESS under AFS. However, further efforts of model development and improvement (integration and coupling) are needed for the better simulation of complex interactive processes belonging to ESS under AFS. There are different possibilities but a proficient modeling approach for better reliability, flexibility, and durability is to integrate and couple them into a process-based dynamic modular structure. Findings of the study further suggested that crop modeling frameworks (MFW) like SIMPLACE and APSIM could be potential ones for the integration and coupling of different suitable modeling approaches (AF, soil protection, GHGs emission, flood prevention, carbon sequestration, onsite water retention, ground recharge, nutrient leaching, and BD modules) in one platform for dynamic process based ESS estimation on daily basis at the field scale.

    @ARTICLE{10.3389/ffgc.2022.1032442,
    AUTHOR={Rahman, Muhammed Habib ur and Ahrends, Hella Ellen and Raza, Ahsan and Gaiser, Thomas},
    TITLE={Current approaches for modeling ecosystem services and biodiversity in agroforestry systems: Challenges and ways forward},
    JOURNAL={Frontiers in Forests and Global Change},
    VOLUME={5},
    YEAR={2023},
    URL={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffgc.2022.1032442},
    DOI={10.3389/ffgc.2022.1032442},
    ISSN={2624-893X},
    ABSTRACT={Limited modeling studies are available for the process-based simulation of ecosystem services (ESS) and biodiversity (BD) in agroforestry systems (AFS). To date, limited field scale AFs models are available to simulate all possible ESS and BD together. We conducted an extensive systematic review of available agroforestry (AF), BD, and soil erosion models for the simulation potential of seven most desirable ESS in AFS. Simple to complex AF models have an inherent limitation of being objective-specific. A few complex and dynamic AF models did not meet the recent interest and demands for the simulation of ESS under AFS. Further, many ESS modules especially soil erosion, GHGs emission, groundwater recharge, onsite water retention, nutrients and pesticide leaching, and BD are often missing in available AF models, while some existing soil erosion models can be used in combination with AF models. Likewise mechanistic and process-based BD diversity models are lacking or found limited simulation potential for ESS under AFS. However, further efforts of model development and improvement (integration and coupling) are needed for the better simulation of complex interactive processes belonging to ESS under AFS. There are different possibilities but a proficient modeling approach for better reliability, flexibility, and durability is to integrate and couple them into a process-based dynamic modular structure. Findings of the study further suggested that crop modeling frameworks (MFW) like SIMPLACE and APSIM could be potential ones for the integration and coupling of different suitable modeling approaches (AF, soil protection, GHGs emission, flood prevention, carbon sequestration, onsite water retention, ground recharge, nutrient leaching, and BD modules) in one platform for dynamic process based ESS estimation on daily basis at the field scale.}
    }

  • K. Abdalla, T. Gaiser, S. J. Seidel, and J. Pausch, "Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in aggregates in response to over seven decades of farmyard manure application," Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, vol. 186, iss. 3, pp. 253-258, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202300062
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term fertilisation on soil aggregation and the associated changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) pools in aggregates. The combined application of mineral fertiliser and manure improved soil aggregation, SOC and N content in aggregates, compared to manure or mineral fertiliser alone, and thus proved to be a suitable fertilisation strategy to increase C sequestration in agroecosystems.

    @article{https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202300062,
    author = {Abdalla, Khatab and Gaiser, Thomas and Seidel, Sabine Julia and Pausch, Johanna},
    title = {Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in aggregates in response to over seven decades of farmyard manure application},
    journal = {Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science},
    volume = {186},
    number = {3},
    pages = {253-258},
    keywords = {aggregates stability, agroecosystem, carbon sequestration, soil respiration},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202300062},
    url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jpln.202300062},
    eprint = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jpln.202300062},
    abstract = {Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term fertilisation on soil aggregation and the associated changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) pools in aggregates. The combined application of mineral fertiliser and manure improved soil aggregation, SOC and N content in aggregates, compared to manure or mineral fertiliser alone, and thus proved to be a suitable fertilisation strategy to increase C sequestration in agroecosystems.},
    year = {2023}
    }

  • E. I. Katche and A. S. Mason, "Resynthesized Rapeseed (Brassica napus): Breeding and Genomics," Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, vol. 42, iss. 2, pp. 65-92, 2023. doi:10.1080/07352689.2023.2186021
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{doi:10.1080/07352689.2023.2186021,
    author = {Elizabeth Ihien Katche and Annaliese S. Mason},
    title = {Resynthesized Rapeseed (Brassica napus): Breeding and Genomics},
    journal = {Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences},
    volume = {42},
    number = {2},
    pages = {65-92},
    year = {2023},
    publisher = {Taylor & Francis},
    doi = {10.1080/07352689.2023.2186021},
    URL = {https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2023.2186021},
    eprint = {https://doi.org/10.1080/07352689.2023.2186021}
    }

  • M. Londres, M. Schmink, J. Börner, A. E. Duchelle, and G. P. Frey, "Multidimensional forests: Complexity of forest-based values and livelihoods across Amazonian socio-cultural and geopolitical contexts," World Development, vol. 165, p. 106200, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2023.106200
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Research on the contribution of forests to local livelihoods has so far had a strong focus on quantifying the monetary value of forest-derived products and services. In this paper, we move beyond monetary valuation and integrate the less tangible and sometimes culturally complex dimensions through which forests support local livelihoods. We look at four local contexts in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Ecuadorian Amazon, which differ markedly in terms of their biophysical, sociocultural and geopolitical settings. Combining economic and anthropological data, we used quantitative and qualitative methods, and measures of the ecological impacts of local forest uses. Quantitative analyses drew on datasets from 48 communities, and 510 households, while the qualitative analyses relied on semi-structured interviews with 78 families in 22 communities. Forest-based livelihoods exhibited complex portfolios, diversified production systems, seasonal variation of activities, and different specialization strategies. Beyond a source of subsistence and cash incomes, forests were locally valued by people across all sites in terms of identities, worldviews, territorial attachment, governance, and conservation. Populations with a longer history of interactions with the environment displayed more complex forest-related cultural systems, but even among people who had migrated into the forest in a more recent historical period, forest-based self-cultural identification was evident. At all sites, forests were unanimously recognized as critical to people’s health and wellbeing, despite substantial differences in local histories, policy and market environments. The findings underscore the persistent importance of non-economic values of forests as both Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups constantly adapt their forest and land use practices based on transcultural exchange and changing conditions. A focus on economic value as the rationale for forest conservation disregards the striking resilience of cultural values in promoting forest conservation and use by diverse local and Indigenous communities, especially when supported by favorable policies and markets.

    @article{LONDRES2023106200,
    title = {Multidimensional forests: Complexity of forest-based values and livelihoods across Amazonian socio-cultural and geopolitical contexts},
    journal = {World Development},
    volume = {165},
    pages = {106200},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0305-750X},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2023.106200},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X23000189},
    author = {Marina Londres and Marianne Schmink and Jan Börner and Amy E. Duchelle and Gabriel Ponzoni Frey},
    keywords = {Cultural values, Forest identity, Conservation behavior, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador},
    abstract = {Research on the contribution of forests to local livelihoods has so far had a strong focus on quantifying the monetary value of forest-derived products and services. In this paper, we move beyond monetary valuation and integrate the less tangible and sometimes culturally complex dimensions through which forests support local livelihoods. We look at four local contexts in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Ecuadorian Amazon, which differ markedly in terms of their biophysical, sociocultural and geopolitical settings. Combining economic and anthropological data, we used quantitative and qualitative methods, and measures of the ecological impacts of local forest uses. Quantitative analyses drew on datasets from 48 communities, and 510 households, while the qualitative analyses relied on semi-structured interviews with 78 families in 22 communities. Forest-based livelihoods exhibited complex portfolios, diversified production systems, seasonal variation of activities, and different specialization strategies. Beyond a source of subsistence and cash incomes, forests were locally valued by people across all sites in terms of identities, worldviews, territorial attachment, governance, and conservation. Populations with a longer history of interactions with the environment displayed more complex forest-related cultural systems, but even among people who had migrated into the forest in a more recent historical period, forest-based self-cultural identification was evident. At all sites, forests were unanimously recognized as critical to people’s health and wellbeing, despite substantial differences in local histories, policy and market environments. The findings underscore the persistent importance of non-economic values of forests as both Indigenous and non-Indigenous groups constantly adapt their forest and land use practices based on transcultural exchange and changing conditions. A focus on economic value as the rationale for forest conservation disregards the striking resilience of cultural values in promoting forest conservation and use by diverse local and Indigenous communities, especially when supported by favorable policies and markets.}
    }

  • D. Wallach, T. Palosuo, H. Mielenz, S. Buis, P. Thorburn, S. Asseng, B. Dumont, R. Ferrise, S. Gayler, A. Ghahramani, and others, "Uncertainty in crop phenology simulations is driven primarily by parameter variability," bioRxiv, p. 2023–02, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.02.03.526931
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{wallach2023uncertainty,
    title={Uncertainty in crop phenology simulations is driven primarily by parameter variability},
    author={Wallach, Daniel and Palosuo, Taru and Mielenz, Henrike and Buis, Samuel and Thorburn, Peter and Asseng, Senthold and Dumont, Benjamin and Ferrise, Roberto and Gayler, Sebastian and Ghahramani, Afshin and others},
    journal={bioRxiv},
    url={https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.02.03.526931v1},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.02.03.526931},
    pages={2023--02},
    year={2023},
    publisher={Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory}
    }

  • K. Alsafadi, S. Bi, H. G. Abdo, H. Almohamad, B. Alatrach, A. K. Srivastava, M. Al-Mutiry, S. K. Bal, M. Chandran, and S. Mohammed, "Modeling the impacts of projected climate change on wheat crop suitability in semi-arid regions using the AHP-based weighted climatic suitability index and CMIP6," Geoscience Letters, vol. 10, iss. 1, p. 1–21, 2023. doi:10.1186/s40562-023-00273-y
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Due to rapid population growth and the limitation of land resources, the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems has attracted more attention all over the world. Human activities will alter the components of the atmosphere and lead to climate change, which consequently affects crop production badly. In this context, wheat is considered an important crop and ranks as one of the top strategic crops globally. The main objective of this research is to develop a new approach (a weighted climatic suitability index) for evaluating the climate suitability for wheat production. The specific objectives are to project the impact of future climate change on wheat suitability using three models based on WCSI and CMIP6-based projections and to identify the most vulnerable area to climate change and productivity reduction. The climatic criteria for wheat production were selected and classified into eight indicators based on the Sys' scheme and the FAO framework, and then the weighted overlay approach was used in conjunction with the analytic hierarchy process. To confirm the reliability of the integrated WCSI, we determined the nonlinear curve fitting of integrated WCSI-induced wheat yields by the exponential growth equation. Finally, the CMIP6-GCMs projected from three shared socioeconomic pathways were used for WCSI mapping and predicting wheat yields in the short and long term (Southern Syria was selected as a case study). The results show that the nonlinear correlation between wheat yields and the integrated WCSI was 0.78 (R2 = 0.61) confirming the integrated WCSI's reliability in reflecting yield variation caused by climate suitability. The results indicated that WCSI for wheat will be lower over the study area during 2080–2100 compared to the current climate. During 2080–2100, the wheat yield is projected to decrease by 0.2–0.8 t. ha−1 in the western parts of the study area. The findings of this study could be used to plan and develop adaptation strategies for sustainable wheat production in the face of projected climate change. The results of the study will also help in the strategic planning of wheat production in Syria under the projected climate. The results of this research are limited to small areas as a case study, although they are not relevant to similar regions worldwide. However, the study employs novel analytical methods that can be used broadly.} url={https://doi.org/10.1186/s40562-023-00273-y

    @article{alsafadi2023modeling,
    title={Modeling the impacts of projected climate change on wheat crop suitability in semi-arid regions using the AHP-based weighted climatic suitability index and CMIP6},
    author={Alsafadi, Karam and Bi, Shuoben and Abdo, Hazem Ghassan and Almohamad, Hussein and Alatrach, Basma and Srivastava, Amit Kumar and Al-Mutiry, Motrih and Bal, Santanu Kumar and Chandran, MA and Mohammed, Safwan},
    journal={Geoscience Letters},
    volume={10},
    number={1},
    pages={1--21},
    url={https://geoscienceletters.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40562-023-00273-y},
    year={2023},
    abstract={Due to rapid population growth and the limitation of land resources, the sustainability of agricultural ecosystems has attracted more attention all over the world. Human activities will alter the components of the atmosphere and lead to climate change, which consequently affects crop production badly. In this context, wheat is considered an important crop and ranks as one of the top strategic crops globally. The main objective of this research is to develop a new approach (a weighted climatic suitability index) for evaluating the climate suitability for wheat production. The specific objectives are to project the impact of future climate change on wheat suitability using three models based on WCSI and CMIP6-based projections and to identify the most vulnerable area to climate change and productivity reduction. The climatic criteria for wheat production were selected and classified into eight indicators based on the Sys' scheme and the FAO framework, and then the weighted overlay approach was used in conjunction with the analytic hierarchy process. To confirm the reliability of the integrated WCSI, we determined the nonlinear curve fitting of integrated WCSI-induced wheat yields by the exponential growth equation. Finally, the CMIP6-GCMs projected from three shared socioeconomic pathways were used for WCSI mapping and predicting wheat yields in the short and long term (Southern Syria was selected as a case study). The results show that the nonlinear correlation between wheat yields and the integrated WCSI was 0.78 (R2 = 0.61) confirming the integrated WCSI's reliability in reflecting yield variation caused by climate suitability. The results indicated that WCSI for wheat will be lower over the study area during 2080–2100 compared to the current climate. During 2080–2100, the wheat yield is projected to decrease by 0.2–0.8 t. ha−1 in the western parts of the study area. The findings of this study could be used to plan and develop adaptation strategies for sustainable wheat production in the face of projected climate change. The results of the study will also help in the strategic planning of wheat production in Syria under the projected climate. The results of this research are limited to small areas as a case study, although they are not relevant to similar regions worldwide. However, the study employs novel analytical methods that can be used broadly.}
    url={https://doi.org/10.1186/s40562-023-00273-y},
    doi={10.1186/s40562-023-00273-y},
    publisher={Springer}
    }

  • D. Uhlig, A. E. Berns, B. Wu, and W. Amelung, "Mean nutrient uptake depths of cereal crops change with compost incorporation into subsoil–evidence from 87Sr/86Sr ratios," Plant and Soil, p. 1–16, 2023. doi:10.1007/s11104-023-06047-x
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    AB - Root restricting layers often hinder crops from accessing the large reservoir of bioavailable mineral nutrients situated in subsoil. This study aims to explore changes in the mean nutrient uptake depth of cereal crops when removing root restricting layers through subsoil management.

    @article{uhlig2023mean,
    title={Mean nutrient uptake depths of cereal crops change with compost incorporation into subsoil--evidence from 87Sr/86Sr ratios},
    author={Uhlig, David and Berns, Anne E and Wu, Bei and Amelung, Wulf},
    journal={Plant and Soil},
    pages={1--16},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-023-06047-x},
    doi={10.1007/s11104-023-06047-x},
    year={2023},
    abstract={AB - Root restricting layers often hinder crops from accessing the large reservoir of bioavailable mineral nutrients situated in subsoil. This study aims to explore changes in the mean nutrient uptake depth of cereal crops when removing root restricting layers through subsoil management.},
    publisher={Springer}
    }

  • P. Martre, S. Dueri, J. Guarin, F. Ewert, H. Webber, D. Calderini, G. Molero, M. Reynolds, D. Miralles, G. García, H. Brown, M. George, R. Craigie, J. Cohan, J. Deswarte, G. Slafer, F. Giunta, D. Cammarano, R. Ferrise, and A. Srivastava, "The nitrogen price of improved wheat yield under climate change," Research Square, 2023. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-2667076/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{Martrenitrogen,
    author = {Martre, Pierre and Dueri, Sibylle and Guarin, Jose and Ewert, Frank and Webber, Heidi and Calderini, Daniel and Molero, Gemma and Reynolds, Matthew and Miralles, Daniel and García, Guillermo and Brown, Hamish and George, Mike and Craigie, Rob and Cohan, Jean-Pierre and Deswarte, Jean-Charles and Slafer, Gustavo and Giunta, Francesco and Cammarano, Davide and Ferrise, Roberto and Srivastava, Amit},
    year = {2023},
    month = {03},
    pages = {},
    journal = {Research Square},
    url ={https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2667076/v1},
    title = {The nitrogen price of improved wheat yield under climate change},
    doi = {10.21203/rs.3.rs-2667076/v1}
    }

  • S. Wunder, D. Schulz, J. Montoya-Zumaeta, J. Börner, and G. Frey, "Modest forest and welfare impacts from current REDD+ initiatives," Research Square, 2023. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-2429873/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) promise to deliver performance-based, cost-effective climate change mitigation. 15 years after REDD+’s conception, we analyse the rigorous counterfactual-based ev-idence for environmental and welfare effects from national and subnational initiatives, along a REDD+ Theory of Change. Using machine-learning tools for literature review, we compare 32 quantitative studies including 26 primary forest-related and 12 socioeconomic effect sizes. Average environmental impacts were positively significant yet moderately sized, comparable to impacts from other conservation tools, and mostly impermanent over time. Socioeconomic impacts were welfare-neutral to slightly positive, especially at outcome stage (e.g. rising incomes). Moderator analysis shows that REDD+ environmental additionality was likely restricted by project proponents’ ‘high-and-far’ spatial targeting of low-threat areas (adverse selection bias). Disappointingly scarce funding flows from carbon markets and ill-enforced condi-tionality probably also limited impacts. Hence, important policy and implementation lessons emerge for boosting effec-tiveness in the current global transition towards larger-scale, jurisdictional REDD+ action.

    @article{PPR:PPR616556,
    Title = {Modest forest and welfare impacts from current REDD+ initiatives},
    Author = {Wunder, Sven and Schulz, Dario and Montoya-Zumaeta, Javier and Börner, Jan and Frey, Gabriel},
    DOI = {10.21203/rs.3.rs-2429873/v1},
    Abstract = {Reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) promise to deliver performance-based, cost-effective climate change mitigation. 15 years after REDD+’s conception, we analyse the rigorous counterfactual-based ev-idence for environmental and welfare effects from national and subnational initiatives, along a REDD+ Theory of Change. Using machine-learning tools for literature review, we compare 32 quantitative studies including 26 primary forest-related and 12 socioeconomic effect sizes. Average environmental impacts were positively significant yet moderately sized, comparable to impacts from other conservation tools, and mostly impermanent over time. Socioeconomic impacts were welfare-neutral to slightly positive, especially at outcome stage (e.g. rising incomes). Moderator analysis shows that REDD+ environmental additionality was likely restricted by project proponents’ ‘high-and-far’ spatial targeting of low-threat areas (adverse selection bias). Disappointingly scarce funding flows from carbon markets and ill-enforced condi-tionality probably also limited impacts. Hence, important policy and implementation lessons emerge for boosting effec-tiveness in the current global transition towards larger-scale, jurisdictional REDD+ action.},
    journal = {Research Square},
    Year = {2023},
    URL = {https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-2429873/v1},
    }

  • L. E. Skadell, F. Schneider, M. I. Gocke, J. Guigue, W. Amelung, S. L. Bauke, E. U. Hobley, D. Barkusky, B. Honermeier, I. Kögel-Knabner, U. Schmidhalter, K. Schweitzer, S. J. Seidel, S. Siebert, M. Sommer, Y. Vaziritabar, and A. Don, "Twenty percent of agricultural management effects on organic carbon stocks occur in subsoils – Results of ten long-term experiments," Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 356, p. 108619, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2023.108619
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Agricultural management can influence soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and thus may contribute to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. The soil depth to which agricultural management practices affect SOC is uncertain. Soil depth may have an important bearing on soil carbon dynamics, so it is important to consider depth effects to capture fully changes in SOC stocks. This applies in particular to the evaluation of carbon farming measures, which are becoming increasingly important due to climate change. We sampled and analysed the upper metre of mineral cropland soils from ten long-term experiments (LTEs) in Germany to quantify depth-specific effects on SOC stocks of common agricultural management practices: mineral nitrogen (N) fertilisation, a combination of N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilisation, irrigation, a crop rotation with preceding crops (pre-crops), straw incorporation, application of farmyard manure (FYM), liming, and reduced tillage. In addition, the effects of soil compaction on SOC stocks were examined as a negative side effect of agricultural management. Results showed that 19 ± 3 % of total management effects on SOC stocks were found in the upper subsoil (30–50 cm) and 3 ± 4 % in the lower subsoil (50–100 cm), including all agricultural management practices with significant topsoil SOC effects, while 79 ± 7 % of management effects were in the topsoil (0–30 cm). Nitrogen and NPK fertilisation were the treatments that had the greatest effect on subsoil organic carbon (OC) stocks, followed by irrigation, FYM application and straw incorporation. Sampling down to a depth of 50 cm resulted in significantly higher SOC effects than when considering topsoil only. A crop rotation with pre-crops, liming, reduced tillage and soil compaction did not significantly affect SOC stocks at any depth increment. Since approximately 20 % of the impact of agricultural management on SOC stocks occurs in the subsoil, we recommend soil monitoring programs and carbon farming schemes extend their standard soil sampling down to 50 cm depth to capture fully agricultural management effects on SOC.

    @article{SKADELL2023108619,
    title = {Twenty percent of agricultural management effects on organic carbon stocks occur in subsoils – Results of ten long-term experiments},
    journal = {Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment},
    volume = {356},
    pages = {108619},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0167-8809},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2023.108619},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167880923002785},
    author = {Laura E. Skadell and Florian Schneider and Martina I. Gocke and Julien Guigue and Wulf Amelung and Sara L. Bauke and Eleanor U. Hobley and Dietmar Barkusky and Bernd Honermeier and Ingrid Kögel-Knabner and Urs Schmidhalter and Kathlin Schweitzer and Sabine J. Seidel and Stefan Siebert and Michael Sommer and Yavar Vaziritabar and Axel Don},
    keywords = {Carbon farming, Carbon sequestration, Croplands, Long-term experiments, Soil carbon, Soil depth},
    abstract = {Agricultural management can influence soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and thus may contribute to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. The soil depth to which agricultural management practices affect SOC is uncertain. Soil depth may have an important bearing on soil carbon dynamics, so it is important to consider depth effects to capture fully changes in SOC stocks. This applies in particular to the evaluation of carbon farming measures, which are becoming increasingly important due to climate change. We sampled and analysed the upper metre of mineral cropland soils from ten long-term experiments (LTEs) in Germany to quantify depth-specific effects on SOC stocks of common agricultural management practices: mineral nitrogen (N) fertilisation, a combination of N, phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) fertilisation, irrigation, a crop rotation with preceding crops (pre-crops), straw incorporation, application of farmyard manure (FYM), liming, and reduced tillage. In addition, the effects of soil compaction on SOC stocks were examined as a negative side effect of agricultural management. Results showed that 19 ± 3 % of total management effects on SOC stocks were found in the upper subsoil (30–50 cm) and 3 ± 4 % in the lower subsoil (50–100 cm), including all agricultural management practices with significant topsoil SOC effects, while 79 ± 7 % of management effects were in the topsoil (0–30 cm). Nitrogen and NPK fertilisation were the treatments that had the greatest effect on subsoil organic carbon (OC) stocks, followed by irrigation, FYM application and straw incorporation. Sampling down to a depth of 50 cm resulted in significantly higher SOC effects than when considering topsoil only. A crop rotation with pre-crops, liming, reduced tillage and soil compaction did not significantly affect SOC stocks at any depth increment. Since approximately 20 % of the impact of agricultural management on SOC stocks occurs in the subsoil, we recommend soil monitoring programs and carbon farming schemes extend their standard soil sampling down to 50 cm depth to capture fully agricultural management effects on SOC.}
    }

  • R. S. de Nóia Júnior, J. Deswarte, J. Cohan, P. Martre, M. van Der Velde, R. Lecerf, H. Webber, F. Ewert, A. C. Ruane, G. A. Slafer, and others, "The extreme 2016 wheat yield failure in France," Global Change Biology, vol. 29, iss. 11, p. 3130–3146, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16662
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{noia2023extreme,
    title={The extreme 2016 wheat yield failure in France},
    author={N{\'o}ia J{\'u}nior, Rog{\'e}rio de S and Deswarte, Jean-Charles and Cohan, Jean-Pierre and Martre, Pierre and van Der Velde, Marijn and Lecerf, Remi and Webber, Heidi and Ewert, Frank and Ruane, Alex C and Slafer, Gustavo A and others},
    journal={Global Change Biology},
    volume={29},
    number={11},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16662},
    url={https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/gcb.16662},
    pages={3130--3146},
    year={2023},
    publisher={Wiley Online Library}
    }

  • A. K. Srivastava, F. Ewert, A. S. Akinwumiju, W. Zeng, A. Ceglar, K. S. Ezui, A. Adelodun, A. Adebayo, J. Sobamowo, M. Singh, and others, "Cassava yield gap—A model-based assessment in Nigeria," Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, vol. 6, p. 1058775, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2022.1058775
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{srivastava2023cassava,
    title={Cassava yield gap—A model-based assessment in Nigeria},
    author={Srivastava, Amit Kumar and Ewert, Frank and Akinwumiju, Akinola Shola and Zeng, Wenzhi and Ceglar, Andrej and Ezui, Kodjovi Senam and Adelodun, Adedeji and Adebayo, Abass and Sobamowo, Jumoke and Singh, Manmeet and others},
    journal={Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems},
    volume={6},
    pages={1058775},
    year={2023},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2022.1058775},
    url={https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2022.1058775},
    publisher={Frontiers}
    }

  • D. Burger, S. Bauke, W. Amelung, and M. Sommer, "Fast agricultural topsoil re-formation after complete topsoil loss–Evidence from a unique historical field experiment," Geoderma, vol. 434, p. 116492, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2023.116492
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{burger2023fast,
    title={Fast agricultural topsoil re-formation after complete topsoil loss--Evidence from a unique historical field experiment},
    author={Burger, DJ and Bauke, SL and Amelung, W and Sommer, M},
    journal={Geoderma},
    volume={434},
    pages={116492},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2023.116492},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2023.116492},
    year={2023},
    publisher={Elsevier}
    }

  • J. Gao, W. Zeng, Z. Ren, C. Ao, G. Lei, T. Gaiser, and A. K. Srivastava, "A Fertilization Decision Model for Maize, Rice, and Soybean Based on Machine Learning and Swarm Intelligent Search Algorithms," Agronomy, vol. 13, iss. 5, p. 1400, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051400
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{gao2023fertilization,
    title={A Fertilization Decision Model for Maize, Rice, and Soybean Based on Machine Learning and Swarm Intelligent Search Algorithms},
    author={Gao, Jian and Zeng, Wenzhi and Ren, Zhipeng and Ao, Chang and Lei, Guoqing and Gaiser, Thomas and Srivastava, Amit Kumar},
    journal={Agronomy},
    volume={13},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051400},
    url={https://doi.org/10.3390/agronomy13051400},
    number={5},
    pages={1400},
    year={2023},
    publisher={MDPI}
    }

  • S. Sanow, W. Kuang, G. Schaaf, P. Huesgen, U. Schurr, U. Roessner, M. Watt, and B. Arsova, "Molecular mechanisms of Pseudomonas assisted plant nitrogen uptake-opportunities for modern agriculture," Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 2023. doi:10.1094/MPMI-10-22-0223-CR
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{sanow2023molecular,
    title={Molecular mechanisms of Pseudomonas assisted plant nitrogen uptake-opportunities for modern agriculture},
    author={Sanow, Stefan and Kuang, Weiqi and Schaaf, Gabriel and Huesgen, Pitter and Schurr, Ulrich and Roessner, Ute and Watt, Michelle and Arsova, Borjana},
    journal={Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions},
    year={2023},
    doi={10.1094/MPMI-10-22-0223-CR },
    url={https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36989040/},
    publisher={Am Phytopath Society}
    }

  • V. Sentek, A. Velescu, W. Wilcke, C. Henke, N. Peters, G. Welp, and W. Amelung, "Nitrogen release from different polymer-coated urea fertilizers in soil is affected by soil properties," Soil Use and Management, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12905
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{sentek2023nitrogen,
    title={Nitrogen release from different polymer-coated urea fertilizers in soil is affected by soil properties},
    author={Sentek, Valerie and Velescu, Andre and Wilcke, Wolfgang and Henke, Catarina and Peters, Nils and Welp, Gerd and Amelung, Wulf},
    journal={Soil Use and Management},
    year={2023},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12905},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1111/sum.12905},
    publisher={Wiley Online Library}
    }

  • A. Schnepf, C. K. Black, V. Couvreur, B. M. Delory, C. Doussan, A. Heymans, M. Javaux, D. Khare, A. Koch, T. Koch, and others, "Collaborative benchmarking of functional-structural root architecture models: Quantitative comparison of simulated root water uptake," in silico Plants, p. diad005, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/insilicoplants/diad005
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{schnepf2023collaborative,
    title={Collaborative benchmarking of functional-structural root architecture models: Quantitative comparison of simulated root water uptake},
    author={Schnepf, Andrea and Black, Christopher K and Couvreur, Valentin and Delory, Benjamin M and Doussan, Claude and Heymans, Adrien and Javaux, Mathieu and Khare, Deepanshu and Koch, Axelle and Koch, Timo and others},
    journal={in silico Plants},
    pages={diad005},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1093/insilicoplants/diad005},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1093/insilicoplants/diad005},
    year={2023},
    publisher={Oxford University Press UK}
    }

  • R. A. Sikora, J. Helder, L. P. Molendijk, J. Desaeger, S. Eves-van den Akker, and A. Mahlein, "Integrated Nematode Management in a World in Transition: Constraints, Policy, Processes, and Technologies for the Future," Annual Review of Phytopathology, vol. 61, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-021622-113058
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{sikora2023integrated,
    title={Integrated Nematode Management in a World in Transition: Constraints, Policy, Processes, and Technologies for the Future},
    author={Sikora, Richard A and Helder, Johannes and Molendijk, Leendert PG and Desaeger, Johan and Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    journal={Annual Review of Phytopathology},
    volume={61},
    year={2023},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-021622-113058},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-phyto-021622-113058},
    publisher={Annual Reviews}
    }

  • R. A. Rosu and S. Behnke, "Permutosdf: Fast multi-view reconstruction with implicit surfaces using permutohedral lattices," in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition , 2023, p. 8466–8475. doi:https://doi.org/10.15607/rss.2020.xvi.006
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{rosu2023permutosdf,
    title={Permutosdf: Fast multi-view reconstruction with implicit surfaces using permutohedral lattices},
    author={Rosu, Radu Alexandru and Behnke, Sven},
    booktitle={Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition},
    pages={8466--8475},
    url={https://arxiv.org/abs/2211.12562},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.15607/rss.2020.xvi.006 },
    code={https://github.com/RaduAlexandru/permuto_sdf},
    year={2023}
    }

  • B. Jost, D. Coopmann, C. Holst, and H. Kuhlmann, "Real movement or systematic errors? – TLS-based deformation analysis of a concrete wall," Journal of Applied Geodesy, vol. 17, iss. 2, p. 139–149, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2022-0041
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{jost2023real,
    title={Real movement or systematic errors? -- TLS-based deformation analysis of a concrete wall},
    author={Jost, Berit and Coopmann, Daniel and Holst, Christoph and Kuhlmann, Heiner},
    journal={Journal of Applied Geodesy},
    volume={17},
    number={2},
    pages={139--149},
    year={2023},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2022-0041},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2022-0041},
    year={2023},
    publisher={De Gruyter}
    }

  • J. Kierdorf and R. Roscher, "Reliability Scores from Saliency Map Clusters for Improved Image-based Harvest-Readiness Prediction in Cauliflower," arXiv, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2305.15149
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{kierdorf2023reliability,
    title={Reliability Scores from Saliency Map Clusters for Improved Image-based Harvest-Readiness Prediction in Cauliflower},
    author={Jana Kierdorf and Ribana Roscher},
    year={2023},
    url={https://arxiv.org/abs/2305.15149},
    journal={arXiv},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2305.15149},
    eprint={2305.15149},
    archivePrefix={arXiv},
    primaryClass={cs.CV}
    }

  • R. Rahim, O. E. Jahromi, W. Amelung, and E. Kroener, "Rhizosheath formation in soil depends on mucilage concentration and water content," Preprint, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-2913771/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{rahim2023rhizosheath,
    title={Rhizosheath formation in soil depends on mucilage concentration and water content},
    author={Rahim, Riffat and Jahromi, Omid Esmaeelipoor and Amelung, Wulf and Kroener, Eva},
    journal={Preprint},
    url={https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-2913771/v1/e9297649-5211-4108-8fd9-0bbad88e476b.pdf?c=1686063362},
    doi={ https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-2913771/v1},
    year={2023}
    }

  • G. M. de Oliveira, J. Sellare, and J. Börner, "Mind your language: Political discourse affects deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon," ZEF–Discussion Papers on Development Policy, iss. 326, p. 34, 2023. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4380343
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{oliveira2023mind,
    title={Mind your language: Political discourse affects deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon},
    author={Oliveira, Gustavo Magalh{\~a}es de and Sellare, Jorge and B{\"o}rner, Jan},
    journal={ZEF--Discussion Papers on Development Policy},
    number={326},
    url={https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=4380343},
    doi={http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4380343},
    pages={34},
    year={2023}
    }

  • J. Weyler, T. Läbe, F. Magistri, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Towards Domain Generalization in Crop and Weed Segmentation for Precision Farming Robots," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, iss. 6, pp. 3310-3317, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2023.3262417
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @ARTICLE{10083238,
    author={Weyler, Jan and Läbe, Thomas and Magistri, Federico and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={Towards Domain Generalization in Crop and Weed Segmentation for Precision Farming Robots},
    year={2023},
    volume={8},
    number={6},
    url={https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Cyrill_Stachniss/publication/369589307_Towards_Domain_Generalization_in_Crop_and_Weed_Segmentation_for_Precision_Farming_Robots/links/64467f368ac1946c7a49ea37/Towards-Domain-Generalization-in-Crop-and-Weed-Segmentation-for-Precision-Farming-Robots.pdf},
    pages={3310-3317},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2023.3262417}}

  • E. Marks, M. Sodano, F. Magistri, L. Wiesmann, D. Desai, R. Marcuzzi, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "High Precision Leaf Instance Segmentation for Phenotyping in Point Clouds Obtained Under Real Field Conditions," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, pp. 1-8, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2023.3288383
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @ARTICLE{10158793,
    author={Marks, Elias and Sodano, Matteo and Magistri, Federico and Wiesmann, Louis and Desai, Dhagash and Marcuzzi, Rodrigo and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={High Precision Leaf Instance Segmentation for Phenotyping in Point Clouds Obtained Under Real Field Conditions},
    year={2023},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={1-8},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/10158793},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2023.3288383}}

  • J. Weyler, F. Magistri, E. Marks, Y. L. Chong, M. Sodano, G. Roggiolani, N. Chebrolu, C. Stachniss, and J. Behley, "PhenoBench –- A Large Dataset and Benchmarks for Semantic Image Interpretation in the Agricultural Domain," arXiv preprint, vol. arXiv:2306.04557, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2306.04557
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{weyler2023arxiv,
    author = {Jan Weyler and Federico Magistri and Elias Marks and Yue Linn Chong and Matteo Sodano
    and Gianmarco Roggiolani and Nived Chebrolu and Cyrill Stachniss and Jens Behley},
    title = {{PhenoBench --- A Large Dataset and Benchmarks for Semantic Image Interpretation
    in the Agricultural Domain}},
    journal = {arXiv preprint},
    volume = {arXiv:2306.04557},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2306.04557},
    url={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2306.04557},
    year = {2023}
    }

  • T. Daum, F. Baudron, R. Birner, M. Qaim, and I. Grass, "Addressing agricultural labour issues is key to biodiversity-smart farming," Biological Conservation, vol. 284, p. 110165, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110165
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    There is an urgent need for agricultural development strategies that reconcile agricultural production and biodiversity conservation. This is especially true in the Global South where population growth is rapid and much of the world's remaining biodiversity is located. Combining conceptual thoughts with empirical insights from case studies in Indonesia and Ethiopia, we argue that such strategies will have to pay more attention to agricultural labour dynamics. Farmers have a strong motivation to reduce the heavy toil associated with farming by adopting technologies that save labour but can negatively affect biodiversity. Labour constraints can also prevent farmers from adopting technologies that improve biodiversity but increase labour intensity. Without explicitly accounting for labour issues, conservation efforts can hardly be successful. We hence highlight the need for biodiversity-smart agriculture, that is farming practices or systems that reconcile biodiversity with land and labour productivity. Our empirical insights suggest that technological and institutional options to reconcile farmers' socio-economic goals and biodiversity conservation exist but that more needs to be done to implement such options at scale.

    @article{DAUM2023110165,
    title = {Addressing agricultural labour issues is key to biodiversity-smart farming},
    journal = {Biological Conservation},
    volume = {284},
    pages = {110165},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0006-3207},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2023.110165},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320723002665},
    author = {Thomas Daum and Frédéric Baudron and Regina Birner and Matin Qaim and Ingo Grass},
    keywords = {Biodiversity conservation, Agricultural development, Sustainability, Land-sharing, Trade-offs, Labour, Africa, Indonesia},
    abstract = {There is an urgent need for agricultural development strategies that reconcile agricultural production and biodiversity conservation. This is especially true in the Global South where population growth is rapid and much of the world's remaining biodiversity is located. Combining conceptual thoughts with empirical insights from case studies in Indonesia and Ethiopia, we argue that such strategies will have to pay more attention to agricultural labour dynamics. Farmers have a strong motivation to reduce the heavy toil associated with farming by adopting technologies that save labour but can negatively affect biodiversity. Labour constraints can also prevent farmers from adopting technologies that improve biodiversity but increase labour intensity. Without explicitly accounting for labour issues, conservation efforts can hardly be successful. We hence highlight the need for biodiversity-smart agriculture, that is farming practices or systems that reconcile biodiversity with land and labour productivity. Our empirical insights suggest that technological and institutional options to reconcile farmers' socio-economic goals and biodiversity conservation exist but that more needs to be done to implement such options at scale.}
    }

  • Y. L. Chong, J. Weyler, P. Lottes, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Unsupervised Generation of Labeled Training Images for Crop-Weed Segmentation in New Fields and on Different Robotic Platforms," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), 2023.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{chong2023ral,
    author = {Y.L. Chong and J. Weyler and P. Lottes and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Unsupervised Generation of Labeled Training Images for Crop-Weed
    Segmentation in New Fields and on Different Robotic Platforms}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)},
    volume = {},
    number = {},
    pages = {},
    year = 2023,
    issn = {},
    doi = {},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/chong2023ral.pdf},
    note = {accepted}
    }

  • L. Lobefaro, M. V. R. Malladi, O. Vysotska, T. Guadagnino, and C. Stachniss, "Estimating 4D Data Associations Towards Spatial-Temporal Mapping of Growing Plants for Agricultural Robots," in Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2023.
    [BibTeX]
    @inproceedings{lobefaro2023iros,
    author = {L. Lobefaro and M.V.R. Malladi and O. Vysotska and T. Guadagnino and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Estimating 4D Data Associations Towards Spatial-Temporal Mapping of Growing Plants for Agricultural Robots}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2023},
    note = {accepted}
    }

  • Y. Pan, F. Magistri, T. Läbe, E. Marks, C. Smitt, C. S. McCool, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Panoptic Mapping with Fruit Completion and Pose Estimation for Horticultural Robots," in Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2303.08923
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{pan2023iros,
    author = {Y. Pan and F. Magistri and T. L\"abe and E. Marks and C. Smitt and C.S. McCool and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Panoptic Mapping with Fruit Completion and Pose Estimation for Horticultural Robots}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE/RSJ Intl. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2023},
    url={https://arxiv.org/abs/2303.08923},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2303.08923},
    note = {accepted}
    }

  • A. Enders, M. Vianna, T. Gaiser, G. Krauss, H. Webber, A. K. Srivastava, S. J. Seidel, A. Tewes, E. E. Rezaei, and F. Ewert, "SIMPLACE - A versatile modelling and simulation framework for sustainable crops and agroecosystems," in silico Plants, 2023. doi:10.1093/insilicoplants/diad006
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {Agricultural system analysis has considerably evolved over the last years, allowing scientists to quantify complex interactions in crops and agroecosystems. Computer-based models have become a central tool for such analysis, using formulated mathematical representations (algorithms) of different biophysical processes to simulate complex system behaviour. Nevertheless, the current large variety of algorithms in combination with non-standardization in their use limits rapid and rigorous model improvement and testing. This is particularly important because contextualization is a key aspect used to formulate the appropriate model structure for a specific research question, framing a clear demand for “next generation” models being modular and flexible. This paper aims to describe the Scientific Impact assessment and Modelling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management (SIMPLACE), which has been developed over the last decade to address the various aforementioned issues and support appropriate model formulations and interoperability. We describe its main technical implementation and features to develop customized model solutions that can be applied to a number of cropping systems with high flexibility, performance and transparency. A brief review of exemplary applications of SIMPLACE is provided covering the different topics, crops and cropping systems, spatial scales, and geographies. We stress that standardized documentation of modules, variables ontology, and data archives are key requirements to maintain and assist model development, and reproducibility. The increasing demand for more complex diversified and integrated production systems (e.g., intercropping, livestock-grazing, agroforestry) and the associated impacts on sustainable food systems also require the strong collaboration of a multidisciplinary community of modellers and stakeholders.}

    @article{10.1093/insilicoplants/diad006,
    author = {Enders, Andreas and Vianna, Murilo and Gaiser, Thomas and Krauss, Gunther and Webber, Heidi and Srivastava, Amit Kumar and Seidel, Sabine Julia and Tewes, Andreas and Rezaei, Ehsan Eyshi and Ewert, Frank},
    title = "{SIMPLACE - A versatile modelling and simulation framework for sustainable crops and agroecosystems}",
    journal = {in silico Plants},
    year = {2023},
    month = {05},
    abstract = "{Agricultural system analysis has considerably evolved over the last years, allowing scientists to quantify complex interactions in crops and agroecosystems. Computer-based models have become a central tool for such analysis, using formulated mathematical representations (algorithms) of different biophysical processes to simulate complex system behaviour. Nevertheless, the current large variety of algorithms in combination with non-standardization in their use limits rapid and rigorous model improvement and testing. This is particularly important because contextualization is a key aspect used to formulate the appropriate model structure for a specific research question, framing a clear demand for “next generation” models being modular and flexible. This paper aims to describe the Scientific Impact assessment and Modelling PLatform for Advanced Crop and Ecosystem management (SIMPLACE), which has been developed over the last decade to address the various aforementioned issues and support appropriate model formulations and interoperability. We describe its main technical implementation and features to develop customized model solutions that can be applied to a number of cropping systems with high flexibility, performance and transparency. A brief review of exemplary applications of SIMPLACE is provided covering the different topics, crops and cropping systems, spatial scales, and geographies. We stress that standardized documentation of modules, variables ontology, and data archives are key requirements to maintain and assist model development, and reproducibility. The increasing demand for more complex diversified and integrated production systems (e.g., intercropping, livestock-grazing, agroforestry) and the associated impacts on sustainable food systems also require the strong collaboration of a multidisciplinary community of modellers and stakeholders.}",
    issn = {2517-5025},
    doi = {10.1093/insilicoplants/diad006},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/insilicoplants/diad006},
    note = {diad006},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/insilicoplants/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/insilicoplants/diad006/50424261/diad006.pdf},
    }

  • K. Abdalla, T. Gaiser, S. J. Seidel, and J. Pausch, "Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in aggregates in response to over seven decades of farmyard manure application," Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, vol. 186, iss. 3, pp. 253-258, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202300062
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term fertilisation on soil aggregation and the associated changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) pools in aggregates. The combined application of mineral fertiliser and manure improved soil aggregation, SOC and N content in aggregates, compared to manure or mineral fertiliser alone, and thus proved to be a suitable fertilisation strategy to increase C sequestration in agroecosystems.

    @article{https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202300062,
    author = {Abdalla, Khatab and Gaiser, Thomas and Seidel, Sabine Julia and Pausch, Johanna},
    title = {Soil organic carbon and nitrogen in aggregates in response to over seven decades of farmyard manure application},
    journal = {Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science},
    volume = {186},
    number = {3},
    pages = {253-258},
    keywords = {aggregates stability, agroecosystem, carbon sequestration, soil respiration},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202300062},
    url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jpln.202300062},
    eprint = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jpln.202300062},
    abstract = {Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the effects of long-term fertilisation on soil aggregation and the associated changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and nitrogen (N) pools in aggregates. The combined application of mineral fertiliser and manure improved soil aggregation, SOC and N content in aggregates, compared to manure or mineral fertiliser alone, and thus proved to be a suitable fertilisation strategy to increase C sequestration in agroecosystems.},
    year = {2023}
    }

  • L. Shang, J. Wang, D. Schäfer, T. Heckelei, J. Gall, F. Appel, and H. Storm, "Surrogate modelling of a detailed farm-level model using deep learning," Journal of Agricultural Economics, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12543
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract Technological change co-determines agri-environmental performance and farm structural transformation. Meaningful impact assessment of related policies can be derived from farm-level models that are rich in technology details and environmental indicators, integrated with agent-based models capturing dynamic farm interaction. However, such integration faces considerable challenges affecting model development, debugging and computational demands in application. Surrogate modelling using deep learning techniques can facilitate such integration for simulations with broad regional coverage. We develop surrogates of the farm model FarmDyn using different architectures of neural networks. Our specifically designed evaluation metrics allow practitioners to assess trade-offs among model fit, inference time and data requirements. All tested neural networks achieve a high fit but differ substantially in inference time. The Multilayer Perceptron shows almost top performance in all criteria but saves strongly on inference time compared to a Bi-directional Long Short Term Memory.

    @article{https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12543,
    author = {Shang, Linmei and Wang, Jifeng and Schäfer, David and Heckelei, Thomas and Gall, Juergen and Appel, Franziska and Storm, Hugo},
    title = {Surrogate modelling of a detailed farm-level model using deep learning},
    journal = {Journal of Agricultural Economics},
    year = {2023},
    keywords = {agent-based model, deep learning, farm modelling, neural networks, surrogate model, upscaling},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/1477-9552.12543},
    url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1477-9552.12543},
    eprint = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/1477-9552.12543},
    abstract = {Abstract Technological change co-determines agri-environmental performance and farm structural transformation. Meaningful impact assessment of related policies can be derived from farm-level models that are rich in technology details and environmental indicators, integrated with agent-based models capturing dynamic farm interaction. However, such integration faces considerable challenges affecting model development, debugging and computational demands in application. Surrogate modelling using deep learning techniques can facilitate such integration for simulations with broad regional coverage. We develop surrogates of the farm model FarmDyn using different architectures of neural networks. Our specifically designed evaluation metrics allow practitioners to assess trade-offs among model fit, inference time and data requirements. All tested neural networks achieve a high fit but differ substantially in inference time. The Multilayer Perceptron shows almost top performance in all criteria but saves strongly on inference time compared to a Bi-directional Long Short Term Memory.}
    }

  • M. K. Gerullis and W. Schulz, "Robustness of plant breeding systems under automated phenotyping," Smart Agricultural Technology, vol. 5, p. 100225, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atech.2023.100225
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Automated phenotyping is hailed to transform modern agricultural systems and relieve many sustainability challenges, like maintaining food security, halting biodiversity loss, and adapting to climate change. Yet, these issues can be traced from farming back to plant breeding and highly depend on the crop genetic diversity in use. Engineering and plant science usually take a look at automated phenotyping from a technical perspective and value its merits for research in plant breeding. In contrast, we lay out a more holistic view and ask what the social-ecological-technical repercussions to the robustness of on-site crop genetic diversity are from laboratory to breeding nursery where varieties for farming are being produced. We argue that automated phenotyping has a twofold impact on systemic robustness. On the one hand, it improves adaptive capacity by accelerating the breeding process. On the other hand, it's implementation can destabilize the system and have unforeseen negative impacts on on-site crop genetic diversity. Therefore, we call for explicit monitoring of the possible side effects by the system's governance.

    @article{GERULLIS2023100225,
    title = {Robustness of plant breeding systems under automated phenotyping},
    journal = {Smart Agricultural Technology},
    volume = {5},
    pages = {100225},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {2772-3755},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atech.2023.100225},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2772375523000552},
    author = {Maria Katharina Gerullis and Wiebke Schulz},
    keywords = {Automated phenotyping, Infrastructures, Technology adoption, Coupled infrastructure framework, Crop genetic diversity},
    abstract = {Automated phenotyping is hailed to transform modern agricultural systems and relieve many sustainability challenges, like maintaining food security, halting biodiversity loss, and adapting to climate change. Yet, these issues can be traced from farming back to plant breeding and highly depend on the crop genetic diversity in use. Engineering and plant science usually take a look at automated phenotyping from a technical perspective and value its merits for research in plant breeding. In contrast, we lay out a more holistic view and ask what the social-ecological-technical repercussions to the robustness of on-site crop genetic diversity are from laboratory to breeding nursery where varieties for farming are being produced. We argue that automated phenotyping has a twofold impact on systemic robustness. On the one hand, it improves adaptive capacity by accelerating the breeding process. On the other hand, it's implementation can destabilize the system and have unforeseen negative impacts on on-site crop genetic diversity. Therefore, we call for explicit monitoring of the possible side effects by the system's governance.}
    }

  • L. Shang, C. Pahmeyer, T. Heckelei, S. Rasch, and H. Storm, "How much can farmers pay for weeding robots? A Monte Carlo simulation study," Precision Agriculture, p. 1–26, 2023. doi:10.1007/s11119-023-10015-x
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    This paper investigates the Maximum Acquisition Values (MAVs) of weeding robots and their determinants in both organic and conventional sugar beet farming in Germany. The MAV is defined in this paper as the price of the weeding robot that renders the same net profit as the current weeding methods. For our analysis, a Monte Carlo simulation approach is used, combined with empirical data and data collected from weeding robot companies. The results show that the MAVs of mechanical weeding robots for organic farming are substantially higher than that of spot spraying robots for conventional farming. Technology attributes are more influential than labour cost in determining the MAVs of weeding robots: in organic farming, technology attributes such as area capacity and weeding efficiency impact the MAVs of mechanical weeding robots the most; in conventional farming, supervision intensity and the robot’s ability to save herbicides are the most influential factors. The wage rate of unskilled labour, relevant for manual weeding, plays a more important role in determining the MAVs than that of skilled labour, relevant for supervision of the robot. This implies that a shortage of seasonal workers and hence increases in the wage of low-skilled labour could be important drivers of the adoption of mechanical weeding robots. Plot characteristics such as plot size and mechanisation level only have limited impacts on the MAVs.

    @article{shangprecision,
    author={Shang, Linmei and Pahmeyer, Christoph and Heckelei, Thomas and Rasch, Sebastian and Storm, Hugo},
    year={2023},
    pages={1--26},
    title={How much can farmers pay for weeding robots? A Monte Carlo simulation study},
    journal={Precision Agriculture},
    abstract={This paper investigates the Maximum Acquisition Values (MAVs) of weeding robots and their determinants in both organic and conventional sugar beet farming in Germany. The MAV is defined in this paper as the price of the weeding robot that renders the same net profit as the current weeding methods. For our analysis, a Monte Carlo simulation approach is used, combined with empirical data and data collected from weeding robot companies. The results show that the MAVs of mechanical weeding robots for organic farming are substantially higher than that of spot spraying robots for conventional farming. Technology attributes are more influential than labour cost in determining the MAVs of weeding robots: in organic farming, technology attributes such as area capacity and weeding efficiency impact the MAVs of mechanical weeding robots the most; in conventional farming, supervision intensity and the robot’s ability to save herbicides are the most influential factors. The wage rate of unskilled labour, relevant for manual weeding, plays a more important role in determining the MAVs than that of skilled labour, relevant for supervision of the robot. This implies that a shortage of seasonal workers and hence increases in the wage of low-skilled labour could be important drivers of the adoption of mechanical weeding robots. Plot characteristics such as plot size and mechanisation level only have limited impacts on the MAVs.},
    doi={10.1007/s11119-023-10015-x},
    url={https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11119-023-10015-x}}

  • N. Nause, F. R. Ispizua Yamati, M. Seidel, A. Mahlein, and C. M. Hoffmann, "Workflow for phenotyping sugar beet roots by automated evaluation of cell characteristics and tissue arrangement using digital image processing," Plant Methods, vol. 19, 2023. doi:10.1186/s13007-023-01014-0
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Cell characteristics, including cell type, size, shape, packing, cell-to-cell-adhesion, intercellular space, and cell wall thickness, influence the physical characteristics of plant tissues. Genotypic differences were found concerning damage susceptibility related to beet texture for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Sugar beet storage roots are characterized by heterogeneous tissue with several cambium rings surrounded by small-celled vascular tissue and big-celled sugar-storing parenchyma between the rings. This study presents a procedure for phenotyping heterogeneous tissues like beetroots by imaging.

    @article{nauseplantmenthods,
    author={Nause, Nelia and Ispizua Yamati, Facundo R. and Seidel, Marion and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin and Hoffmann, Christa M.},
    year = {2023},
    title = {Workflow for phenotyping sugar beet roots by automated evaluation of cell characteristics and tissue arrangement using digital image processing},
    journal = {Plant Methods},
    abstract = {Cell characteristics, including cell type, size, shape, packing, cell-to-cell-adhesion, intercellular space, and cell wall thickness, influence the physical characteristics of plant tissues. Genotypic differences were found concerning damage susceptibility related to beet texture for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Sugar beet storage roots are characterized by heterogeneous tissue with several cambium rings surrounded by small-celled vascular tissue and big-celled sugar-storing parenchyma between the rings. This study presents a procedure for phenotyping heterogeneous tissues like beetroots by imaging.},
    volume = {19},
    issue = {1},
    doi = {10.1186/s13007-023-01014-0},
    url = {https://plantmethods.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13007-023-01014-0}}

  • P. Zimmer, M. Halstead, and C. McCool, "Panoptic One-Click Segmentation: Applied to Agricultural Data," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, iss. 5, pp. 2478-2485, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2023.3254451
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @ARTICLE{10064096,
    author={Zimmer, Patrick and Halstead, Michael and McCool, Chris},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={Panoptic One-Click Segmentation: Applied to Agricultural Data},
    year={2023},
    volume={8},
    number={5},
    pages={2478-2485},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2303.08689.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2023.3254451}}

  • S. Solgi, S. H. Ahmadi, and S. J. Seidel, "Remote sensing of canopy water status of the irrigated winter wheat fields and the paired anomaly analyses on the spectral vegetation indices and grain yields," Agricultural Water Management, vol. 280, p. 108226, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108226
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Agriculture is the world's largest consumer of freshwater resources, particularly in semi-arid regions where crop production is reliant on both irrigation and rainfall. Therefore, proper irrigation management is critical in achieving sustainable agriculture by increasing crop yield while conserving water resources. Remote sensing has demonstrated a great promise in monitoring crop status including crop water status based on the spectral vegetation index (VI). Therefore, the vegetation growth (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI), vegetation water status (shortwave crop reflectance index, SCRI), and vegetation drought stress (moisture stress index, MSI) indices were calculated to assess the impact of irrigation management on canopy water status in a cluster of winter wheat fields in a semi-arid area in three non-consecutive growing seasons with different seasonal rainfall amounts and distributions. The winter wheat fields were typically irrigated six times in each growing season according to a fixed phenological-based irrigation scheduling. Results showed that NDVI, SCRI, and MSI had a high correlation with the remotely sensed locally calibrated leaf area index (LAI), among which NDVI had the strongest correlation (r = 0.9). The analysis revealed that the combined use of VIs succeeded in detecting spatial and temporal crop drought stress levels during the growing seasons. Furthermore, the normalized difference water index (NDWI) was interpreted to quantitatively classify the level and extent of drought stress in the winter wheat fields. The results of the NDWI analysis revealed that 62%, 100%, and 72% of the irrigated winter wheat fields have experienced some levels of drought stress during the normal growing season with wet spring, normal growing season with wet autumn, and dry growing season, respectively. The drought stress was basically due to the lack of effective rainfall during spring in March and April when crops have the highest vegetative growth, irrespective of the rainfall amount during autumn and winter. This revealed the importance of timely irrigation management during spring time. In addition, paired anomaly analysis of the NDVI, MSI, and SCRI with the wheat grain yields could identify good and poor wheat fields and recognize proper management zones of the wheat fields in terms of potential grain production. The findings of this study demonstrated that remote sensing is a strong and reliable tool in irrigation management to help sustain food production in arid or semi-arid areas with limited water resources.

    @article{SOLGI2023108226,
    title = {Remote sensing of canopy water status of the irrigated winter wheat fields and the paired anomaly analyses on the spectral vegetation indices and grain yields},
    journal = {Agricultural Water Management},
    volume = {280},
    pages = {108226},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0378-3774},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2023.108226},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378377423000914},
    author = {Shahin Solgi and Seyed Hamid Ahmadi and Sabine Julia Seidel},
    keywords = {Irrigation management, Drought stress, Anomaly analysis, Spectral vegetation indices, Wheat grain yield, Leaf area index},
    abstract = {Agriculture is the world's largest consumer of freshwater resources, particularly in semi-arid regions where crop production is reliant on both irrigation and rainfall. Therefore, proper irrigation management is critical in achieving sustainable agriculture by increasing crop yield while conserving water resources. Remote sensing has demonstrated a great promise in monitoring crop status including crop water status based on the spectral vegetation index (VI). Therefore, the vegetation growth (normalized difference vegetation index, NDVI), vegetation water status (shortwave crop reflectance index, SCRI), and vegetation drought stress (moisture stress index, MSI) indices were calculated to assess the impact of irrigation management on canopy water status in a cluster of winter wheat fields in a semi-arid area in three non-consecutive growing seasons with different seasonal rainfall amounts and distributions. The winter wheat fields were typically irrigated six times in each growing season according to a fixed phenological-based irrigation scheduling. Results showed that NDVI, SCRI, and MSI had a high correlation with the remotely sensed locally calibrated leaf area index (LAI), among which NDVI had the strongest correlation (r = 0.9). The analysis revealed that the combined use of VIs succeeded in detecting spatial and temporal crop drought stress levels during the growing seasons. Furthermore, the normalized difference water index (NDWI) was interpreted to quantitatively classify the level and extent of drought stress in the winter wheat fields. The results of the NDWI analysis revealed that 62%, 100%, and 72% of the irrigated winter wheat fields have experienced some levels of drought stress during the normal growing season with wet spring, normal growing season with wet autumn, and dry growing season, respectively. The drought stress was basically due to the lack of effective rainfall during spring in March and April when crops have the highest vegetative growth, irrespective of the rainfall amount during autumn and winter. This revealed the importance of timely irrigation management during spring time. In addition, paired anomaly analysis of the NDVI, MSI, and SCRI with the wheat grain yields could identify good and poor wheat fields and recognize proper management zones of the wheat fields in terms of potential grain production. The findings of this study demonstrated that remote sensing is a strong and reliable tool in irrigation management to help sustain food production in arid or semi-arid areas with limited water resources.}
    }

  • C. Hubert, G. Steyns, T. Kraska, K. Luhmer, M. D. Moll, and R. Pude, "Essential oil content and physiological response of Mentha genotypes under different UV-treatments," Acta Horticulturae, vol. 1358, pp. 319-326, 2023. doi:10.17660/ActaHortic.2023.1358.41
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{huberthortic,
    author = {Hubert, C and Steyns, G and Kraska, T and Luhmer, K and Moll, M.D. and Pude, R},
    title = {Essential oil content and physiological response of Mentha genotypes under different UV-treatments},
    journal = {Acta Horticulturae},
    volume = {1358},
    pages = {319-326},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.17660/ActaHortic.2023.1358.41},
    url = {https://www.actahort.org/books/1358/1358_41.htm}
    }

  • M. N. Siddiqui, K. Pandey, S. K. Bhadhury, B. Sadeqi, M. Schneider, M. Sanchez-Garcia, B. Stich, G. Schaaf, J. Léon, and A. Ballvora, "Convergently selected NPF2.12 coordinates root growth and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat and barley," New Phytologist, vol. n/a, iss. n/a, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.18820
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Summary Understanding the genetic and molecular function of nitrate sensing and acquisition across crop species will accelerate breeding of cultivars with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Here, we performed a genome-wide scan using wheat and barley accessions characterized under low and high N inputs that uncovered the NPF2.12 gene, encoding a homolog of the Arabidopsis nitrate transceptor NRT1.6 and other low-affinity nitrate transporters that belong to the MAJOR FACILITATOR SUPERFAMILY. Next, it is shown that variations in the NPF2.12 promoter correlated with altered NPF2.12 transcript levels where decreased gene expression was measured under low nitrate availability. Multiple field trials revealed a significantly enhanced N content in leaves and grains and NUE in the presence of the elite allele TaNPF2.12TT grown under low N conditions. Further, the nitrate reductase encoding gene NIA1 was upregulated in npf2.12 mutant upon low nitrate concentrations, thereby resulting in elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) production. This increase in NO correlated with the higher root growth, nitrate uptake and N translocation observed in the mutant when compared to wild-type. The presented data indicate that the elite haplotype alleles of NPF2.12 are convergently selected in wheat and barley that by inactivation indirectly contribute to root growth and NUE by activating NO signaling under low nitrate conditions.

    @article{https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.18820,
    author = {Siddiqui, Md. Nurealam and Pandey, Kailash and Bhadhury, Suzan Kumer and Sadeqi, Bahman and Schneider, Michael and Sanchez-Garcia, Miguel and Stich, Benjamin and Schaaf, Gabriel and Léon, Jens and Ballvora, Agim},
    title = {Convergently selected NPF2.12 coordinates root growth and nitrogen use efficiency in wheat and barley},
    journal = {New Phytologist},
    volume = {n/a},
    number = {n/a},
    year = {2023},
    pages = {},
    keywords = {cereals, genetic variation, genome-wide association mapping, nitrate transport, nitrogen use efficiency, root system architecture},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.18820},
    url = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.18820},
    eprint = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/nph.18820},
    abstract = {Summary Understanding the genetic and molecular function of nitrate sensing and acquisition across crop species will accelerate breeding of cultivars with improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). Here, we performed a genome-wide scan using wheat and barley accessions characterized under low and high N inputs that uncovered the NPF2.12 gene, encoding a homolog of the Arabidopsis nitrate transceptor NRT1.6 and other low-affinity nitrate transporters that belong to the MAJOR FACILITATOR SUPERFAMILY. Next, it is shown that variations in the NPF2.12 promoter correlated with altered NPF2.12 transcript levels where decreased gene expression was measured under low nitrate availability. Multiple field trials revealed a significantly enhanced N content in leaves and grains and NUE in the presence of the elite allele TaNPF2.12TT grown under low N conditions. Further, the nitrate reductase encoding gene NIA1 was upregulated in npf2.12 mutant upon low nitrate concentrations, thereby resulting in elevated levels of nitric oxide (NO) production. This increase in NO correlated with the higher root growth, nitrate uptake and N translocation observed in the mutant when compared to wild-type. The presented data indicate that the elite haplotype alleles of NPF2.12 are convergently selected in wheat and barley that by inactivation indirectly contribute to root growth and NUE by activating NO signaling under low nitrate conditions.}
    }

  • E. Alisaac and A. Mahlein, "Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat: Biology, Modern Detection and Diagnosis and Integrated Disease Management," Toxins, vol. 15, iss. 3, 2023. doi:10.3390/toxins15030192
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major threat for wheat production worldwide. Most reviews focus on Fusarium graminearum as a main causal agent of FHB. However, different Fusarium species are involved in this disease complex. These species differ in their geographic adaptation and mycotoxin profile. The incidence of FHB epidemics is highly correlated with weather conditions, especially rainy days with warm temperatures at anthesis and an abundance of primary inoculum. Yield losses due to the disease can reach up to 80% of the crop. This review summarizes the Fusarium species involved in the FHB disease complex with the corresponding mycotoxin profiles, disease cycle, diagnostic methods, the history of FHB epidemics, and the management strategy of the disease. In addition, it discusses the role of remote sensing technology in the integrated management of the disease. This technology can accelerate the phenotyping process in the breeding programs aiming at FHB-resistant varieties. Moreover, it can support the decision-making strategies to apply fungicides via monitoring and early detection of the diseases under field conditions. It can also be used for selective harvest to avoid mycotoxin-contaminated plots in the field.

    @Article{toxins15030192,
    AUTHOR = {Alisaac, Elias and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    TITLE = {Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat: Biology, Modern Detection and Diagnosis and Integrated Disease Management},
    JOURNAL = {Toxins},
    VOLUME = {15},
    YEAR = {2023},
    NUMBER = {3},
    ARTICLE-NUMBER = {192},
    URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/15/3/192},
    ISSN = {2072-6651},
    ABSTRACT = {Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major threat for wheat production worldwide. Most reviews focus on Fusarium graminearum as a main causal agent of FHB. However, different Fusarium species are involved in this disease complex. These species differ in their geographic adaptation and mycotoxin profile. The incidence of FHB epidemics is highly correlated with weather conditions, especially rainy days with warm temperatures at anthesis and an abundance of primary inoculum. Yield losses due to the disease can reach up to 80% of the crop. This review summarizes the Fusarium species involved in the FHB disease complex with the corresponding mycotoxin profiles, disease cycle, diagnostic methods, the history of FHB epidemics, and the management strategy of the disease. In addition, it discusses the role of remote sensing technology in the integrated management of the disease. This technology can accelerate the phenotyping process in the breeding programs aiming at FHB-resistant varieties. Moreover, it can support the decision-making strategies to apply fungicides via monitoring and early detection of the diseases under field conditions. It can also be used for selective harvest to avoid mycotoxin-contaminated plots in the field.},
    DOI = {10.3390/toxins15030192}
    }

  • V. Sushko, D. Zhang, J. Gall, and A. Khoreva, "One-Shot Synthesis of Images and Segmentation Masks," in IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision , 2023, pp. 6274-6283. doi:10.1109/WACV56688.2023.00622
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{inproceedings,
    author = {Sushko, Vadim and Zhang, Dan and Gall, Juergen and Khoreva, Anna},
    year = {2023},
    month = {01},
    booktitle = {IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision},
    pages = {6274-6283},
    title = {One-Shot Synthesis of Images and Segmentation Masks},
    url={https://openaccess.thecvf.com/content/WACV2023/papers/Sushko_One-Shot_Synthesis_of_Images_and_Segmentation_Masks_WACV_2023_paper.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/WACV56688.2023.00622}
    }

  • F. Esser, L. Klingbeil, L. Zabawa, and H. Kuhlmann, "Quality Analysis of a High-Precision Kinematic Laser Scanning System for the Use of Spatio-Temporal Plant and Organ-Level Phenotyping in the Field," Remote Sensing, vol. 15, iss. 4, 2023. doi:10.3390/rs15041117
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Computing large-scale phenotypic traits[...]

    @Article{rs15041117,
    AUTHOR = {Esser, Felix and Klingbeil, Lasse and Zabawa, Lina and Kuhlmann, Heiner},
    TITLE = {Quality Analysis of a High-Precision Kinematic Laser Scanning System for the Use of Spatio-Temporal Plant and Organ-Level Phenotyping in the Field},
    JOURNAL = {Remote Sensing},
    VOLUME = {15},
    YEAR = {2023},
    NUMBER = {4},
    ARTICLE-NUMBER = {1117},
    URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/15/4/1117},
    ISSN = {2072-4292},
    ABSTRACT = {Computing large-scale phenotypic traits[...]},
    DOI = {10.3390/rs15041117}
    }

  • G. Tombrink, A. Dreier, L. Klingbeil, and H. Kuhlmann, "Trajectory evaluation using repeated rail-bound measurements," Journal of Applied Geodesy, 2023. doi:doi:10.1515/jag-2022-0027
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{TombrinkDreierKlingbeilKuhlmann+2023,
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1515/jag-2022-0027},
    title = {Trajectory evaluation using repeated rail-bound measurements},
    author = {Gereon Tombrink and Ansgar Dreier and Lasse Klingbeil and Heiner Kuhlmann},
    journal = {Journal of Applied Geodesy},
    doi = {doi:10.1515/jag-2022-0027},
    year = {2023},
    publisher={De Gruyter},
    lastchecked = {2023-02-22}
    }

  • C. Montzka, M. Donat, R. Raj, P. Welter, and J. S. Bates, "Sensitivity of LiDAR Parameters to Aboveground Biomass in Winter Spelt," Drones, vol. 7, iss. 2, 2023. doi:10.3390/drones7020121
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Information about the current biomass state of crops is important to evaluate whether the growth conditions are adequate in terms of water and nutrient supply to determine if there is need to react to diseases and to predict the expected yield. Passive optical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based sensors such as RGB or multispectral cameras are able to sense the canopy surface and record, e.g., chlorophyll-related plant characteristics, which are often indirectly correlated to aboveground biomass. However, direct measurements of the plant structure can be provided by LiDAR systems. In this study, different LiDAR-based parameters are evaluated according to their relationship to aboveground fresh and dry biomass (AGB) for a winter spelt experimental field in Dahmsdorf, Brandenburg, Germany. The parameters crop height, gap fraction, and LiDAR intensity are analyzed according to their individual correlation with AGB, and also a multiparameter analysis using the Ordinary Least Squares Regression (OLS) is performed. Results indicate high absolute correlations of AGB with gap fraction and crop height (−0.82 and 0.77 for wet and −0.70 and 0.66 for dry AGB, respectively), whereas intensity needs further calibration or processing before it can be adequately used to estimate AGB (−0.27 and 0.22 for wet and dry AGB, respectively). An important outcome of this study is that the combined utilization of all LiDAR parameters via an OLS analysis results in less accurate AGB estimation than with gap fraction or crop height alone. Moreover, future AGB states in June and July were able to be estimated from May LiDAR parameters with high accuracy, indicating stable spatial patterns in crop characteristics over time.

    @Article{drones7020121,
    AUTHOR = {Montzka, Carsten and Donat, Marco and Raj, Rahul and Welter, Philipp and Bates, Jordan Steven},
    TITLE = {Sensitivity of LiDAR Parameters to Aboveground Biomass in Winter Spelt},
    JOURNAL = {Drones},
    VOLUME = {7},
    YEAR = {2023},
    NUMBER = {2},
    ARTICLE-NUMBER = {121},
    URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/2504-446X/7/2/121},
    ISSN = {2504-446X},
    ABSTRACT = {Information about the current biomass state of crops is important to evaluate whether the growth conditions are adequate in terms of water and nutrient supply to determine if there is need to react to diseases and to predict the expected yield. Passive optical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-based sensors such as RGB or multispectral cameras are able to sense the canopy surface and record, e.g., chlorophyll-related plant characteristics, which are often indirectly correlated to aboveground biomass. However, direct measurements of the plant structure can be provided by LiDAR systems. In this study, different LiDAR-based parameters are evaluated according to their relationship to aboveground fresh and dry biomass (AGB) for a winter spelt experimental field in Dahmsdorf, Brandenburg, Germany. The parameters crop height, gap fraction, and LiDAR intensity are analyzed according to their individual correlation with AGB, and also a multiparameter analysis using the Ordinary Least Squares Regression (OLS) is performed. Results indicate high absolute correlations of AGB with gap fraction and crop height (−0.82 and 0.77 for wet and −0.70 and 0.66 for dry AGB, respectively), whereas intensity needs further calibration or processing before it can be adequately used to estimate AGB (−0.27 and 0.22 for wet and dry AGB, respectively). An important outcome of this study is that the combined utilization of all LiDAR parameters via an OLS analysis results in less accurate AGB estimation than with gap fraction or crop height alone. Moreover, future AGB states in June and July were able to be estimated from May LiDAR parameters with high accuracy, indicating stable spatial patterns in crop characteristics over time.},
    DOI = {10.3390/drones7020121}
    }

  • M. Sodano, F. Magistri, T. Guadagnino, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Robust Double-Encoder Network for RGB-D Panoptic Segmentation," in Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160315
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code]
    @inproceedings{sodano2023icra,
    author = {Matteo Sodano and Federico Magistri and Tiziano Guadagnino and Jens Behley and Cyrill Stachniss},
    title = {{Robust Double-Encoder Network for RGB-D Panoptic Segmentation}},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics & Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2023},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2210.02834.pdf},
    doi= {https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160315},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/PS-res-excite},
    }

  • I. Vizzo, T. Guadagnino, B. Mersch, L. Wiesmann, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "KISS-ICP: In Defense of Point-to-Point ICP – Simple, Accurate, and Robust Registration If Done the Right Way," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 1-8, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2023.3236571
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code]
    @article{vizzo2023ral,
    author = {Vizzo, Ignacio and Guadagnino, Tiziano and Mersch, Benedikt and Wiesmann, Louis and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    title = {{KISS-ICP: In Defense of Point-to-Point ICP -- Simple, Accurate, and Robust Registration If Done the Right Way}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    pages = {1-8},
    doi = {10.1109/LRA.2023.3236571},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2209.15397.pdf},
    volume = {8},
    number = {2},
    year = {2023},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/kiss-icp},
    }

  • L. Wiesmann, L. Nunes, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "KPPR: Exploiting Momentum Contrast for Point Cloud-Based Place Recognition," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 592-599, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3228174
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @article{wiesmann2023ral,
    author = {L. Wiesmann and L. Nunes and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{KPPR: Exploiting Momentum Contrast for Point Cloud-Based Place Recognition}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/wiesmann2023ral.pdf},
    volume = {8},
    number = {2},
    pages = {592-599},
    year = 2023,
    issn = {2377-3766},
    doi = {10.1109/LRA.2022.3228174},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/kppr},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/bICz1sqd8Xs}
    }

  • M. Splietker and S. Behnke, "Rendering the Directional TSDF for Tracking and Multi-Sensor Registration with Point-To-Plane Scale ICP," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 162, p. 104337, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104337
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Dense real-time tracking and mapping from RGB-D images is an important tool for many robotic applications, such as navigation and manipulation. The recently presented Directional Truncated Signed Distance Function (DTSDF) is an augmentation of the regular TSDF that shows potential for more coherent maps and improved tracking performance. In this work, we present methods for rendering depth- and color images from the DTSDF, making it a true drop-in replacement for the regular TSDF in established trackers. We evaluate the algorithm on well-established datasets and observe that our method improves tracking performance and increases re-usability of mapped scenes. Furthermore, we add color integration which notably improves color-correctness at adjacent surfaces. Our novel formulation of combined ICP with frame-to-keyframe photometric error minimization further improves tracking results. Lastly, we introduce Sim(3) point-to-plane ICP for refining pose priors in a multi-sensor scenario with different scale factors.

    @article{SPLIETKER2023104337,
    title = {Rendering the Directional TSDF for Tracking and Multi-Sensor Registration with Point-To-Plane Scale ICP},
    journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
    volume = {162},
    pages = {104337},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0921-8890},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104337},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921889022002263},
    author = {Malte Splietker and Sven Behnke},
    keywords = {SLAM, TSDF, Surface orientation, ICP, Frame-to-keyframe, Point-to-plane (3)},
    abstract = {Dense real-time tracking and mapping from RGB-D images is an important tool for many robotic applications, such as navigation and manipulation. The recently presented Directional Truncated Signed Distance Function (DTSDF) is an augmentation of the regular TSDF that shows potential for more coherent maps and improved tracking performance. In this work, we present methods for rendering depth- and color images from the DTSDF, making it a true drop-in replacement for the regular TSDF in established trackers. We evaluate the algorithm on well-established datasets and observe that our method improves tracking performance and increases re-usability of mapped scenes. Furthermore, we add color integration which notably improves color-correctness at adjacent surfaces. Our novel formulation of combined ICP with frame-to-keyframe photometric error minimization further improves tracking results. Lastly, we introduce Sim(3) point-to-plane ICP for refining pose priors in a multi-sensor scenario with different scale factors.}
    }

  • C. O. Gonçalves Bazzo, B. Kamali, C. Hütt, G. Bareth, and T. Gaiser, "A Review of Estimation Methods for Aboveground Biomass in Grasslands Using UAV," Remote Sensing, vol. 15, iss. 3, 2023. doi:10.3390/rs15030639
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Grasslands are one of the world’s largest ecosystems, accounting for 30% of total terrestrial biomass. Considering that aboveground biomass (AGB) is one of the most essential ecosystem services in grasslands, an accurate and faster method for estimating AGB is critical for managing, protecting, and promoting ecosystem sustainability. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as a useful and practical tool for achieving this goal. Here, we review recent research studies that employ UAVs to estimate AGB in grassland ecosystems. We summarize different methods to establish a comprehensive workflow, from data collection in the field to data processing. For this purpose, 64 research articles were reviewed, focusing on several features including study site, grassland species composition, UAV platforms, flight parameters, sensors, field measurement, biomass indices, data processing, and analysis methods. The results demonstrate that there has been an increase in scientific research evaluating the use of UAVs in AGB estimation in grasslands during the period 2018–2022. Most of the studies were carried out in three countries (Germany, China, and USA), which indicates an urgent need for research in other locations where grassland ecosystems are abundant. We found RGB imaging was the most commonly used and is the most suitable for estimating AGB in grasslands at the moment, in terms of cost–benefit and data processing simplicity. In 50% of the studies, at least one vegetation index was used to estimate AGB; the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was the most common. The most popular methods for data analysis were linear regression, partial least squares regression (PLSR), and random forest. Studies that used spectral and structural data showed that models incorporating both data types outperformed models utilizing only one. We also observed that research in this field has been limited both spatially and temporally. For example, only a small number of papers conducted studies over a number of years and in multiple places, suggesting that the protocols are not transferable to other locations and time points. Despite these limitations, and in the light of the rapid advances, we anticipate that UAV methods for AGB estimation in grasslands will continue improving and may become commercialized for farming applications in the near future.

    @Article{rs15030639,
    AUTHOR = {Gonçalves Bazzo, Clara Oliva and Kamali, Bahareh and Hütt, Christoph and Bareth, Georg and Gaiser, Thomas},
    TITLE = {A Review of Estimation Methods for Aboveground Biomass in Grasslands Using UAV},
    JOURNAL = {Remote Sensing},
    VOLUME = {15},
    YEAR = {2023},
    NUMBER = {3},
    ARTICLE-NUMBER = {639},
    URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/15/3/639},
    ISSN = {2072-4292},
    ABSTRACT = {Grasslands are one of the world’s largest ecosystems, accounting for 30% of total terrestrial biomass. Considering that aboveground biomass (AGB) is one of the most essential ecosystem services in grasslands, an accurate and faster method for estimating AGB is critical for managing, protecting, and promoting ecosystem sustainability. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as a useful and practical tool for achieving this goal. Here, we review recent research studies that employ UAVs to estimate AGB in grassland ecosystems. We summarize different methods to establish a comprehensive workflow, from data collection in the field to data processing. For this purpose, 64 research articles were reviewed, focusing on several features including study site, grassland species composition, UAV platforms, flight parameters, sensors, field measurement, biomass indices, data processing, and analysis methods. The results demonstrate that there has been an increase in scientific research evaluating the use of UAVs in AGB estimation in grasslands during the period 2018–2022. Most of the studies were carried out in three countries (Germany, China, and USA), which indicates an urgent need for research in other locations where grassland ecosystems are abundant. We found RGB imaging was the most commonly used and is the most suitable for estimating AGB in grasslands at the moment, in terms of cost–benefit and data processing simplicity. In 50% of the studies, at least one vegetation index was used to estimate AGB; the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was the most common. The most popular methods for data analysis were linear regression, partial least squares regression (PLSR), and random forest. Studies that used spectral and structural data showed that models incorporating both data types outperformed models utilizing only one. We also observed that research in this field has been limited both spatially and temporally. For example, only a small number of papers conducted studies over a number of years and in multiple places, suggesting that the protocols are not transferable to other locations and time points. Despite these limitations, and in the light of the rapid advances, we anticipate that UAV methods for AGB estimation in grasslands will continue improving and may become commercialized for farming applications in the near future.},
    DOI = {10.3390/rs15030639}
    }

  • C. Gebauer, N. Dengler, and M. Bennewitz, "Sensor-Based Navigation Using Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning," in Intelligent Autonomous Systems 17 , Cham, 2023, p. 546–560. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-22216-0_37
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Robotic systems are nowadays capable of solving complex navigation tasks. However, their capabilities are limited to the knowledge of the designer and consequently lack generalizability to initially unconsidered situations. This makes deep reinforcement learning (DRL) especially interesting, as these algorithms promise a self-learning system only relying on feedback from the environment. In this paper, we consider the problem of lidar-based robot navigation in continuous action space using DRL without providing any goal-oriented or global information. By relying solely on local sensor data to solve navigation tasks, we design an agent that assigns its own waypoints based on intrinsic motivation. Our agent is able to learn goal-directed navigation behavior even when facing only sparse feedback, i.e., delayed rewards when reaching the target. To address this challenge and the complexity of the continuous action space, we deploy a hierarchical agent structure in which the exploration is distributed across multiple layers. Within the hierarchical structure, our agent self-assigns internal goals and learns to extract reasonable waypoints to reach the desired target position only based on local sensor data. In our experiments, we demonstrate the navigation capabilities of our agent in two environments and show that the hierarchical structure seriously improves the performance in terms of success rate and success weighted by path length in comparison to a flat structure. Furthermore, we provide a real-robot experiment to illustrate that the trained agent can be easily transferred to a real-world scenario.

    @InProceedings{10.1007/978-3-031-22216-0_37,
    author={Gebauer, Christopher and Dengler, Nils and Bennewitz, Maren},
    editor={Petrovic, Ivan and Menegatti, Emanuele and Markovi{\'{c}}, Ivan},
    title={Sensor-Based Navigation Using Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning},
    booktitle={Intelligent Autonomous Systems 17},
    year={2023},
    publisher={Springer Nature Switzerland},
    address={Cham},
    pages={546--560},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2108.13268.pdf},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-22216-0_37},
    abstract={Robotic systems are nowadays capable of solving complex navigation tasks. However, their capabilities are limited to the knowledge of the designer and consequently lack generalizability to initially unconsidered situations. This makes deep reinforcement learning (DRL) especially interesting, as these algorithms promise a self-learning system only relying on feedback from the environment. In this paper, we consider the problem of lidar-based robot navigation in continuous action space using DRL without providing any goal-oriented or global information. By relying solely on local sensor data to solve navigation tasks, we design an agent that assigns its own waypoints based on intrinsic motivation. Our agent is able to learn goal-directed navigation behavior even when facing only sparse feedback, i.e., delayed rewards when reaching the target. To address this challenge and the complexity of the continuous action space, we deploy a hierarchical agent structure in which the exploration is distributed across multiple layers. Within the hierarchical structure, our agent self-assigns internal goals and learns to extract reasonable waypoints to reach the desired target position only based on local sensor data. In our experiments, we demonstrate the navigation capabilities of our agent in two environments and show that the hierarchical structure seriously improves the performance in terms of success rate and success weighted by path length in comparison to a flat structure. Furthermore, we provide a real-robot experiment to illustrate that the trained agent can be easily transferred to a real-world scenario.},
    isbn={978-3-031-22216-0}
    }

  • X. Chen, L. Poudel, Z. Hong, P. Johnen, S. Katti, A. Tripathi, A. H. Nile, S. M. Green, D. Khan, G. Schaaf, F. Bono, V. A. Bankaitis, and T. I. Igumenova, "Mechanisms by which small molecules of diverse chemotypes arrest Sec14 lipid transfer activity," Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 299, iss. 2, p. 102861, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.102861
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs) enhance the activities of PtdIns 4-OH kinases that generate signaling pools of PtdIns-4-phosphate. In that capacity, PITPs serve as key regulators of lipid signaling in eukaryotic cells. Although the PITP phospholipid exchange cycle is the engine that stimulates PtdIns 4-OH kinase activities, the underlying mechanism is not understood. Herein, we apply an integrative structural biology approach to investigate interactions of the yeast PITP Sec14 with small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of its phospholipid exchange cycle. Using a combination of X-ray crystallography, solution NMR spectroscopy, and atomistic MD simulations, we dissect how SMIs compete with native Sec14 phospholipid ligands and arrest phospholipid exchange. Moreover, as Sec14 PITPs represent new targets for the development of next-generation antifungal drugs, the structures of Sec14 bound to SMIs of diverse chemotypes reported in this study will provide critical information required for future structure-based design of next-generation lead compounds directed against Sec14 PITPs of virulent fungi.

    @article{CHEN2023102861,
    title = {Mechanisms by which small molecules of diverse chemotypes arrest Sec14 lipid transfer activity},
    journal = {Journal of Biological Chemistry},
    volume = {299},
    number = {2},
    pages = {102861},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0021-9258},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbc.2022.102861},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021925822013047},
    author = {Xiao-Ru Chen and Lokendra Poudel and Zebin Hong and Philipp Johnen and Sachin Katti and Ashutosh Tripathi and Aaron H. Nile and Savana M. Green and Danish Khan and Gabriel Schaaf and Fulvia Bono and Vytas A. Bankaitis and Tatyana I. Igumenova},
    keywords = {Sec14 PITPs, phosphoinositides, protein and lipid dynamics, lipid exchange, anti-mycotic drugs},
    abstract = {Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) transfer proteins (PITPs) enhance the activities of PtdIns 4-OH kinases that generate signaling pools of PtdIns-4-phosphate. In that capacity, PITPs serve as key regulators of lipid signaling in eukaryotic cells. Although the PITP phospholipid exchange cycle is the engine that stimulates PtdIns 4-OH kinase activities, the underlying mechanism is not understood. Herein, we apply an integrative structural biology approach to investigate interactions of the yeast PITP Sec14 with small-molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of its phospholipid exchange cycle. Using a combination of X-ray crystallography, solution NMR spectroscopy, and atomistic MD simulations, we dissect how SMIs compete with native Sec14 phospholipid ligands and arrest phospholipid exchange. Moreover, as Sec14 PITPs represent new targets for the development of next-generation antifungal drugs, the structures of Sec14 bound to SMIs of diverse chemotypes reported in this study will provide critical information required for future structure-based design of next-generation lead compounds directed against Sec14 PITPs of virulent fungi.}
    }

  • X. He, D. Wang, Y. Jiang, M. Li, M. Delgado-Baquerizo, C. McLaughlin, C. Macron, L. Guo, M. Baer, Y. A. T. Moya, N. von Wirén, M. Deichmann, G. Schaaf, H. Piepho, Yang Zhikai, J. Yang, B. Yim, K. Smalla, S. Goormachtig, F. T. de Vries, H. Hüging, R. J. H. Sawers, J. C. Reif, F. Hochholdinger, X. Chen, and P. Yu, "Heritable maize microbiomes contribute to local adaptation and host stress resilience," bioRxiv, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.01.10.523403
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{He_maize,
    title = {Heritable maize microbiomes contribute to local adaptation and host stress resilience},
    journal = {bioRxiv},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.01.10.523403},
    url = {https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2023.01.10.523403v1.full},
    author = {He, Xiaoming and Wang, Danning and Jiang, Yong and Li, Meng and Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel and McLaughlin, Chloee and Macron, Caroline and Guo, Li and Baer, Marcel and Moya, Yudelsy A.T. and von Wirén, Nicolaus and Deichmann, Marion and Schaaf, Gabriel and Piepho, Hans-Petter and Yang, Zhikai, and Yang, Jinliang and Yim, Bunlong and Smalla, Kornelia and Goormachtig, Sofie and de Vries, Franciska T. and Hüging, Hubert and Sawers, Ruairidh J.H. and Reif, Jochen C. and Hochholdinger, Frank and Chen, Xinping and Yu, Peng}
    }

  • Y. Wu, J. Kuang, X. Niu, J. Behley, L. Klingbeil, and H. Kuhlmann, "Wheel-SLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Terrain Mapping Using One Wheel-Mounted IMU," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, iss. 1, pp. 280-287, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3226071
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code]
    @ARTICLE{9968088,
    author={Wu, Yibin and Kuang, Jian and Niu, Xiaoji and Behley, Jens and Klingbeil, Lasse and Kuhlmann, Heiner},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={Wheel-SLAM: Simultaneous Localization and Terrain Mapping Using One Wheel-Mounted IMU},
    year={2023},
    volume={8},
    number={1},
    pages={280-287},
    codeurl={https://github.com/i2Nav-WHU/Wheel-SLAM},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/wu2023ral.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2022.3226071}}

  • S. Kelly, A. Riccardi, E. Marks, F. Magistri, T. Guadagnino, M. Chli, and C. Stachniss, "Target-Aware Implicit Mapping for Agricultural Crop Inspection," in Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160487
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @inproceedings{kelly2023icra,
    author = {S. Kelly and A. Riccardi and E. Marks and F. Magistri and T. Guadagnino and M. Chli and C. Stachniss},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/kelly2023icra.pdf},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160487},
    title = {{Target-Aware Implicit Mapping for Agricultural Crop Inspection}},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/UAIqn0QnpKg},
    year = {2023}}

  • A. Riccardi, S. Kelly, E. Marks, F. Magistri, T. Guadagnino, J. Behley, M. Bennewitz, and C. Stachniss, "Fruit Tracking Over Time Using High-Precision Point Clouds," in Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10161350
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @inproceedings{riccardi2023icra,
    author = {A. Riccardi and S. Kelly and E. Marks and F. Magistri and T. Guadagnino and J. Behley and M. Bennewitz and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Fruit Tracking Over Time Using High-Precision Point Clouds}},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2023},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/10161350},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10161350},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/fBGSd0--PXY}
    }

  • G. Roggiolani, M. Sodano, F. Magistri, T. Guadagnino, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Hierarchical Approach for Joint Semantic, Plant Instance, and Leaf Instance Segmentation in the Agricultural Domain," in Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160918
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @inproceedings{roggiolani2023icra-hajs,
    author = {G. Roggiolani and M. Sodano and F. Magistri and T. Guadagnino and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Hierarchical Approach for Joint Semantic, Plant Instance, and Leaf Instance Segmentation in the Agricultural Domain}},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2023},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160918},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/roggiolani2023icra-hajs.pdf},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/HAPT},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/miuOJjxlJic}
    }

  • G. Roggiolani, F. Magistri, T. Guadagnino, G. Grisetti, C. Stachniss, and J. Behley, "On Domain-Specific Pre-Training for Effective Semantic Perception in Agricultural Robotics," in Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160624
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @inproceedings{roggiolani2023icra-odsp,
    author = {G. Roggiolani and F. Magistri and T. Guadagnino and G. Grisetti and C. Stachniss and J. Behley},
    title = {{On Domain-Specific Pre-Training for Effective Semantic Perception in Agricultural Robotics}},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/roggiolani2023icra-odsp.pdf},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/agri-pretraining},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1109/icra48891.2023.10160624},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE Intl.~Conf.~on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2023},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/FDWY_UnfsBs}
    }

  • H. Unnikrishnan, M. K. Gerullis, M. Cox, and H. Nagendra, "Unpacking dynamics of diverse nested resource systems through a diagnostic approach," Sustainability Science, p. 1–28, 2023. doi:10.1007/s11625-022-01268-y
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The social–ecological systems (SES) framework (Ostrom 2009, Science. 325(5939):419–22) typologically decomposes SES characteristics into nested, tiered constituent variables. Yet, aligning the framework’s concepts of resource system (RS) and resource unit (RU) with realities of individual case studies poses challenges if the underlying SES is not a single RS, but a mid to large-scale nested RS (NRS). Using a diagnostic approach, we describe NRSs—and the activities and networks of adjacent action situations (NAAS) containing them. An NRS includes the larger RS and multiple interlinked semi-autonomous subsidiary RSs, each of which support simultaneous, differently managed appropriation of individual RUs. We further identify NAASs operating within NRSs in two diverse empirical cases—networks of lake systems in Bengaluru, India and German wheat breeding systems—representing a lever towards understanding transformation of SESs into sustainable futures. This paper contributes towards unpacking and diagnosing complexities within mid to large-scale RSs and their governance. It provides a generalizable, rigorous approach to SES case study analyses, thereby advancing methods for synthesis in sustainability science.

    @article{gerullissustainability,
    author = {Unnikrishnan, Hita and Gerullis, Maria Katharina and Cox, Michael and Nagendra, Harini},
    title = {Unpacking dynamics of diverse nested resource systems through a diagnostic approach},
    journal = {Sustainability Science},
    year = {2023},
    pages={1--28},
    abstract = {The social–ecological systems (SES) framework (Ostrom 2009, Science. 325(5939):419–22) typologically decomposes SES characteristics into nested, tiered constituent variables. Yet, aligning the framework’s concepts of resource system (RS) and resource unit (RU) with realities of individual case studies poses challenges if the underlying SES is not a single RS, but a mid to large-scale nested RS (NRS). Using a diagnostic approach, we describe NRSs—and the activities and networks of adjacent action situations (NAAS) containing them. An NRS includes the larger RS and multiple interlinked semi-autonomous subsidiary RSs, each of which support simultaneous, differently managed appropriation of individual RUs. We further identify NAASs operating within NRSs in two diverse empirical cases—networks of lake systems in Bengaluru, India and German wheat breeding systems—representing a lever towards understanding transformation of SESs into sustainable futures. This paper contributes towards unpacking and diagnosing complexities within mid to large-scale RSs and their governance. It provides a generalizable, rigorous approach to SES case study analyses, thereby advancing methods for synthesis in sustainability science.},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-022-01268-y},
    doi = {10.1007/s11625-022-01268-y}}

  • G. Lopez, S. H. Ahmadi, W. Amelung, M. Athmann, F. Ewert, T. Gaiser, M. I. Gocke, T. Kautz, J. Postma, S. Rachmilevitch, G. Schaaf, A. Schnepf, A. Stoschus, M. Watt, P. Yu, and S. J. Seidel, "Nutrient deficiency effects on root architecture and root-to-shoot ratio in arable crops," Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 13, 2023. doi:10.3389/fpls.2022.1067498
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Plant root traits play a crucial role in resource acquisition and crop performance when soil nutrient availability is low. However, the respective trait responses are complex, particularly at the field scale, and poorly understood due to difficulties in root phenotyping monitoring, inaccurate sampling, and environmental conditions. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 50 field studies to identify the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), or potassium (K) deficiencies on the root systems of common crops. Root length and biomass were generally reduced, while root length per shoot biomass was enhanced under N and P deficiency. Root length decreased by 9% under N deficiency and by 14% under P deficiency, while root biomass was reduced by 7% in N-deficient and by 25% in P-deficient soils. Root length per shoot biomass increased by 33% in N deficient and 51% in P deficient soils. The root-to-shoot ratio was often enhanced (44%) under N-poor conditions, but no consistent response of the root-to-shoot ratio to P-deficiency was found. Only a few K-deficiency studies suited our approach and, in those cases, no differences in morphological traits were reported. We encountered the following drawbacks when performing this analysis: limited number of root traits investigated at field scale, differences in the timing and severity of nutrient deficiencies, missing data (e.g., soil nutrient status and time of stress), and the impact of other conditions in the field. Nevertheless, our analysis indicates that, in general, nutrient deficiencies increased the root-length-to-shoot-biomass ratios of crops, with impacts decreasing in the order deficient P > deficient N > deficient K. Our review resolved inconsistencies that were often found in the individual field experiments, and led to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying root plasticity in fields with low nutrient availability.

    @ARTICLE{10.3389/fpls.2022.1067498,
    AUTHOR={Lopez, Gina and Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid and Amelung, Wulf and Athmann, Miriam and Ewert, Frank and Gaiser, Thomas and Gocke, Martina I. and Kautz, Timo and Postma, Johannes and Rachmilevitch, Shimon and Schaaf, Gabriel and Schnepf, Andrea and Stoschus, Alixandrine and Watt, Michelle and Yu, Peng and Seidel, Sabine Julia},
    TITLE={Nutrient deficiency effects on root architecture and root-to-shoot ratio in arable crops},
    JOURNAL={Frontiers in Plant Science},
    VOLUME={13},
    YEAR={2023},
    URL={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2022.1067498},
    DOI={10.3389/fpls.2022.1067498},
    ISSN={1664-462X},
    ABSTRACT={Plant root traits play a crucial role in resource acquisition and crop performance when soil nutrient availability is low. However, the respective trait responses are complex, particularly at the field scale, and poorly understood due to difficulties in root phenotyping monitoring, inaccurate sampling, and environmental conditions. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 50 field studies to identify the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), or potassium (K) deficiencies on the root systems of common crops. Root length and biomass were generally reduced, while root length per shoot biomass was enhanced under N and P deficiency. Root length decreased by 9% under N deficiency and by 14% under P deficiency, while root biomass was reduced by 7% in N-deficient and by 25% in P-deficient soils. Root length per shoot biomass increased by 33% in N deficient and 51% in P deficient soils. The root-to-shoot ratio was often enhanced (44%) under N-poor conditions, but no consistent response of the root-to-shoot ratio to P-deficiency was found. Only a few K-deficiency studies suited our approach and, in those cases, no differences in morphological traits were reported. We encountered the following drawbacks when performing this analysis: limited number of root traits investigated at field scale, differences in the timing and severity of nutrient deficiencies, missing data (e.g., soil nutrient status and time of stress), and the impact of other conditions in the field. Nevertheless, our analysis indicates that, in general, nutrient deficiencies increased the root-length-to-shoot-biomass ratios of crops, with impacts decreasing in the order deficient P > deficient N > deficient K. Our review resolved inconsistencies that were often found in the individual field experiments, and led to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying root plasticity in fields with low nutrient availability.}
    }

  • H. Dong, X. Chen, S. Särkkä, and C. Stachniss, "Online pole segmentation on range images for long-term LiDAR localization in urban environments," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 159, p. 104283, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104283
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code]

    Robust and accurate localization is a basic requirement for mobile autonomous systems. Pole-like objects, such as traffic signs, poles, and lamps are frequently used landmarks for localization in urban environments due to their local distinctiveness and long-term stability. In this paper, we present a novel, accurate, and fast pole extraction approach based on geometric features that runs online and has little computational demands. Our method performs all computations directly on range images generated from 3D LiDAR scans, which avoids processing 3D point clouds explicitly and enables fast pole extraction for each scan. We further use the extracted poles as pseudo labels to train a deep neural network for online range image-based pole segmentation. We test both our geometric and learning-based pole extraction methods for localization on different datasets with different LiDAR scanners, routes, and seasonal changes. The experimental results show that our methods outperform other state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, boosted with pseudo pole labels extracted from multiple datasets, our learning-based method can run across different datasets and achieve even better localization results compared to our geometry-based method. We released our pole datasets to the public for evaluating the performance of pole extractors, as well as the implementation of our approach.

    @article{DONG2023104283,
    title = {Online pole segmentation on range images for long-term LiDAR localization in urban environments},
    journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
    volume = {159},
    pages = {104283},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0921-8890},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104283},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921889022001725},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/pole-localization},
    author = {Hao Dong and Xieyuanli Chen and Simo Särkkä and Cyrill Stachniss},
    keywords = {Localization, Pole, LiDAR, Range image, Mapping, Autonomous driving, Deep learning, Semantic segmentation},
    abstract = {Robust and accurate localization is a basic requirement for mobile autonomous systems. Pole-like objects, such as traffic signs, poles, and lamps are frequently used landmarks for localization in urban environments due to their local distinctiveness and long-term stability. In this paper, we present a novel, accurate, and fast pole extraction approach based on geometric features that runs online and has little computational demands. Our method performs all computations directly on range images generated from 3D LiDAR scans, which avoids processing 3D point clouds explicitly and enables fast pole extraction for each scan. We further use the extracted poles as pseudo labels to train a deep neural network for online range image-based pole segmentation. We test both our geometric and learning-based pole extraction methods for localization on different datasets with different LiDAR scanners, routes, and seasonal changes. The experimental results show that our methods outperform other state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, boosted with pseudo pole labels extracted from multiple datasets, our learning-based method can run across different datasets and achieve even better localization results compared to our geometry-based method. We released our pole datasets to the public for evaluating the performance of pole extractors, as well as the implementation of our approach.}}

  • F. Stache, J. Westheider, F. Magistri, C. Stachniss, and M. Popović, "Adaptive path planning for UAVs for multi-resolution semantic segmentation," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 159, p. 104288, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104288
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Efficient data collection methods play a major role in helping us better understand the Earth and its ecosystems. In many applications, the usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for monitoring and remote sensing is rapidly gaining momentum due to their high mobility, low cost, and flexible deployment. A key challenge is planning missions to maximize the value of acquired data in large environments given flight time limitations. This is, for example, relevant for monitoring agricultural fields. This paper addresses the problem of adaptive path planning for accurate semantic segmentation of using UAVs. We propose an online planning algorithm which adapts the UAV paths to obtain high-resolution semantic segmentations necessary in areas with fine details as they are detected in incoming images. This enables us to perform close inspections at low altitudes only where required, without wasting energy on exhaustive mapping at maximum image resolution. A key feature of our approach is a new accuracy model for deep learning-based architectures that captures the relationship between UAV altitude and semantic segmentation accuracy. We evaluate our approach on different domains using real-world data, proving the efficacy and generability of our solution.

    @article{STACHE2023104288,
    title = {Adaptive path planning for UAVs for multi-resolution semantic segmentation},
    journal = {Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
    volume = {159},
    pages = {104288},
    year = {2023},
    issn = {0921-8890},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104288},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921889022001774},
    author = {Felix Stache and Jonas Westheider and Federico Magistri and Cyrill Stachniss and Marija Popovi{\'c}},
    keywords = {Unmanned aerial vehicles, Semantic segmentation, Planning, Terrain monitoring}, abstract = {Efficient data collection methods play a major role in helping us better understand the Earth and its ecosystems. In many applications, the usage of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for monitoring and remote sensing is rapidly gaining momentum due to their high mobility, low cost, and flexible deployment. A key challenge is planning missions to maximize the value of acquired data in large environments given flight time limitations. This is, for example, relevant for monitoring agricultural fields. This paper addresses the problem of adaptive path planning for accurate semantic segmentation of using UAVs. We propose an online planning algorithm which adapts the UAV paths to obtain high-resolution semantic segmentations necessary in areas with fine details as they are detected in incoming images. This enables us to perform close inspections at low altitudes only where required, without wasting energy on exhaustive mapping at maximum image resolution. A key feature of our approach is a new accuracy model for deep learning-based architectures that captures the relationship between UAV altitude and semantic segmentation accuracy. We evaluate our approach on different domains using real-world data, proving the efficacy and generability of our solution.}}

  • M. Arora, L. Wiesmann, X. Chen, and C. Stachniss, "Static map generation from 3D LiDAR point clouds exploiting ground segmentation," Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 159, pp. 104-287, 2023. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104287
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{arora2023static,
    title={Static map generation from 3D LiDAR point clouds exploiting ground segmentation},
    author={Arora, Mehul and Wiesmann, Louis and Chen, Xieyuanli and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal={Robotics and Autonomous Systems},
    volume={159},
    pages={104-287},
    issn = {0921-8890},
    year={2023},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1016/j.robot.2022.104287},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0921889022001762}}

  • L. Wiesmann, L. Nunes, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "KPPR: Exploiting Momentum Contrast for Point Cloud-Based Place Recognition," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 592-599, 2023. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3228174
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @ARTICLE{9978678,
    author= {Wiesmann, Louis and Nunes, Lucas and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal= {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title= {KPPR: Exploiting Momentum Contrast for Point Cloud-Based Place Recognition},
    year= {2023},
    volume= {8},
    number= {2},
    pages= {592-599},
    doi= {10.1109/LRA.2022.3228174},
    url= {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9978678/authors#authors},
    }

  • M. R. Paul, D. T. Demie, S. J. Seidel, and T. F. Döring, "Effects of spring wheat / faba bean mixtures on early crop development," Plant and Soil, 2023. doi:10.1007/s11104-023-06111-6
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Intercropping cereals and grain legumes has the potential to increase grain yield in comparison to the respective sole crops, but little is known about mixture effects at the early crop developmental stage. In cereal legume mixtures, the cereal is usually the dominating partner. We aimed to find out when domination starts, which factors may enhance early domination, and if there is a legacy effect of early domination on later growth stages.

    @article{paul2023effects,
    title={Effects of spring wheat / faba bean mixtures on early crop development},
    author={Paul, Madhuri Rani and Demie, Dereje T and Seidel, Sabine J and Döring, Thomas Felix},
    year={2023},
    doi={10.1007/s11104-023-06111-6},
    abstract={Intercropping cereals and grain legumes has the potential to increase grain yield in comparison to the respective sole crops, but little is known about mixture effects at the early crop developmental stage. In cereal legume mixtures, the cereal is usually the dominating partner. We aimed to find out when domination starts, which factors may enhance early domination, and if there is a legacy effect of early domination on later growth stages.},
    journal={Plant and Soil},
    url={https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-023-06111-6}}

  • R. Hossain, F. R. Ispizua Yamati, A. Barreto, F. Savian, M. Varrelmann, A. Mahlein, and S. Paulus, "Elucidation of turnip yellows virus (TuYV) spectral reflectance pattern in Nicotiana benthamiana by non-imaging sensor technology," Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 2023. doi:10.1007/s41348-022-00682-9
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{Hossain_Plantdiseases,
    title = {Elucidation of turnip yellows virus (TuYV) spectral reflectance pattern in Nicotiana benthamiana by non-imaging sensor technology},
    journal = {Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1007/s41348-022-00682-9},
    url={https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41348-022-00682-9},
    author = {Hossain, Roxana and Ispizua Yamati, Facundo Ramón and Barreto, Abel and Savian, Francesco and Varrelmann, Mark and Mahlein, Anne-Kathrin and Paulus, Stefan},
    }

  • A. Brugger, I. F. R. Yamati, A. Barreto, S. Paulus, P. Schramowski, K. Kersting, U. Steiner, S. Neugart, and A. -K. Mahlein, "Hyperspectral imaging in the UV-range allows for differentiation of sugar beet diseases based on changes of secondary plant metabolites," Phytopathology, 2023. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-03-22-0086-R
    [BibTeX]
    @article{Brugger_Pythopathology,
    title = {Hyperspectral imaging in the UV-range allows for differentiation of sugar beet diseases based on changes of secondary plant metabolites},
    journal = {Phytopathology},
    year = {2023},
    doi = {10.1094/PHYTO-03-22-0086-R},
    author = {A. Brugger and F. R. Ispizua Yamati and A. Barreto and S. Paulus and P. Schramowski and K. Kersting and U. Steiner and S. Neugart and A.-K. Mahlein}
    }

2022

  • S. Marangoz, T. Zaenker, R. Menon, and M. Bennewitz, "Fruit Mapping with Shape Completion for Autonomous Crop Monitoring," in 2022 IEEE 18th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE) , 2022, pp. 471-476. doi:10.1109/CASE49997.2022.9926466
    [BibTeX]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9926466,
    author={Marangoz, Salih and Zaenker, Tobias and Menon, Rohit and Bennewitz, Maren},
    booktitle={2022 IEEE 18th International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE)},
    title={Fruit Mapping with Shape Completion for Autonomous Crop Monitoring},
    year={2022},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={471-476},
    doi={10.1109/CASE49997.2022.9926466}}

  • N. P. Laha, R. F. H. Giehl, E. Riemer, D. Qiu, N. J. Pullagurla, R. Schneider, Y. W. Dhir, R. Yadav, Y. E. Mihiret, P. Gaugler, V. Gaugler, H. Mao, N. Zheng, N. von Wirén, A. Saiardi, S. Bhattacharjee, H. J. Jessen, D. Laha, and G. Schaaf, "INOSITOL (1,3,4) TRIPHOSPHATE 5/6 KINASE1-dependent inositol polyphosphates regulate auxin responses in Arabidopsis," Plant Physiology, vol. 190, iss. 4, pp. 2722-2738, 2022. doi:10.1093/plphys/kiac425
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {The combinatorial phosphorylation of myo-inositol results in the generation of different inositol phosphates (InsPs), of which phytic acid (InsP6) is the most abundant species in eukaryotes. InsP6 is also an important precursor of the higher phosphorylated inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs), such as InsP7 and InsP8, which are characterized by a diphosphate moiety and are also ubiquitously found in eukaryotic cells. While PP-InsPs regulate various cellular processes in animals and yeast, their biosynthesis and functions in plants has remained largely elusive because plant genomes do not encode canonical InsP6 kinases. Recent work has shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) INOSITOL (1,3,4) TRIPHOSPHATE 5/6 KINASE1 (ITPK1) and ITPK2 display in vitro InsP6 kinase activity and that, in planta, ITPK1 stimulates 5-InsP7 and InsP8 synthesis and regulates phosphate starvation responses. Here we report a critical role of ITPK1 in auxin-related processes that is independent of the ITPK1-controlled regulation of phosphate starvation responses. Those processes include primary root elongation, root hair development, leaf venation, thermomorphogenic and gravitropic responses, and sensitivity to exogenously applied auxin. We found that the recombinant auxin receptor complex, consisting of the F-Box protein TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1 (TIR1), ARABIDOPSIS SKP1 HOMOLOG 1 (ASK1), and the transcriptional repressor INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 7 (IAA7), binds to anionic inositol polyphosphates with high affinity. We further identified a physical interaction between ITPK1 and TIR1, suggesting a localized production of 5-InsP7, or another ITPK1-dependent InsP/PP-InsP isomer, to activate the auxin receptor complex. Finally, we demonstrate that ITPK1 and ITPK2 function redundantly to control auxin responses, as deduced from the auxin-insensitive phenotypes of itpk1 itpk2 double mutant plants. Our findings expand the mechanistic understanding of auxin perception and suggest that distinct inositol polyphosphates generated near auxin receptors help to fine-tune auxin sensitivity in plants.}

    @article{10.1093/plphys/kiac425,
    author = {Laha, Nargis Parvin and Giehl, Ricardo F H and Riemer, Esther and Qiu, Danye and Pullagurla, Naga Jyothi and Schneider, Robin and Dhir, Yashika Walia and Yadav, Ranjana and Mihiret, Yeshambel Emewodih and Gaugler, Philipp and Gaugler, Verena and Mao, Haibin and Zheng, Ning and von Wirén, Nicolaus and Saiardi, Adolfo and Bhattacharjee, Saikat and Jessen, Henning J and Laha, Debabrata and Schaaf, Gabriel},
    title = "{INOSITOL (1,3,4) TRIPHOSPHATE 5/6 KINASE1-dependent inositol polyphosphates regulate auxin responses in Arabidopsis}",
    journal = {Plant Physiology},
    volume = {190},
    number = {4},
    pages = {2722-2738},
    year = {2022},
    month = {09},
    abstract = "{The combinatorial phosphorylation of myo-inositol results in the generation of different inositol phosphates (InsPs), of which phytic acid (InsP6) is the most abundant species in eukaryotes. InsP6 is also an important precursor of the higher phosphorylated inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs), such as InsP7 and InsP8, which are characterized by a diphosphate moiety and are also ubiquitously found in eukaryotic cells. While PP-InsPs regulate various cellular processes in animals and yeast, their biosynthesis and functions in plants has remained largely elusive because plant genomes do not encode canonical InsP6 kinases. Recent work has shown that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) INOSITOL (1,3,4) TRIPHOSPHATE 5/6 KINASE1 (ITPK1) and ITPK2 display in vitro InsP6 kinase activity and that, in planta, ITPK1 stimulates 5-InsP7 and InsP8 synthesis and regulates phosphate starvation responses. Here we report a critical role of ITPK1 in auxin-related processes that is independent of the ITPK1-controlled regulation of phosphate starvation responses. Those processes include primary root elongation, root hair development, leaf venation, thermomorphogenic and gravitropic responses, and sensitivity to exogenously applied auxin. We found that the recombinant auxin receptor complex, consisting of the F-Box protein TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1 (TIR1), ARABIDOPSIS SKP1 HOMOLOG 1 (ASK1), and the transcriptional repressor INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE 7 (IAA7), binds to anionic inositol polyphosphates with high affinity. We further identified a physical interaction between ITPK1 and TIR1, suggesting a localized production of 5-InsP7, or another ITPK1-dependent InsP/PP-InsP isomer, to activate the auxin receptor complex. Finally, we demonstrate that ITPK1 and ITPK2 function redundantly to control auxin responses, as deduced from the auxin-insensitive phenotypes of itpk1 itpk2 double mutant plants. Our findings expand the mechanistic understanding of auxin perception and suggest that distinct inositol polyphosphates generated near auxin receptors help to fine-tune auxin sensitivity in plants.}",
    issn = {0032-0889},
    doi = {10.1093/plphys/kiac425},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/plphys/kiac425},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/plphys/article-pdf/190/4/2722/47382607/kiac425.pdf},
    }

  • M. P. T. Jr, T. Heckelei, and S. Rasch, "Aspirations and Investments in Livestock: Evidence of Aspiration Failure in Kenya," in 2022 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA , 2022. doi:10.22004/ag.econ.322435
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{raschfailure,
    author = {Martin Paul Tabe-Ojong Jr and Thomas Heckelei and Sebastian Rasch},
    title = {Aspirations and Investments in Livestock: Evidence of Aspiration Failure in Kenya},
    booktitle = {2022 Agricultural & Applied Economics Association Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA},
    year = {2022},
    url = {https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/322435/files/Tabe.pdf},
    doi = {10.22004/ag.econ.322435 }}

  • S. J. Seidel, T. Gaiser, A. K. Srivastava, D. Leitner, O. Schmittmann, M. Athmann, T. Kautz, J. Guigue, F. Ewert, and A. Schnepf, "Simulating Root Growth as a Function of Soil Strength and Yield With a Field-Scale Crop Model Coupled With a 3D Architectural Root Model," Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 13, 2022. doi:doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.865188
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{seidelfrontiers,
    title = {Simulating Root Growth as a Function of Soil Strength and Yield With a Field-Scale Crop Model Coupled With a 3D Architectural Root Model},
    journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
    author = {Sabine Julia Seidel and Thomas Gaiser and Amit Kumar Srivastava and Daniel Leitner and Oliver Schmittmann and Miriam Athmann and Timo Kautz and Julien Guigue and Frank Ewert and Andrea Schnepf},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.865188},
    url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2022.865188/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Plant_Science&id=865188}
    }

  • K. Abdalla, Y. Sun, M. Zarebanadkouki, T. Gaiser, S. Seidel, and J. Pausch, "Long-term continuous farmyard manure application increases soil carbon when combined with mineral fertilizers due to lower priming effects," Geoderma, vol. 428, p. 116216, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2022.116216
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Organic and synthetic fertilizers not only increase soil fertility and crop productivity but also enhance soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the priming effect (PE) leads to increased soil carbon (C) loss through native SOC mineralization. To date, the mechanisms by which long-term (>66 years) synthetic and/or organic fertilization alters net SOC sequestration remain a matter of debate. This study aimed to assess the effects of different fertilization practices on SOC decomposition and PE in agricultural systems subjected to long-term annual synthetic and/or organic fertilizer application. This aim was achieved by collecting topsoil samples (0–20 cm) from four long-term fertilization practices, i.e., unfertilized, synthetic supplemental (+s), cattle farmyard manure (+m, similar nutrient amount to +s), and synthetic fertilizer with farmyard manure (+s +m, the highest nutrient amount). The soil samples were incubated for 33 days with and without 13C-glucose addition, and a CO2 isotope analyzer combined with a modeling approach was used to establish a real-time method to monitor CO2 and 13CO2 production rates during the incubation period. Overall, +m increased the cumulative SOC-derived CO2 (SOC-CO2) by 107, 74, and 24 % compared to the unfertilized, +s and +s +m, respectively. The higher SOC-CO2 in +m treatment was associated with the greatest priming effect (PE, 390 ± 21 mg C kg soil−1), which corresponded to a 30 % increase compared to the average of the treatments that involved synthetic fertilizer (+s and +s +m) and a 137 % increase compared to the unfertilized control. The results were explained by the lower dissolved nitrogen (N), a proxy of available mineral N, in +m compared to +s +m, thus enhancing microbial mining for additional N via increasing SOC mineralization. However, the combined application of synthetic fertilizer and manure in the +s +m treatment provided enough easily accessible nutrients for microbial growth and activities from the applied synthetic fertilizer, leading to lower SOC mineralization than manure (+m) alone. Nevertheless, the treatments with manure application (i.e., +m and +s +m) significantly increased net SOC compared to the synthetically fertilized treatment and unfertilized control, suggesting greater C inputs than outputs and leading to high SOC accumulation over time. These results indicated that organic manure has a great potential to mitigate climate change by increasing SOC over time, which can be fostered by the addition of synthetic fertilizer; however, caution still needs to be taken regarding the quality and quantity of the added fertilizer.

    @article{ABDALLA2022116216,
    title = {Long-term continuous farmyard manure application increases soil carbon when combined with mineral fertilizers due to lower priming effects},
    journal = {Geoderma},
    volume = {428},
    pages = {116216},
    year = {2022},
    issn = {0016-7061},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2022.116216},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016706122005237},
    author = {Khatab Abdalla and Yue Sun and Mohsen Zarebanadkouki and Thomas Gaiser and Sabine Seidel and Johanna Pausch},
    keywords = {Basal respiration, Priming effect, Climate change, Fertilization, Soil organic matter},
    abstract = {Organic and synthetic fertilizers not only increase soil fertility and crop productivity but also enhance soil organic carbon (SOC). However, the priming effect (PE) leads to increased soil carbon (C) loss through native SOC mineralization. To date, the mechanisms by which long-term (>66 years) synthetic and/or organic fertilization alters net SOC sequestration remain a matter of debate. This study aimed to assess the effects of different fertilization practices on SOC decomposition and PE in agricultural systems subjected to long-term annual synthetic and/or organic fertilizer application. This aim was achieved by collecting topsoil samples (0–20 cm) from four long-term fertilization practices, i.e., unfertilized, synthetic supplemental (+s), cattle farmyard manure (+m, similar nutrient amount to +s), and synthetic fertilizer with farmyard manure (+s +m, the highest nutrient amount). The soil samples were incubated for 33 days with and without 13C-glucose addition, and a CO2 isotope analyzer combined with a modeling approach was used to establish a real-time method to monitor CO2 and 13CO2 production rates during the incubation period. Overall, +m increased the cumulative SOC-derived CO2 (SOC-CO2) by 107, 74, and 24 % compared to the unfertilized, +s and +s +m, respectively. The higher SOC-CO2 in +m treatment was associated with the greatest priming effect (PE, 390 ± 21 mg C kg soil−1), which corresponded to a 30 % increase compared to the average of the treatments that involved synthetic fertilizer (+s and +s +m) and a 137 % increase compared to the unfertilized control. The results were explained by the lower dissolved nitrogen (N), a proxy of available mineral N, in +m compared to +s +m, thus enhancing microbial mining for additional N via increasing SOC mineralization. However, the combined application of synthetic fertilizer and manure in the +s +m treatment provided enough easily accessible nutrients for microbial growth and activities from the applied synthetic fertilizer, leading to lower SOC mineralization than manure (+m) alone. Nevertheless, the treatments with manure application (i.e., +m and +s +m) significantly increased net SOC compared to the synthetically fertilized treatment and unfertilized control, suggesting greater C inputs than outputs and leading to high SOC accumulation over time. These results indicated that organic manure has a great potential to mitigate climate change by increasing SOC over time, which can be fostered by the addition of synthetic fertilizer; however, caution still needs to be taken regarding the quality and quantity of the added fertilizer.}
    }

  • S. Li, M. Cheng, and J. Gall, "Dual Pyramid Generative Adversarial Networks for Semantic Image Synthesis," in 33rd British Machine Vision Conference 2022, BMVC 2022, London, UK , 2022, p. 285. doi:https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2210.04085
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{DBLP:conf/bmvc/LiCG22,
    author = {Shijie Li and Ming Cheng and Juergen Gall},
    title = {Dual Pyramid Generative Adversarial Networks for Semantic Image Synthesis},
    booktitle = {33rd British Machine Vision Conference 2022, {BMVC} 2022, London, UK},
    pages = {285},
    publisher = {{BMVA} Press},
    year = {2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2210.04085},
    url = {https://bmvc2022.mpi-inf.mpg.de/285/},
    timestamp = {Thu, 16 Feb 2023 16:15:43 +0100},
    biburl = {https://dblp.org/rec/conf/bmvc/LiCG22.bib},
    bibsource = {dblp computer science bibliography, https://dblp.org}
    }

  • J. Rückin, L. Jin, F. Magistri, C. Stachniss, and M. Popović, "Informative Path Planning for Active Learning in Aerial Semantic Mapping," in 2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2022, pp. 11932-11939. doi:10.1109/IROS47612.2022.9981738
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9981738,
    author={Rückin, Julius and Jin, Liren and Magistri, Federico and Stachniss, Cyrill and Popović, Marija},
    booktitle={2022 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    title={Informative Path Planning for Active Learning in Aerial Semantic Mapping},
    year={2022},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={11932-11939},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2203.01652.pdf},
    codeurl={https://github.com/dmar-bonn/ipp-al},
    doi={10.1109/IROS47612.2022.9981738}}

  • J. Rückin, L. Jin, and M. Popović, "Adaptive Informative Path Planning Using Deep Reinforcement Learning for UAV-based Active Sensing," in 2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , 2022, pp. 4473-4479. doi:10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9812025
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9812025,
    author={Rückin, Julius and Jin, Liren and Popović, Marija},
    booktitle={2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
    title={Adaptive Informative Path Planning Using Deep Reinforcement Learning for UAV-based Active Sensing},
    year={2022},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={4473-4479},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2109.13570.pdf},
    codeurl={https://github.com/dmar-bonn/ipp-rl},
    doi={10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9812025}}

  • A. Dreier, H. Kuhlmann, and L. Klingbeil, "The potential of UAV-based Laser Scanning for Deformation Monitoring – Case Study on a Water Dam," in Proceedings of the 5th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM) , Valencia, Spain, 2022. doi:10.4995/JISDM2022.2022.13833
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{dreierdeformation,
    title = {The potential of UAV-based Laser Scanning for Deformation Monitoring – Case Study on a Water Dam},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM)},
    address = {Valencia, Spain},
    url={https://riunet.upv.es/bitstream/handle/10251/191734/DreierKuhlmannKlingbeil%20-%20The%20potential%20of%20UAV-based%20Laser%20Scanning%20for%20Deformation%20Monitoring%20%20C....pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    year = {2022},
    author = {Dreier, Ansgar and Kuhlmann, Heiner and Klingbeil, Lasse},
    doi = {10.4995/JISDM2022.2022.13833}}

  • F. Esser, J. Moraga, L. Klingbeil, and H. Kuhlmann, "Accuracy improvement of mobile laser scanning point clouds using graph-based trajectory optimization," in Proceedings of the 5th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM) , Valencia, Spain, 2022. doi:10.4995/JISDM2022.2022.13728
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{essermobilelaser,
    title = {Accuracy improvement of mobile laser scanning point clouds using graph-based trajectory optimization},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 5th Joint International Symposium on Deformation Monitoring (JISDM)},
    address = {Valencia, Spain},
    year = {2022},
    url={https://riunet.upv.es/bitstream/handle/10251/192341/EsserMoragaKlingbeil%20-%20Accuracy%20improvement%20of%20mobile%20laser%20scanning%20point%20clouds%20using%20graph-bas....pdf?sequence=1},
    author = {Esser, Felix and Moraga, José and Klingbeil, Lasse and Kuhlmann, Heiner},
    doi = {10.4995/JISDM2022.2022.13728}}

  • T. H. N. Ngyuen, M. Langensiepen, H. Hueging, T. Gaiser, S. J. Seidel, and F. Ewert, "Expansion and evaluation of two coupled root–shoot models in simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes and growth of maize," Vadose Zone Journal, vol. 21, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20181
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{Nguyen_vadose,
    title = {Expansion and evaluation of two coupled root–shoot models in simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes and growth of maize},
    journal = {Vadose Zone Journal},
    volume = {21},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20181},
    issue = {3},
    issn = {1539-1663},
    year = {2022},
    author = {Ngyuen, Thuy Huu Nguyen and Langensiepen, Matthias and Hueging, Hubert and Gaiser, Thomas and Seidel, Sabine J. and Ewert, Frank},
    url = {https://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/vzj2.20181}
    }

  • R. H. J. Heim, S. Streit, D. Koops, M. T. Kuska, and S. Paulus, "Digital Weed management – new trends for weed scoring in Sugar Beet," Sugar Industry, p. 343–351, 2022. doi:10.36961/si28804
    [BibTeX]
    @article{heim_streit_koops_kuska_paulus_2022, title={Digital Weed management – new trends for weed scoring in Sugar Beet}, DOI={10.36961/si28804}, journal={Sugar Industry}, author={Heim, René H.J. and Streit, Sebastian and Koops, Dirk and Kuska, Matheus Thomas and Paulus, Stefan}, year={2022}, pages={343–351}}

  • A. Mahlein, J. Behmann, D. Bohnenkamp, R. H. J. Heim, S. Streit, and S. Paulus, "Automated assessment of plant diseases and traits by sensors: how can digital technologies," in Advances in plant phenotyping for more sustainable crop production, A. Walter, Ed., Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited, 2022, p. 351–372. doi:https://doi.org/10.19103/as.2022.0102.17
    [BibTeX]
    @inbook{mahlein_behmann_bohnenkamp_^heim_streit_paulus_2022,
    place={Cambridge, UK},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.19103/as.2022.0102.17},
    title={Automated assessment of plant diseases and traits by sensors: how can digital technologies},
    booktitle={Advances in plant phenotyping for more sustainable crop production},
    publisher={Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited},
    author={Mahlein, Anne-Katrin and Behmann, J. and Bohnenkamp, D. and Heim, R.H.J. and Streit, S. and Paulus, S.},
    editor={Walter, AEditor},
    year={2022},
    pages={351–372}}

  • M. Heep and E. Zell, "ShadowPatch: Shadow Based Segmentation for Reliable Depth Discontinuities in Photometric Stereo," Computer Graphics Forum, 2022. doi:10.1111/cgf.14707
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{HeepCGF2022,
    title={ShadowPatch: Shadow Based Segmentation for Reliable Depth Discontinuities in Photometric Stereo},
    author={Heep, Moritz and Zell, Eduard},
    journal={Computer Graphics Forum},
    year={2022},
    url={http://www.eduardzell.com/publication/pg2022_paper/},
    doi={10.1111/cgf.14707}}

  • Y. Pan, Y. Kompis, L. Bartolomei, R. Mascaro, C. Stachniss, and M. Chli, "Voxfield: Non-Projective Signed Distance Fields for Online Planning and 3D Reconstruction," in IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2022) , 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000560719
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{pan2022voxfield,
    title={Voxfield: Non-Projective Signed Distance Fields for Online Planning and 3D Reconstruction},
    author={Pan, Yue and Kompis, Yves and Bartolomei, Luca and Mascaro, Ruben and Stachniss, Cyrill and Chli, Margarita},
    booktitle={IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2022)},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.3929/ethz-b-000560719},
    url={https://www.research-collection.ethz.ch/handle/20.500.11850/560719}}

  • K. D. Ingole, N. Nagarajan, S. Uhse, C. Giannini, and A. Djamei, "Tetracycline-controlled (TetON) gene expression system for the smut fungus Ustilago maydis," Frontiers in Fungal Biology, p. 65, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/ffunb.2022.1029114
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{ingole2022tetracycline,
    title={Tetracycline-controlled (TetON) gene expression system for the smut fungus Ustilago maydis},
    author={Ingole, Kishor D and Nagarajan, Nithya and Uhse, Simon and Giannini, Caterina and Djamei, Armin},
    journal={Frontiers in Fungal Biology},
    pages={65},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.3389/ffunb.2022.1029114},
    url={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/ffunb.2022.1029114/full}}

  • A. Macabuhay, B. Arsova, M. Watt, K. A. Nagel, H. Lenz, A. Putz, S. Adels, M. Müller-Linow, J. Kelm, A. A. Johnson, and others, "Plant Growth Promotion and Heat Stress Amelioration in Arabidopsis Inoculated with Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Rhizobacteria Quantified with the GrowScreen-Agar II Phenotyping Platform," Plants, vol. 11, iss. 21, 2022. doi:10.3390/plants11212927
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{macabuhay2022plant,
    title={Plant Growth Promotion and Heat Stress Amelioration in Arabidopsis Inoculated with Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Rhizobacteria Quantified with the GrowScreen-Agar II Phenotyping Platform},
    author={Macabuhay, Allene and Arsova, Borjana and Watt, Michelle and Nagel, Kerstin A and Lenz, Henning and Putz, Alexander and Adels, Sascha and Müller-Linow, Mark and Kelm, Jana and Johnson, Alexander AT and others},
    journal={Plants},
    volume={11},
    number={21},
    year={2022},
    doi={10.3390/plants11212927},
    url={https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36365381/}}

  • Y. Yu, J. A. Huisman, A. Klotzsche, H. Vereecken, and L. Weihermüller, "Coupled full-waveform inversion of horizontal borehole ground penetrating radar data to estimate soil hydraulic parameters: A synthetic study," Journal of Hydrology, vol. 610, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.127817
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{yu2022coupled,
    title={Coupled full-waveform inversion of horizontal borehole ground penetrating radar data to estimate soil hydraulic parameters: A synthetic study},
    author={Yu, Yi and Huisman, Johan Alexander and Klotzsche, Anja and Vereecken, Harry and Weihermüller, Lutz},
    journal={Journal of Hydrology},
    volume={610},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2022.127817},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0022169422003924}}

  • M. Schulz, D. Hofmann, B. Thiele, M. Rahmati, M. Siebers, V. Schütz, S. Jeong, L. Bigler, F. Held, B. Wu, and others, "A Below Ground Chemical Fight for Phosphate and Habitat-Interactions of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz with Microorganisms," , 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-2247394/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{schulz2022below,
    title={A Below Ground Chemical Fight for Phosphate and Habitat-Interactions of Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz with Microorganisms},
    author={Schulz, Margot and Hofmann, Diana and Thiele, Björn and Rahmati, Mehdi and Siebers, Meike and Schütz, Vadim and Jeong, Seungwoo and Bigler, Laurent and Held, Federico and Wu, Bei and others},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-2247394/v1},
    url={https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2247394/v1}}

  • C. Simanjuntak, T. Gaiser, H. E. Ahrends, and A. K. Srivastava, "Spatial and temporal patterns of agrometeorological indicators in maize producing provinces of South Africa," Scientific Reports, vol. 12, iss. 1, pp. 1-18, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-15847-7
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{simanjuntak2022spatial,
    title={Spatial and temporal patterns of agrometeorological indicators in maize producing provinces of South Africa},
    author={Simanjuntak, Christian and Gaiser, Thomas and Ahrends, Hella Ellen and Srivastava, Amit Kumar},
    journal={Scientific Reports},
    volume={12},
    number={1},
    pages={1-18},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-15847-7},
    url={https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-15847-7}}

  • J. Bentz, R. A. Patel, P. Benard, A. Lieu, A. Haupenthal, and E. Kroener, "How Heterogeneous Pore Scale Distributions of Wettability Affect Infiltration into Porous Media," Water, vol. 14, iss. 7, p. 1110, 2022. doi:10.3390/w14071110
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    @article{bentz2022,
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    doi={https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.902587},
    url={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2022.902587/full}}

  • M. Khan and A. Djamei, "Performing Infection Assays of Sporisorium reilianum f. sp. Zeae in Maize," in Environmental Responses in Plants, , 2022, pp. 291-298. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2297-1_20
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @incollection{khan2022performing,
    title={Performing Infection Assays of Sporisorium reilianum f. sp. Zeae in Maize},
    author={Khan, Mamoona and Djamei, Armin},
    booktitle={Environmental Responses in Plants},
    pages={291-298},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2297-1_20},
    url={https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-0716-2297-1_20}}

  • H. Peng, M. P. Cendrero-Mateo, J. Bendig, B. Siegmann, K. Acebron, C. Kneer, K. Kataja, O. Muller, and U. Rascher, "HyScreen: A Ground-Based Imaging System for High-Resolution Red and Far-Red Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence," Sensors, vol. 22, iss. 23, p. 9443, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239443
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{peng2022hyscreen,
    title={HyScreen: A Ground-Based Imaging System for High-Resolution Red and Far-Red Solar-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence},
    author={Peng, Huaiyue and Cendrero-Mateo, Maria Pilar and Bendig, Juliane and Siegmann, Bastian and Acebron, Kelvin and Kneer, Caspar and Kataja, Kari and Muller, Onno and Rascher, Uwe},
    journal={Sensors},
    volume={22},
    number={23},
    pages={9443},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239443},
    url={https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/22/23/9443}}

  • M. Miranda, L. Drees, and R. Roscher, "Controlled Multi-modal Image Generation for Plant Growth Modeling," in 2022 26th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) , 2022, pp. 5118-5124. doi:10.1109/ICPR56361.2022.9956115
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{miranda2022controlled,
    title={Controlled Multi-modal Image Generation for Plant Growth Modeling},
    author={Miranda, Miro and Drees, Lukas and Roscher, Ribana},
    booktitle={2022 26th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)},
    pages={5118-5124},
    year={2022},
    doi={10.1109/ICPR56361.2022.9956115},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9956115}}

  • T. Koch, D. Deumlich, P. Chifflard, K. Panten, and K. Grahmann, "Using model simulation to evaluate soil loss potential in diversified agricultural landscapes," European Journal of Soil Science, p. e13332, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13332
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{kochusing,
    title={Using model simulation to evaluate soil loss potential in diversified agricultural landscapes},
    author={Koch, Tobias and Deumlich, Detlef and Chifflard, Peter and Panten, Kerstin and Grahmann, Kathrin},
    journal={European Journal of Soil Science},
    pages={e13332},
    year={2022},
    doi={ https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.13332},
    url={https://bsssjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejss.13332}}

  • T. A. West, J. L. Caviglia-Harris, F. S. Martins, D. E. Silva, and J. Börner, "Potential conservation gains from improved protected area management in the Brazilian Amazon," Biological Conservation, vol. 269, p. 109526, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109526
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{west2022potential,
    title={Potential conservation gains from improved protected area management in the Brazilian Amazon},
    author={West, Thales AP and Caviglia-Harris, Jill L and Martins, Flora SRV and Silva, Daniel E and Börner, Jan},
    journal={Biological Conservation},
    volume={269},
    pages={109526},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109526},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320722000799}}

  • E. I. Katche, A. Schierholt, H. C. Becker, J. Batley, and A. S. Mason, "Fertility, genome stability, and homozygosity in a diverse set of resynthesized rapeseed lines," The Crop Journal, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2022.07.022
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{katche2022fertility,
    title={Fertility, genome stability, and homozygosity in a diverse set of resynthesized rapeseed lines},
    author={Katche, Elizabeth Ihien and Schierholt, Antje and Becker, Heiko C and Batley, Jacqueline and Mason, Annaliese S},
    journal={The Crop Journal},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cj.2022.07.022},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214514122002082}}

  • L. Drees, I. Weber, M. Russwurm, and R. Roscher, "Time Dependent Image Generation of Plants from Incomplete Sequences with CNN-Transformer," in DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition , 2022, pp. 495-510. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-16788-1_30
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{drees2022time,
    title={Time Dependent Image Generation of Plants from Incomplete Sequences with CNN-Transformer},
    author={Drees, Lukas and Weber, Immanuel and Russwurm, Marc and Roscher, Ribana},
    booktitle={DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition},
    pages={495-510},
    year={2022},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-16788-1_30},
    url={https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-16788-1_30}}

  • R. S. de Nóia Júnior, F. Ewert, H. Webber, P. Martre, T. W. Hertel, M. K. van Ittersum, and S. Asseng, "Needed global wheat stock and crop management in response to the war in Ukraine," Global Food Security, vol. 35, p. 100662, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2022.100662
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The war in Ukraine threatened to block 9% of global wheat exports, driving wheat prices to unprecedented heights. We advocate, that in the short term, compensating for such an export shortage will require a coordinated release of wheat stocks, while if the export block persists, other export countries will need to fill the gap by increasing wheat yields or by expanding wheat cropping areas by 8% in aggregate. We estimate that a production increase would require an extra half a million tons of nitrogen fertilizer, yet fertilizer prices are at record levels, driven by rising energy prices. Year-to-year variability plus more frequent climate change-induced crop failures could additionally reduce exports by another 5 to 7 million tons in any given year, further stressing global markets. Without stabilizing wheat supplies through judicious management of stocks and continuing yield improvements, food and national security are at risk across many nations in the world.

    @article{NOIAJUNIOR2022100662,
    title = {Needed global wheat stock and crop management in response to the war in Ukraine},
    journal = {Global Food Security},
    volume = {35},
    pages = {100662},
    year = {2022},
    issn = {2211-9124},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2022.100662},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912422000529},
    author = {Rogério de S. {Nóia Júnior} and Frank Ewert and Heidi Webber and Pierre Martre and Thomas W. Hertel and Martin K. {van Ittersum} and Senthold Asseng},
    keywords = {Food security, Hunger, Ukraine, War, Wheat export},
    abstract = {The war in Ukraine threatened to block 9% of global wheat exports, driving wheat prices to unprecedented heights. We advocate, that in the short term, compensating for such an export shortage will require a coordinated release of wheat stocks, while if the export block persists, other export countries will need to fill the gap by increasing wheat yields or by expanding wheat cropping areas by 8% in aggregate. We estimate that a production increase would require an extra half a million tons of nitrogen fertilizer, yet fertilizer prices are at record levels, driven by rising energy prices. Year-to-year variability plus more frequent climate change-induced crop failures could additionally reduce exports by another 5 to 7 million tons in any given year, further stressing global markets. Without stabilizing wheat supplies through judicious management of stocks and continuing yield improvements, food and national security are at risk across many nations in the world.}}

  • A. Barreto, F. R. Ispizua Yamati, M. Varrelmann, S. Paulus, and A. Mahlein, "Disease incidence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet assessed by multispectral unmanned aerial images and machine learning," Plant Disease, 2022. doi:10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Disease incidence and metrics of disease severity are relevant parameters for decision making in plant protection and plant breeding. To develop automated and sensor-based routines, a sugar beet variety trial was inoculated with Cercospora beticola and monitored with a multispectral camera system mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over the vegetation period. A pipeline based on machine learning methods was established for image data analysis and extraction of disease-relevant parameters. Features based on the digital surface model (DSM), vegetation indices, shadow condition and image resolution improved classification performance in comparison to using single multispectral channels in 12\% and 6\% of diseased and soil regions, respectively. With a post-processing step, area-related parameters were computed after classification. Results of this pipeline also included extraction of disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) from UAV data. The calculated area uunder disease progress curve (AUDPC) of DS was 2810.4 to 7058.8 \%.days for human visual scoring and 1400.5 to 4343.2 \%.days for UAV-based scoring. Moreover, a sharper differentiation of varieties compared to visual scoring was observed in area-related parameters, like area of complete foliage (AF), area of healthy foliage (AH) and mean area of CLS lesion by unit of foliage (Ac/F). These advantages provide the option to replace the laborious work of visual disease assessments in the field with a more precise non-destructive assessment via multispectral data acquired by UAV flights.

    @article{doi:10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE,
    author = {Barreto, Abel and Ispizua Yamati, Facundo Ramon and Varrelmann, Mark and Paulus, Stefan and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    title = {Disease incidence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet assessed by multispectral unmanned aerial images and machine learning},
    journal = {Plant Disease},
    year={2022},
    doi = {10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE},
    URL = {https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/PDIS-12-21-2734-RE},
    abstract = { Disease incidence and metrics of disease severity are relevant parameters for decision making in plant protection and plant breeding. To develop automated and sensor-based routines, a sugar beet variety trial was inoculated with Cercospora beticola and monitored with a multispectral camera system mounted to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) over the vegetation period. A pipeline based on machine learning methods was established for image data analysis and extraction of disease-relevant parameters. Features based on the digital surface model (DSM), vegetation indices, shadow condition and image resolution improved classification performance in comparison to using single multispectral channels in 12\% and 6\% of diseased and soil regions, respectively. With a post-processing step, area-related parameters were computed after classification. Results of this pipeline also included extraction of disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) from UAV data. The calculated area uunder disease progress curve (AUDPC) of DS was 2810.4 to 7058.8 \%.days for human visual scoring and 1400.5 to 4343.2 \%.days for UAV-based scoring. Moreover, a sharper differentiation of varieties compared to visual scoring was observed in area-related parameters, like area of complete foliage (AF), area of healthy foliage (AH) and mean area of CLS lesion by unit of foliage (Ac/F). These advantages provide the option to replace the laborious work of visual disease assessments in the field with a more precise non-destructive assessment via multispectral data acquired by UAV flights. }}

  • L. Wiesmann, T. Guadagnino, I. Vizzo, G. Grisetti, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "DCPCR: Deep Compressed Point Cloud Registration in Large-Scale Outdoor Environments," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, iss. 3, pp. 6327-6334, 2022. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3171068
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @ARTICLE{9765365,
    author={Wiesmann, Louis and Guadagnino, Tiziano and Vizzo, Ignacio and Grisetti, Giorgio and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={DCPCR: Deep Compressed Point Cloud Registration in Large-Scale Outdoor Environments},
    year={2022},
    volume={7},
    number={3},
    pages={6327-6334},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2022.3171068},
    url={ https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9765365}}

  • I. Vizzo, B. Mersch, R. Marcuzzi, L. Wiesmann, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Make it Dense: Self-Supervised Geometric Scan Completion of Sparse 3D LiDAR Scans in Large Outdoor Environments," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, iss. 3, pp. 8534-8541, 2022. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3187255
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @ARTICLE{9812507,
    author={Vizzo, Ignacio and Mersch, Benedikt and Marcuzzi, Rodrigo and Wiesmann, Louis and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={Make it Dense: Self-Supervised Geometric Scan Completion of Sparse 3D LiDAR Scans in Large Outdoor Environments},
    year={2022},
    volume={7},
    number={3},
    pages={8534-8541},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2022.3187255},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9812507}}

  • T. Guadagnino, X. Chen, M. Sodano, J. Behley, G. Grisetti, and C. Stachniss, "Fast Sparse LiDAR Odometry Using Self-Supervised Feature Selection on Intensity Images," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, iss. 3, pp. 7597-7604, 2022. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3184454
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @ARTICLE{9801638,
    author={Guadagnino, Tiziano and Chen, Xieyuanli and Sodano, Matteo and Behley, Jens and Grisetti, Giorgio and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal={IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title={Fast Sparse LiDAR Odometry Using Self-Supervised Feature Selection on Intensity Images},
    year={2022},
    volume={7},
    number={3},
    pages={7597-7604},
    doi={10.1109/LRA.2022.3184454},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9801638}}

  • J. Leonhardt, L. Drees, P. Jung, and R. Roscher, "Probabilistic Biomass Estimation with Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks," in Pattern Recognition , 2022, pp. 479-494. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-16788-1_29
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Biomass is an important variable for our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitating the need for satellite-based global and continuous monitoring. However, current machine learning methods used to map biomass can often not model the complex relationship between biomass and satellite observations or cannot account for the estimation's uncertainty. In this work, we exploit the stochastic properties of Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks for quantifying aleatoric uncertainty. Furthermore, we use generator Snapshot Ensembles in the context of epistemic uncertainty and show that unlabeled data can easily be incorporated into the training process. The methodology is tested on a newly presented dataset for satellite-based estimation of biomass from multispectral and radar imagery, using lidar-derived maps as reference data. The experiments show that the final network ensemble captures the dataset's probabilistic characteristics, delivering accurate estimates and well-calibrated uncertainties.

    @InProceedings{10.1007/978-3-031-16788-1_29,
    author= {Leonhardt, Johannes and Drees, Lukas and Jung, Peter and Roscher, Ribana},
    editor= {Andres, Björn and Bernard, Florian and Cremers, Daniel and Frintrop, Simone and Goldlücke, Bastian and Ihrke, Ivo},
    title= {Probabilistic Biomass Estimation with Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks},
    booktitle= {Pattern Recognition},
    year= {2022},
    publisher= {Springer International Publishing},
    pages= {479-494},
    abstract= {Biomass is an important variable for our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitating the need for satellite-based global and continuous monitoring. However, current machine learning methods used to map biomass can often not model the complex relationship between biomass and satellite observations or cannot account for the estimation's uncertainty. In this work, we exploit the stochastic properties of Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks for quantifying aleatoric uncertainty. Furthermore, we use generator Snapshot Ensembles in the context of epistemic uncertainty and show that unlabeled data can easily be incorporated into the training process. The methodology is tested on a newly presented dataset for satellite-based estimation of biomass from multispectral and radar imagery, using lidar-derived maps as reference data. The experiments show that the final network ensemble captures the dataset's probabilistic characteristics, delivering accurate estimates and well-calibrated uncertainties.},
    isbn= {978-3-031-6788-1},
    doi= {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-16788-1_29},
    url= {https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-16788-1_29}}

  • F. Magistri, E. Marks, S. Nagulavancha, I. Vizzo, T. Läbe, J. Behley, M. Halstead, C. McCool, and C. Stachniss, "Contrastive 3D Shape Completion and Reconstruction for Agricultural Robots Using RGB-D Frames." 2022, pp. 10120-10127. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3193239
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{marks2022precise,
    author= {Magistri, Federico and Marks, Elias and Nagulavancha, Sumanth and Vizzo, Ignacio and Läbe, Thomas and Behley, Jens and Halstead, Michael and McCool, Chris and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    journal= {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title= {Contrastive 3D Shape Completion and Reconstruction for Agricultural Robots Using RGB-D Frames},
    year= {2022},
    volume= {7},
    number= {4},
    pages= {10120-10127},
    doi= {10.1109/LRA.2022.3193239},
    url= {https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9837391}}

  • M. Knott, M. Ani, E. Kroener, and D. Diehl, "Effect of environmental conditions on physical properties of maize root mucilage," Plant Soil, vol. 478, p. 85–101, 2022. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1260909/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{knott2022effect,
    author= {Knott, Mathilde and Ani, Mina and Kroener, Eva and Diehl, Dörte},
    title= {Effect of environmental conditions on physical properties of maize root mucilage},
    journal= {Plant Soil},
    volume = {478},
    year= {2022},
    pages = {85–101},
    doi = {10.21203/rs.3.rs-1260909/v1},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11104-022-05577-0},
    }

  • Y. Kusunose, J. J. Rossi, D. A. Van Sanford, P. D. Alderman, J. A. Anderson, Y. Chai, M. K. Gerullis, K. S. V. Jagadish, P. A. Paul, J. B. Tack, and B. D. Wright, "Sustaining productivity gains in the face of climate change: A research agenda for US wheat," Global Change Biology, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16538
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract Wheat is a globally important crop and one of the “big three” US field crops. But unlike the other two (maize and soybean), in the United States its development is commercially unattractive, and so its breeding takes place primarily in public universities. Troublingly, the incentive structures within these universities may be hindering genetic improvement just as climate change is complicating breeding efforts. “Business as usual” in the US public wheat-breeding infrastructure may not sustain productivity increases. To address this concern, we held a multidisciplinary conference in which researchers from 12 US (public) universities and one European university shared the current state of knowledge in their disciplines, aired concerns, and proposed initiatives that could facilitate maintaining genetic improvement of wheat in the face of climate change. We discovered that climate-change-oriented breeding efforts are currently considered too risky and/or costly for most university wheat breeders to undertake, leading to a relative lack of breeding efforts that focus on abiotic stressors such as drought and heat. We hypothesize that this risk/cost burden can be reduced through the development of appropriate germplasm, relevant screening mechanisms, consistent germplasm characterization, and innovative models predicting the performance of germplasm under projected future climate conditions. However, doing so will require coordinated, longer-term, inter-regional efforts to generate phenotype data, and the modification of incentive structures to consistently reward such efforts.

    @article{https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16538,
    author = {Kusunose, Yoko and Rossi, Jairus J. and Van Sanford, David A. and Alderman, Phillip D. and Anderson, James A. and Chai, Yuan and Gerullis, Maria K. and Jagadish, S. V. Krishna and Paul, Pierce A. and Tack, Jesse B. and Wright, Brian D.},
    title = {Sustaining productivity gains in the face of climate change: A research agenda for US wheat},
    journal = {Global Change Biology},
    year = {2022},
    keywords = {abiotic stressors, biotic stressors, climate uncertainty, genetic improvement, institutions, land-grant universities, research infrastructure, United States, wheat breeding},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.16538},
    url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/gcb.16538},
    eprint = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/gcb.16538},
    abstract = {Abstract Wheat is a globally important crop and one of the “big three” US field crops. But unlike the other two (maize and soybean), in the United States its development is commercially unattractive, and so its breeding takes place primarily in public universities. Troublingly, the incentive structures within these universities may be hindering genetic improvement just as climate change is complicating breeding efforts. “Business as usual” in the US public wheat-breeding infrastructure may not sustain productivity increases. To address this concern, we held a multidisciplinary conference in which researchers from 12 US (public) universities and one European university shared the current state of knowledge in their disciplines, aired concerns, and proposed initiatives that could facilitate maintaining genetic improvement of wheat in the face of climate change. We discovered that climate-change-oriented breeding efforts are currently considered too risky and/or costly for most university wheat breeders to undertake, leading to a relative lack of breeding efforts that focus on abiotic stressors such as drought and heat. We hypothesize that this risk/cost burden can be reduced through the development of appropriate germplasm, relevant screening mechanisms, consistent germplasm characterization, and innovative models predicting the performance of germplasm under projected future climate conditions. However, doing so will require coordinated, longer-term, inter-regional efforts to generate phenotype data, and the modification of incentive structures to consistently reward such efforts.}
    }

  • N. Wang, B. Siegmann, U. Rascher, J. G. P. W. Clevers, O. Muller, H. Bartholomeus, J. Bendig, D. Masiliunas, R. Pude, and L. Kooistra, "Comparison of a UAV- and an airborne-based system to acquire far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over structurally different crops," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 323, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2022.109081
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{wang_meteorology,
    author = {Wang, Na and Siegmann, Bastian and Rascher, Uwe and Clevers, Jan G.P.W. and Muller, Onno and Bartholomeus, Harm and Bendig, Juliane and Masiliunas, Dainius and Pude, Ralf and Kooistra, Lammert},
    title = {Comparison of a UAV- and an airborne-based system to acquire far-red sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence measurements over structurally different crops},
    journal = {Agricultural and Forest Meteorology},
    volume = {323},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2022.109081},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192322002696?via%3Dihub},
    }

  • M. Rossini, M. Celesti, G. Bramati, M. Migliavacca, S. Cogliati, U. Rascher, and R. Colombo, "Evaluation of the Spatial Representativeness of In Situ SIF Observations for the Validation of Medium-Resolution Satellite SIF Products," Remote Sensing, vol. 14, iss. 20, 2022. doi:10.3390/rs14205107
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The upcoming Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission will provide sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) products at unprecedented spatial resolution. Thus, accurate calibration and validation (cal/val) of these products are key to guarantee robust SIF estimates for the assessment and quantification of photosynthetic processes. In this study, we address one specific component of the uncertainty budget related to SIF retrieval: the spatial representativeness of in situ SIF observations compared to medium-resolution SIF products (e.g., 300 m pixel size). Here, we propose an approach to evaluate an optimal sampling strategy to characterise the spatial representativeness of in situ SIF observations based on high-spatial-resolution SIF data. This approach was applied for demonstration purposes to two agricultural areas that have been extensively characterized with a HyPlant airborne imaging spectrometer in recent years. First, we determined the spatial representativeness of an increasing number of sampling points with respect to a reference area (either monocultural crop fields or hypothetical FLEX pixels characterised by different land cover types). Then, we compared different sampling approaches to determine which strategy provided the most representative reference data for a given area. Results show that between 3 and 13.5 sampling points are needed to characterise the average SIF value of both monocultural fields and hypothetical FLEX pixels of the agricultural areas considered in this study. The number of sampling points tends to increase with the standard deviation of SIF of the reference area, as well as with the number of land cover classes in a FLEX pixel, even if the increase is not always statistically significant. This study contributes to guiding cal/val activities for the upcoming FLEX mission, providing useful insights for the selection of the validation site network and particularly for the definition of the best sampling scheme for each site.

    @Article{rs14205107,
    AUTHOR = {Rossini, Micol and Celesti, Marco and Bramati, Gabriele and Migliavacca, Mirco and Cogliati, Sergio and Rascher, Uwe and Colombo, Roberto},
    TITLE = {Evaluation of the Spatial Representativeness of In Situ SIF Observations for the Validation of Medium-Resolution Satellite SIF Products},
    JOURNAL = {Remote Sensing},
    VOLUME = {14},
    YEAR = {2022},
    NUMBER = {20},
    ARTICLE-NUMBER = {5107},
    URL = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/14/20/5107},
    ISSN = {2072-4292},
    ABSTRACT = {The upcoming Fluorescence Explorer (FLEX) mission will provide sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) products at unprecedented spatial resolution. Thus, accurate calibration and validation (cal/val) of these products are key to guarantee robust SIF estimates for the assessment and quantification of photosynthetic processes. In this study, we address one specific component of the uncertainty budget related to SIF retrieval: the spatial representativeness of in situ SIF observations compared to medium-resolution SIF products (e.g., 300 m pixel size). Here, we propose an approach to evaluate an optimal sampling strategy to characterise the spatial representativeness of in situ SIF observations based on high-spatial-resolution SIF data. This approach was applied for demonstration purposes to two agricultural areas that have been extensively characterized with a HyPlant airborne imaging spectrometer in recent years. First, we determined the spatial representativeness of an increasing number of sampling points with respect to a reference area (either monocultural crop fields or hypothetical FLEX pixels characterised by different land cover types). Then, we compared different sampling approaches to determine which strategy provided the most representative reference data for a given area. Results show that between 3 and 13.5 sampling points are needed to characterise the average SIF value of both monocultural fields and hypothetical FLEX pixels of the agricultural areas considered in this study. The number of sampling points tends to increase with the standard deviation of SIF of the reference area, as well as with the number of land cover classes in a FLEX pixel, even if the increase is not always statistically significant. This study contributes to guiding cal/val activities for the upcoming FLEX mission, providing useful insights for the selection of the validation site network and particularly for the definition of the best sampling scheme for each site.},
    DOI = {10.3390/rs14205107}
    }

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    title = {Innovation context and technology traits explain heterogeneity across studies of agricultural technology adoption: {A} meta‐analysis},
    copyright = {All rights reserved},
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    shorttitle = {Innovation context and technology traits explain heterogeneity across studies of agricultural technology adoption},
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    author = {Bauer, F. AND Lärm, L. AND Morandage, S. AND Lobet, G. AND Vanderborght, J. AND Vereecken, H. AND Schnepf, A.},
    title = {{Development and Validation of a Deep Learning Based Automated Minirhizotron Image Analysis Pipeline}},
    journal = {Plant Phenomics},
    url={https://downloads.spj.sciencemag.org/plantphenomics/2022/9758532.pdf},
    volume = {2022},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.34133/2022/9758532},
    }

  • M. Tazifor, E. Zimmermann, J. A. Huisman, M. Dick, A. Mester, and S. Van Waasen, "Model-Based Correction of Temperature-Dependent Measurement Errors in Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Induction (FDEMI) Systems," Sensors, vol. 22, 2022. doi:10.3390/s22103882
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{tazifor2022sensors,
    author = {Tazifor, M. AND Zimmermann, E. AND Huisman, J.A. AND Dick, M. AND Mester, A. AND Van Waasen, S.},
    title = {{Model-Based Correction of Temperature-Dependent Measurement Errors in Frequency Domain Electromagnetic Induction (FDEMI) Systems}},
    journal = {Sensors},
    url={https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/22/10/3882},
    volume = {22},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {10.3390/s22103882},
    }

  • I. Saado, K. Chia, R. Betz, A. Alcantara, A. Pettko-Szandtner, F. Navarrete, J. C. D'Auria, M. V. Kolomiets, M. Melzer, I. Feussner, and A. Djamei, "Effector-mediated relocalization of a maize lipoxygenase protein triggers susceptibility to Ustilago maydis," The Plant Cell, pp. 1-21, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koac105
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{saado2022plantcell,
    author = {Saado, I. AND Chia, K. AND Betz, R. AND Alcantara, A. AND Pettko-Szandtner, A. AND Navarrete, F. AND D'Auria, J. C. AND Kolomiets, M. V. AND Melzer, M. AND Feussner, I. AND Djamei, A.},
    title = {{Effector-mediated relocalization of a maize lipoxygenase
    protein triggers susceptibility to Ustilago maydis}},
    journal = {The Plant Cell},
    year = {2022},
    issn = {1040-4651},
    pages = {1-21},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koac105},
    url = {https://academic.oup.com/plcell/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/plcell/koac105/43541391/koac105.pdf},
    }

  • L. Zabawa, A. Kicherer, L. Klingbeil, R. Töpfer, R. Roscher, and H. Kuhlmann, "Image-based analysis of yield parameters in viticulture," Biosystems Engineering, vol. 218, pp. 94-109, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2022.04.009
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Yield estimation is of great interest in viticulture, since an early estimation could influence management decisions of winegrowers. The current practice involves destructive sampling of small sets in the field and a subsequent detailed analysis in the laboratory. The results are extrapolated to the field and only approximate the actual conditions. Therefore, research in recent years focused on sensor-based systems mounted on field vehicles since they offer a fast, accurate and robust data acquisition. However many works stop after detecting fruits, rarely the actual yield estimation is tackled. We present a novel yield estimation pipeline that uses images captured by a multi-camera system. The system is mounted on a field phenotyping platform called Phenoliner, which has been built from a modified grapevine harvester. We use a neural network whose output is used to count berries in single images. In contrast to other existing methods we take the step from the single vine image processing to the plant level. The information of multiple images is used to acquire a count on plant level and the approach is extended to the processing based on the whole row. The acquired berry counts are used as input for the yield estimation, and we explore the limitations and potentials of our pipeline. We identify the variability of the leaf occlusion as the main limiting factor, but nonetheless we achieve a mean absolute yield prediction error of 26\% for plants in the vertical shoot positioned system. We evaluate each described stage comprehensively in this study.

    @article{ZABAWA202294,
    title = {Image-based analysis of yield parameters in viticulture},
    journal = {Biosystems Engineering},
    volume = {218},
    pages = {94-109},
    year = {2022},
    issn = {1537-5110},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2022.04.009},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1537511022000861},
    author = {Zabawa, L. AND Kicherer, A. AND Klingbeil, L. AND Töpfer, R. AND Roscher, R. AND Kuhlmann, H.},
    keywords = {Deep Learning, Semantic Segmentation, Geoinformation, Viticulture, Yield Estimation},
    abstract = {Yield estimation is of great interest in viticulture, since an early estimation could influence management decisions of winegrowers. The current practice involves destructive sampling of small sets in the field and a subsequent detailed analysis in the laboratory. The results are extrapolated to the field and only approximate the actual conditions. Therefore, research in recent years focused on sensor-based systems mounted on field vehicles since they offer a fast, accurate and robust data acquisition. However many works stop after detecting fruits, rarely the actual yield estimation is tackled. We present a novel yield estimation pipeline that uses images captured by a multi-camera system. The system is mounted on a field phenotyping platform called Phenoliner, which has been built from a modified grapevine harvester. We use a neural network whose output is used to count berries in single images. In contrast to other existing methods we take the step from the single vine image processing to the plant level. The information of multiple images is used to acquire a count on plant level and the approach is extended to the processing based on the whole row. The acquired berry counts are used as input for the yield estimation, and we explore the limitations and potentials of our pipeline. We identify the variability of the leaf occlusion as the main limiting factor, but nonetheless we achieve a mean absolute yield prediction error of 26\% for plants in the vertical shoot positioned system. We evaluate each described stage comprehensively in this study.}
    }

  • A. S. Wendel, S. L. Bauke, W. Amelung, and C. Knief, "Root-rhizosphere-soil interactions in biopores," Plant and Soil, p. 1–25, 2022. doi:10.1007/s11104-022-05406-4
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{wendel2022root,
    author = {Wendel, A.S. AND Bauke, S.L. AND Amelung, W. AND Knief, C.},
    title = {{Root-rhizosphere-soil interactions in biopores}},
    journal = {Plant and Soil},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {10.1007/s11104-022-05406-4},
    pages = {1--25},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11104-022-05406-4.pdf},
    }

  • D. Demie, T. Döring, M. Finckh, W. van der Werf, J. Enjalbert, and S. Seidel, "Mixture X Genotype Effects in Cereal/Legume Intercropping," Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 13, 2022. doi:10.3389/fpls.2022.846720
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{demie2022frontiers,
    author = {Demie, D. AND Döring, T. AND Finckh, M. AND van der Werf, W. AND Enjalbert, J. AND Seidel, S.},
    title = {{Mixture X Genotype Effects in Cereal/Legume Intercropping}},
    journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
    volume = {13},
    issue = {1664-462X},
    url={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2022.846720/full},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {10.3389/fpls.2022.846720},
    }

  • E. Chakhvashvili, B. Siegmann, O. Muller, J. Verrelst, J. Bendig, T. Kraska, and U. Rascher, "Retrieval of Crop Variables from Proximal Multispectral UAV Image Data Using PROSAIL in Maize Canopy," Remote Sensing, vol. 14, 2022. doi:10.3390/rs14051247
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{Chakhvashvili2022remote,
    author = {Chakhvashvili, E. AND Siegmann, B. AND Muller, O. AND Verrelst, J. AND Bendig, J. AND Kraska, T. AND Rascher, U.},
    title = {{Retrieval of Crop Variables from Proximal Multispectral UAV Image Data Using PROSAIL in Maize Canopy}},
    journal = {Remote Sensing},
    url={https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/14/5/1247},
    volume = {14},
    issue = {2072-4292},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {10.3390/rs14051247},
    }

  • X. Zeng, T. Zaenker, and M. Bennewitz, "Deep Reinforcement Learning for Next-Best-View Planning in Agricultural Applications," in Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2022, pp. 2323-2329. doi:10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9811800
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{Zeng22icra,
    author = {X. Zeng and T. Zaenker and M. Bennewitz},
    title = {Deep Reinforcement Learning for Next-Best-View Planning in Agricultural Applications},
    url={https://www.hrl.uni-bonn.de/publications/zeng22icra.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9811800},
    pages={2323-2329},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2022}
    }

  • W. Shi, Y. Zhou, X. Zeng, S. Li, and M. Bennewitz, "Enhanced Spatial Attention Graph for Motion Planning in Crowded, Partially Observable Environments," in 2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , 2022, pp. 4750-4756. doi:10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9812322
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9812322,
    author={Shi, Weixian and Zhou, Yanying and Zeng, Xiangyu and Li, Shijie and Bennewitz, Maren},
    booktitle={2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
    title={Enhanced Spatial Attention Graph for Motion Planning in Crowded, Partially Observable Environments},
    year={2022},
    volume={},
    url={https://www.hrl.uni-bonn.de/publications/shi22icra.pdf},
    number={},
    pages={4750-4756},
    doi={10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9812322}}

  • D. Khare, T. Selzner, D. Leitner, J. Vanderborght, H. Vereecken, and A. Schnepf, "Root System Scale Models Significantly Overestimate Root Water Uptake at Drying Soil Conditions," Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 13, 2022. doi:10.3389/fpls.2022.798741
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Soil hydraulic conductivity (ksoil) drops significantly in dry soils, resulting in steep soil water potential gradients (ψs) near plant roots during water uptake. Coarse soil grid resolutions in root system scale (RSS) models of root water uptake (RWU) generally do not spatially resolve this gradient in drying soils which can lead to a large overestimation of RWU. To quantify this, we consider a benchmark scenario of RWU from drying soil for which a numerical reference solution is available. We analyze this problem using a finite volume scheme and investigate the impact of grid size on the RSS model results. At dry conditions, the cumulative RWU was overestimated by up to 300\% for the coarsest soil grid of 4.0 cm and by 30\% for the finest soil grid of 0.2 cm, while the computational demand increased from 19 s to 21 h. As an accurate and computationally efficient alternative to the RSS model, we implemented a continuum multi-scale model where we keep a coarse grid resolution for the bulk soil, but in addition, we solve a 1-dimensional radially symmetric soil model at rhizosphere scale around individual root segments. The models at the two scales are coupled in a mass-conservative way. The multi-scale model compares best to the reference solution (−20\%) at much lower computational costs of 4 min. Our results demonstrate the need to shift to improved RWU models when simulating dry soil conditions and highlight that results for dry conditions obtained with RSS models of RWU should be interpreted with caution.

    @Article{10.3389/fpls.2022.798741,
    author = {Khare, Deepanshu and Selzner, Tobias and Leitner, Daniel and Vanderborght, Jan and Vereecken, Harry and Schnepf, Andrea},
    title = {Root System Scale Models Significantly Overestimate Root Water Uptake at Drying Soil Conditions},
    journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2022},
    url = {https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpls.2022.798741},
    doi = {10.3389/fpls.2022.798741},
    issn = {1664-462X},
    abstract = {Soil hydraulic conductivity (ksoil) drops significantly in dry soils, resulting in steep soil water potential gradients (ψs) near plant roots during water uptake. Coarse soil grid resolutions in root system scale (RSS) models of root water uptake (RWU) generally do not spatially resolve this gradient in drying soils which can lead to a large overestimation of RWU. To quantify this, we consider a benchmark scenario of RWU from drying soil for which a numerical reference solution is available. We analyze this problem using a finite volume scheme and investigate the impact of grid size on the RSS model results. At dry conditions, the cumulative RWU was overestimated by up to 300\% for the coarsest soil grid of 4.0 cm and by 30\% for the finest soil grid of 0.2 cm, while the computational demand increased from 19 s to 21 h. As an accurate and computationally efficient alternative to the RSS model, we implemented a continuum multi-scale model where we keep a coarse grid resolution for the bulk soil, but in addition, we solve a 1-dimensional radially symmetric soil model at rhizosphere scale around individual root segments. The models at the two scales are coupled in a mass-conservative way. The multi-scale model compares best to the reference solution (−20\%) at much lower computational costs of 4 min. Our results demonstrate the need to shift to improved RWU models when simulating dry soil conditions and highlight that results for dry conditions obtained with RSS models of RWU should be interpreted with caution.},
    }

  • S. Li, X. Chen, Y. Liu, D. Dai, C. Stachniss, and J. Gall, "Multi-Scale Interaction for Real-Time LiDAR Data Segmentation on an Embedded Platform," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, iss. 2, pp. 738-745, 2022. doi:10.1109/LRA.2021.3132059
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{9633188,
    author = {Li, Shijie and Chen, Xieyuanli and Liu, Yun and Dai, Dengxin and Stachniss, Cyrill and Gall, Juergen},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    title = {Multi-Scale Interaction for Real-Time LiDAR Data Segmentation on an Embedded Platform},
    year = {2022},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2008.09162.pdf},
    volume = {7},
    number = {2},
    pages = {738-745},
    doi = {10.1109/LRA.2021.3132059},
    }

  • I. Vizzo, T. Guadagnino, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "VDBFusion: Flexible and Efficient TSDF Integration of Range Sensor Data," Sensors, vol. 22, iss. 3, 2022. doi:10.3390/s22031296
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{vizzo2022sensors,
    author = {Vizzo, Ignacio and Guadagnino, Tiziano and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    title = {VDBFusion: Flexible and Efficient TSDF Integration of Range Sensor Data},
    journal = {Sensors},
    volume = {22},
    year = {2022},
    number = {3},
    article-number= {1296},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/22/3/1296},
    issn = {1424-8220},
    doi = {10.3390/s22031296},
    }

  • L. Wiesmann, R. Marcuzzi, C. Stachniss, and J. Behley, "Retriever: Point Cloud Retrieval in Compressed 3D Maps," in 2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , 2022, pp. 10925-10932. doi:10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9811785
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9811785,
    author={Wiesmann, Louis and Marcuzzi, Rodrigo and Stachniss, Cyrill and Behley, Jens},
    booktitle={2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
    title={Retriever: Point Cloud Retrieval in Compressed 3D Maps},
    year={2022},
    volume={},
    number={},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/wiesmann2022icra.pdf},
    pages={10925-10932},
    doi={10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9811785}}

  • E. Marks, F. Magistri, and C. Stachniss, "Precise 3D Reconstruction of Plants from UAV Imagery Combining Bundle Adjustment and Template Matching," in 2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , 2022, pp. 2259-2265. doi:10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9811358
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9811358,
    author={Marks, Elias and Magistri, Federico and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    booktitle={2022 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
    title={Precise 3D Reconstruction of Plants from UAV Imagery Combining Bundle Adjustment and Template Matching},
    year={2022},
    volume={},
    number={},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/marks2022icra.pdf},
    pages={2259-2265},
    doi={10.1109/ICRA46639.2022.9811358}}

  • L. Mau, S. Junker, H. Bochmann, Y. E. Mihiret, J. M. Kelm, S. D. Schrey, U. Roessner, G. Schaaf, M. Watt, J. Kant, and B. Arsova, "Root Growth and Architecture of Wheat and Brachypodium Vary in Response to Algal Fertilizer in Soil and Solution," Agronomy, vol. 12, iss. 2, 2022. doi:10.3390/agronomy12020285
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Alternative, recycled sources for mined phosphorus (P) fertilizers are needed to sustain future crop growth. Quantification of phenotypic adaptations and performance of plants with a recycled nutrient source is required to identify breeding targets and agronomy practices for new fertilization strategies. In this study, we tested the phenotypic responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its genetic model, Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), to dried algal biomass (with algae or high or low mineral P) under three growing conditions (fabricated ecosystems (EcoFABs), hydroponics, and sand). For both species, algal-grown plants had similar shoot biomass to mineral-grown plants, taking up more P than the low mineral P plants. Root phenotypes however were strongly influenced by nutrient form, especially in soilless conditions. Algae promoted the development of shorter and thicker roots, notably first and second order lateral roots. Root hairs were 21\% shorter in Brachypodium, but 24\% longer in wheat with algae compared to mineral high P. Our results are encouraging to new recycled fertilization strategies, showing algae is a nutrient source to wheat and Brachypodium. Variation in root phenotypes showed algal biomass is sensed by roots and is taken up at a higher amount per root length than mineral P. These phenotypes can be selected and further adapted in phenotype-based breeding for future renewal agriculture systems.

    @Article{agronomy12020285,
    author = {Mau, Lisa and Junker, Simone and Bochmann, Helena and Mihiret, Yeshambel E. and Kelm, Jana M. and Schrey, Silvia D. and Roessner, Ute and Schaaf, Gabriel and Watt, Michelle and Kant, Josefine and Arsova, Borjana},
    title = {Root Growth and Architecture of Wheat and Brachypodium Vary in Response to Algal Fertilizer in Soil and Solution},
    journal = {Agronomy},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2022},
    number = {2},
    article-number= {285},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/12/2/285},
    issn = {2073-4395},
    abstract = {Alternative, recycled sources for mined phosphorus (P) fertilizers are needed to sustain future crop growth. Quantification of phenotypic adaptations and performance of plants with a recycled nutrient source is required to identify breeding targets and agronomy practices for new fertilization strategies. In this study, we tested the phenotypic responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its genetic model, Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon), to dried algal biomass (with algae or high or low mineral P) under three growing conditions (fabricated ecosystems (EcoFABs), hydroponics, and sand). For both species, algal-grown plants had similar shoot biomass to mineral-grown plants, taking up more P than the low mineral P plants. Root phenotypes however were strongly influenced by nutrient form, especially in soilless conditions. Algae promoted the development of shorter and thicker roots, notably first and second order lateral roots. Root hairs were 21\% shorter in Brachypodium, but 24\% longer in wheat with algae compared to mineral high P. Our results are encouraging to new recycled fertilization strategies, showing algae is a nutrient source to wheat and Brachypodium. Variation in root phenotypes showed algal biomass is sensed by roots and is taken up at a higher amount per root length than mineral P. These phenotypes can be selected and further adapted in phenotype-based breeding for future renewal agriculture systems.},
    doi = {10.3390/agronomy12020285},
    }

  • A. Deja-Muylle, D. Opdenacker, B. Parizot, H. Motte, G. Lobet, V. Storme, P. Clauw, M. Njo, and T. Beeckman, "Genetic Variability of Arabidopsis thaliana Mature Root System Architecture and Genome-Wide Association Study," Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 12, 2022. doi:https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.814110
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{deja2022genetic,
    title = {Genetic Variability of Arabidopsis thaliana Mature Root System Architecture and Genome-Wide Association Study},
    author = {Deja-Muylle, Agnieszka and Opdenacker, Davy and Parizot, Boris and Motte, Hans and Lobet, Guillaume and Storme, Veronique and Clauw, Pieter and Njo, Maria and Beeckman, Tom},
    journal = {Frontiers in Plant Science},
    volume = {12},
    url={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2021.814110/full},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.814110},
    year = {2022},
    }

  • F. Ispizua Yamati, M. Günder, C. Bauckhage, and A. Mahlein, "Sensing the occurrence and dynamics of Cercospora leaf spot disease using UAV-supported image data and deep learning," Sugar Industry, vol. 147, 2022. doi:10.36961/si28345
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{ispizua2022sugar,
    title = {Sensing the occurrence and dynamics of Cercospora leaf spot disease using UAV-supported image data and deep learning},
    author = {Ispizua Yamati, Facundo and Günder, Maurice and Bauckhage, Christian and Mahlein, Anne-Kathrin},
    journal = {Sugar Industry},
    volume = {147},
    issn = {2},
    pages {79-86},
    year = {2022},
    doi = {10.36961/si28345},
    }

  • B. Mersch, X. Chen, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Self-supervised point cloud prediction using 3d spatio-temporal convolutional networks," in Conference on Robot Learning , 2022, p. 1444–1454. doi:https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2110.04076
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{mersch2022self,
    title = {Self-supervised point cloud prediction using 3d spatio-temporal convolutional networks},
    author = {Mersch, Benedikt and Chen, Xieyuanli and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    booktitle = {Conference on Robot Learning},
    pages = {1444--1454},
    url={https://proceedings.mlr.press/v164/mersch22a/mersch22a.pdf},
    doi={https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2110.04076},
    year = {2022},
    organization = {PMLR},
    }

  • J. Weyler, F. Magistri, P. Seitz, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "In-Field Phenotyping Based on Crop Leaf and Plant Instance Segmentation," in Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision , 2022, p. 2725–2734. doi:10.1109/wacv51458.2022.00302
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{weyler2022field,
    title = {In-Field Phenotyping Based on Crop Leaf and Plant Instance Segmentation},
    author = {Weyler, Jan and Magistri, Federico and Seitz, Peter and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    url={https://openaccess.thecvf.com/content/WACV2022/papers/Weyler_In-Field_Phenotyping_Based_on_Crop_Leaf_and_Plant_Instance_Segmentation_WACV_2022_paper.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/wacv51458.2022.00302},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/CVF Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision},
    pages = {2725--2734},
    year = {2022},
    }

  • M. Morisse, D. M. Wells, E. J. Millet, M. Lillemo, S. Fahrner, F. Cellini, P. Lootens, O. Muller, J. M. Herrera, A. R. Bentley, and others, "A European perspective on opportunities and demands for field-based crop phenotyping," , vol. 276, p. 108371, 2022. doi:10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108371},  journal = {Field Crops Research
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{morisse2022european,
    title = {A European perspective on opportunities and demands for field-based crop phenotyping},
    author = {Morisse, Merlijn and Wells, Darren M and Millet, Emilie J and Lillemo, Morten and Fahrner, Sven and Cellini, Francesco and Lootens, Peter and Muller, Onno and Herrera, Juan M and Bentley, Alison R and others},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378429021003178},
    doi={10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108371}, 
    journal = {Field Crops Research},
    volume = {276},
    pages = {108371},
    year = {2022},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • Z. Ballouch, R. Hajji, and M. Ettarid, "Toward a Deep Learning Approach for Automatic Semantic Segmentation of 3D Lidar Point Clouds in Urban Areas," in Geospatial Intelligence, Springer, 2022, p. 67–77. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-80458-9_6
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InCollection{ballouch2022toward,
    title = {Toward a Deep Learning Approach for Automatic Semantic Segmentation of 3D Lidar Point Clouds in Urban Areas},
    author = {Ballouch, Zouhair and Hajji, Rafika and Ettarid, Mohamed},
    booktitle = {Geospatial Intelligence},
    pages = {67--77},
    url={https://orbi.uliege.be/bitstream/2268/290748/1/Toward%20a%20Deep%20Learning%20Approach%20for%20Automatic%20Semantic%20Segmentation%20of%203D%20Lidar%20Point%20Clouds%20in%20Urban%20Areas.pdf},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-80458-9_6},
    year = {2022},
    publisher = {Springer},
    }

  • S. Thomas, J. Behmann, U. Rascher, and A. Mahlein, "Evaluation of the benefits of combined reflection and transmission hyperspectral imaging data through disease detection and quantification in plant–pathogen interactions," Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, p. 1–16, 2022. doi:10.1007/s41348-022-00570-2
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{thomas2022evaluation,
    title = {Evaluation of the benefits of combined reflection and transmission hyperspectral imaging data through disease detection and quantification in plant--pathogen interactions},
    author = {Thomas, Stefan and Behmann, Jan and Rascher, Uwe and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    journal = {Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection},
    pages = {1--16},
    year = {2022},
    url={https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41348-022-00570-2},
    doi={10.1007/s41348-022-00570-2},
    publisher = {Springer},
    }

  • S. Stark, L. Biber-Freudenberger, T. Dietz, N. Escobar, J. J. Förster, J. Henderson, N. Laibach, and J. Börner, "Sustainability implications of transformation pathways for the bioeconomy," Sustainable Production and Consumption, vol. 29, p. 215–227, 2022. doi:10.1016/j.spc.2021.10.011
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{stark2022sustainability,
    title = {Sustainability implications of transformation pathways for the bioeconomy},
    author = {Stark, Sascha and Biber-Freudenberger, Lisa and Dietz, Thomas and Escobar, Neus and F{\"o}rster, Jan Janosch and Henderson, James and Laibach, Natalie and B{\"o}rner, Jan},
    journal = {Sustainable Production and Consumption},
    volume = {29},
    pages = {215--227},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352550921002943},
    doi={10.1016/j.spc.2021.10.011},
    year = {2022},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • M. Weigand, E. Zimmermann, V. Michels, J. A. Huisman, and A. Kemna, "Design and operation of a long-term monitoring system for spectral electrical impedance tomography (sEIT)," Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions, p. 1–35, 2022. doi:10.5194/gi-11-413-2022
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{weigand2022design,
    title = {Design and operation of a long-term monitoring system for spectral electrical impedance tomography (sEIT)},
    author = {Weigand, Maximilian and Zimmermann, Egon and Michels, Valentin and Huisman, Johan Alexander and Kemna, Andreas},
    journal = {Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems Discussions},
    pages = {1--35},
    year = {2022},
    url={https://gi.copernicus.org/articles/11/413/2022/},
    doi={10.5194/gi-11-413-2022},
    publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
    }

  • E. Cisneros, J. Börner, S. Pagiola, and S. Wunder, "Impacts of conservation incentives in protected areas: The case of Bolsa Floresta, Brazil," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, vol. 111, p. 102572, 2022. doi:10.1016/j.jeem.2021.102572
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{cisneros2022impacts,
    title = {Impacts of conservation incentives in protected areas: The case of Bolsa Floresta, Brazil},
    author = {Cisneros, El{\'\i}as and B{\"o}rner, Jan and Pagiola, Stefano and Wunder, Sven},
    journal = {Journal of Environmental Economics and Management},
    volume = {111},
    pages = {102572},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0095069621001200},
    doi={10.1016/j.jeem.2021.102572},
    year = {2022},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • R. A. Rosu and S. Behnke, "NeuralMVS: Bridging Multi-View Stereo and Novel View Synthesis," in Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) 2022 , 2022. doi:10.1109/ijcnn55064.2022.9892024
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @inproceedings{rosuneural2022,
    author = {Rosu, Radu Alexandru and Behnke, Sven},
    year = {2022},
    month = {07},
    pages = {},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2108.03880.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/ijcnn55064.2022.9892024},
    title = {NeuralMVS: Bridging Multi-View Stereo and Novel View Synthesis},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks (IJCNN) 2022},
    }

  • J. Kierdorf, I. Weber, A. Kicherer, L. Zabawa, L. Drees, and R. Roscher, "Behind the leaves–Estimation of occluded grapevine berries with conditional generative adversarial networks," Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, 2022. doi:10.3389/frai.2022.830026
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{kierdorf2022behind,
    title = {Behind the leaves--Estimation of occluded grapevine berries with conditional generative adversarial networks},
    author = {Kierdorf, Jana and Weber, Immanuel and Kicherer, Anna and Zabawa, Laura and Drees, Lukas and Roscher, Ribana},
    url={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/frai.2022.830026/full},
    doi={10.3389/frai.2022.830026},
    journal = {Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence},
    year = {2022},
    }

  • A. Schnepf, A. Carminati, M. Ahmed, M. Ani, P. Benard, J. Bentz, M. Bonkowski, M. Brax, D. Diehl, P. Duddek, and others, "Linking rhizosphere processes across scales: Opinion," Plant and Soil, 2022. doi:10.1101/2021.07.08.451655
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{schnepf2021linking,
    title = {Linking rhizosphere processes across scales: Opinion},
    author = {Schnepf, A and Carminati, A and Ahmed, MA and Ani, M and Benard, P and Bentz, J and Bonkowski, M and Brax, M and Diehl, D and Duddek, P and others},
    journal = {Plant and Soil},
    url={https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11104-022-05306-7},
    doi={10.1101/2021.07.08.451655},
    year = {2022},
    }

  • T. LaRue, H. Lindner, A. Srinivas, M. Exposito-Alonso, G. Lobet, and J. R. Dinneny, "Uncovering natural variation in root system architecture and growth dynamics using a robotics-assisted phenomics platform," eLife, vol. 11, p. e76968, 2022. doi:10.7554/eLife.76968
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The plant kingdom contains a stunning array of complex morphologies easily observed above-ground, but more challenging to visualize below-ground. Understanding the magnitude of diversity in root distribution within the soil, termed root system architecture (RSA), is fundamental to determining how this trait contributes to species adaptation in local environments. Roots are the interface between the soil environment and the shoot system and therefore play a key role in anchorage, resource uptake, and stress resilience. Previously, we presented the GLO-Roots (Growth and Luminescence Observatory for Roots) system to study the RSA of soil-grown \textit{Arabidopsis thaliana} plants from germination to maturity (Rellán-Álvarez et al. 2015). In this study, we present the automation of GLO-Roots using robotics and the development of image analysis pipelines in order to examine the temporal dynamic regulation of RSA and the broader natural variation of RSA in Arabidopsis, over time. These datasets describe the developmental dynamics of two independent panels of accessions and reveal highly complex and polygenic RSA traits that show significant correlation with climate variables of the accessions' respective origins.

    @Article{larue2021uncovering,
    title = {Uncovering natural variation in root system architecture and growth dynamics using a robotics-assisted phenomics platform},
    author = {LaRue, Therese and Lindner, Heike and Srinivas, Ankit and Exposito-Alonso, Moises and Lobet, Guillaume and Dinneny, Jos{\'e} R},
    volume = 11,
    year = 2022,
    pages = {e76968},
    doi = {10.7554/eLife.76968},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.76968},
    abstract = {The plant kingdom contains a stunning array of complex morphologies easily observed above-ground, but more challenging to visualize below-ground. Understanding the magnitude of diversity in root distribution within the soil, termed root system architecture (RSA), is fundamental to determining how this trait contributes to species adaptation in local environments. Roots are the interface between the soil environment and the shoot system and therefore play a key role in anchorage, resource uptake, and stress resilience. Previously, we presented the GLO-Roots (Growth and Luminescence Observatory for Roots) system to study the RSA of soil-grown \textit{Arabidopsis thaliana} plants from germination to maturity (Rellán-Álvarez et al. 2015). In this study, we present the automation of GLO-Roots using robotics and the development of image analysis pipelines in order to examine the temporal dynamic regulation of RSA and the broader natural variation of RSA in Arabidopsis, over time. These datasets describe the developmental dynamics of two independent panels of accessions and reveal highly complex and polygenic RSA traits that show significant correlation with climate variables of the accessions' respective origins.},
    journal = {eLife},
    issn = {2050-084X},
    publisher = {eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd},
    }

  • J. Weyler, J. Quakernack, P. Lottes, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Joint Plant and Leaf Instance Segmentation on Field-Scale UAV Imagery," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, iss. 2, pp. 3787-3794, 2022. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3147462
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{weyler2022ral,
    author = {J. Weyler and J. Quakernack and P. Lottes and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Joint Plant and Leaf Instance Segmentation on Field-Scale UAV Imagery}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    year = 2022,
    doi = {10.1109/LRA.2022.3147462},
    issn = {},
    volume = {7},
    number = {2},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9699056},
    pages = {3787-3794},
    }

  • L. Nunes, R. Marcuzzi, X. Chen, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "SegContrast: 3D Point Cloud Feature Representation Learning through Self-supervised Segment Discrimination," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2022. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3142440
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{nunes2022ral,
    author = {L. Nunes and R. Marcuzzi and X. Chen and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{SegContrast: 3D Point Cloud Feature Representation Learning through Self-supervised Segment Discrimination}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    year = 2022,
    doi = {10.1109/LRA.2022.3142440},
    issn = {2377-3766},
    volume = {},
    number = {},
    url={http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/nunes2022ral-icra.pdf},
    pages = {},
    }

  • R. Marcuzzi, L. Nunes, L. Wiesmann, I. Vizzo, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Contrastive Instance Association for 4D Panoptic Segmentation using Sequences of 3D LiDAR Scans," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, vol. 7, iss. 2, pp. 1550-1557, 2022. doi:10.1109/LRA.2022.3140439
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{marcuzzi2022ral,
    author = {R. Marcuzzi and L. Nunes and L. Wiesmann and I. Vizzo and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Contrastive Instance Association for 4D Panoptic Segmentation using Sequences of 3D LiDAR Scans}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    year = 2022,
    doi = {10.1109/LRA.2022.3140439},
    issn = {2377-3766},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/marcuzzi2022ral.pdf},
    volume = 7,
    number = 2,
    pages = {1550-1557},
    }

2021

  • A. Ahmadi, M. Halstead, and C. McCool, "Virtual Temporal Samples for Recurrent Neural Networks: Applied to Semantic Segmentation in Agriculture," in Pattern Recognition , Cham, 2021, p. 574–588.
    [BibTeX]

    This paper explores the potential for performing temporal semantic segmentation in the context of agricultural robotics without temporally labelled data. We achieve this by proposing to generate virtual temporal samples from labelled still images. By exploiting the relatively static scene and assuming that the robot (camera) moves we are able to generate virtually labelled temporal sequences with no extra annotation effort. Normally, to train a recurrent neural network (RNN), labelled samples from a video (temporal) sequence are required which is laborious and has stymied work in this direction. By generating virtual temporal samples, we demonstrate that it is possible to train a lightweight RNN to perform semantic segmentation on two challenging agricultural datasets. Our results show that by training a temporal semantic segmenter using virtual samples we can increase the performance by an absolute amount of 4.6 and 4.9 on sweet pepper and sugar beet datasets, respectively. This indicates that our virtual data augmentation technique is able to accurately classify agricultural images temporally without the use of complicated synthetic data generation techniques nor with the overhead of labelling large amounts of temporal sequences.

    @InProceedings{10.1007/978-3-030-92659-5_37,
    author= {Ahmadi, Alireza and Halstead, Michael and McCool, Chris},
    editor= {Bauckhage, Christian and Gall, Juergen and Schwing, Alexander},
    title= {Virtual Temporal Samples for Recurrent Neural Networks: Applied to Semantic Segmentation in Agriculture},
    booktitle= {Pattern Recognition},
    year= {2021},
    publisher= {Springer International Publishing},
    address= {Cham},
    pages= {574--588},
    abstract= {This paper explores the potential for performing temporal semantic segmentation in the context of agricultural robotics without temporally labelled data. We achieve this by proposing to generate virtual temporal samples from labelled still images. By exploiting the relatively static scene and assuming that the robot (camera) moves we are able to generate virtually labelled temporal sequences with no extra annotation effort. Normally, to train a recurrent neural network (RNN), labelled samples from a video (temporal) sequence are required which is laborious and has stymied work in this direction. By generating virtual temporal samples, we demonstrate that it is possible to train a lightweight RNN to perform semantic segmentation on two challenging agricultural datasets. Our results show that by training a temporal semantic segmenter using virtual samples we can increase the performance by an absolute amount of 4.6 and 4.9 on sweet pepper and sugar beet datasets, respectively. This indicates that our virtual data augmentation technique is able to accurately classify agricultural images temporally without the use of complicated synthetic data generation techniques nor with the overhead of labelling large amounts of temporal sequences.},
    isbn= {978-3-030-92659-5}
    }

  • D. Wallach, T. Palosuo, P. Thorburn, Z. Hochman, E. Gourdain, F. Andrianasolo, S. Asseng, B. Basso, S. Buis, N. Crout, C. Dibari, B. Dumont, R. Ferrise, T. Gaiser, C. Garcia, S. Gayler, A. Ghahramani, S. Hiremath, S. Hoek, H. Horan, G. Hoogenboom, M. Huang, M. Jabloun, P. Jansson, Q. Jing, E. Justes, K. C. Kersebaum, A. Klosterhalfen, M. Launay, E. Lewan, Q. Luo, B. Maestrini, H. Mielenz, M. Moriondo, H. Nariman Zadeh, G. Padovan, J. E. Olesen, A. Poyda, E. Priesack, J. W. M. Pullens, B. Qian, N. Schütze, V. Shelia, A. Souissi, X. Specka, A. K. Srivastava, T. Stella, T. Streck, G. Trombi, E. Wallor, J. Wang, T. K. D. Weber, L. Weihermüller, A. de Wit, T. Wöhling, L. Xiao, C. Zhao, Y. Zhu, and S. J. Seidel, "The chaos in calibrating crop models: Lessons learned from a multi-model calibration exercise," Environmental Modelling & Software, vol. 145, p. 105206, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2021.105206
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Calibration, the estimation of model parameters based on fitting the model to experimental data, is among the first steps in many applications of process-based models and has an important impact on simulated values. We propose a novel method of developing guidelines for calibration of process-based models, based on development of recommendations for calibration of the phenology component of crop models. The approach was based on a multi-model study, where all teams were provided with the same data and asked to return simulations for the same conditions. All teams were asked to document in detail their calibration approach, including choices with respect to criteria for best parameters, choice of parameters to estimate and software. Based on an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the various choices, we propose calibration recommendations that cover a comprehensive list of decisions and that are based on actual practices.

    @article{WALLACH2021105206,
    title = {The chaos in calibrating crop models: Lessons learned from a multi-model calibration exercise},
    journal = {Environmental Modelling & Software},
    volume = {145},
    pages = {105206},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {1364-8152},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2021.105206},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364815221002486},
    author = {Daniel Wallach and Taru Palosuo and Peter Thorburn and Zvi Hochman and Emmanuelle Gourdain and Fety Andrianasolo and Senthold Asseng and Bruno Basso and Samuel Buis and Neil Crout and Camilla Dibari and Benjamin Dumont and Roberto Ferrise and Thomas Gaiser and Cecile Garcia and Sebastian Gayler and Afshin Ghahramani and Santosh Hiremath and Steven Hoek and Heidi Horan and Gerrit Hoogenboom and Mingxia Huang and Mohamed Jabloun and Per-Erik Jansson and Qi Jing and Eric Justes and Kurt Christian Kersebaum and Anne Klosterhalfen and Marie Launay and Elisabet Lewan and Qunying Luo and Bernardo Maestrini and Henrike Mielenz and Marco Moriondo and Hasti {Nariman Zadeh} and Gloria Padovan and Jørgen Eivind Olesen and Arne Poyda and Eckart Priesack and Johannes Wilhelmus Maria Pullens and Budong Qian and Niels Schütze and Vakhtang Shelia and Amir Souissi and Xenia Specka and Amit Kumar Srivastava and Tommaso Stella and Thilo Streck and Giacomo Trombi and Evelyn Wallor and Jing Wang and Tobias K.D. Weber and Lutz Weihermüller and Allard {de Wit} and Thomas Wöhling and Liujun Xiao and Chuang Zhao and Yan Zhu and Sabine J. Seidel},
    keywords = {Calibration recommendations, Process-based models, Parameter estimation, Phenology},
    abstract = {Calibration, the estimation of model parameters based on fitting the model to experimental data, is among the first steps in many applications of process-based models and has an important impact on simulated values. We propose a novel method of developing guidelines for calibration of process-based models, based on development of recommendations for calibration of the phenology component of crop models. The approach was based on a multi-model study, where all teams were provided with the same data and asked to return simulations for the same conditions. All teams were asked to document in detail their calibration approach, including choices with respect to criteria for best parameters, choice of parameters to estimate and software. Based on an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the various choices, we propose calibration recommendations that cover a comprehensive list of decisions and that are based on actual practices.}
    }

  • S. Hao, D. Ryu, A. Western, E. Perry, H. Bogena, and H. J. H. Franssen, "Performance of a wheat yield prediction model and factors influencing the performance: A review and meta-analysis," Agricultural Systems, vol. 194, p. 103278, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103278
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    CONTEXT Process-based crop models provide ways to predict crop growth, evaluate environmental impacts on crops, test various crop management options, and guide crop breeding. They can be used to explore options for mitigating climate change impacts when combined with climate projections and explore mitigation of environmental impacts of production. The Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator (APSIM) is a widely adopted crop model that offers modules for simulation of various crops, soil processes, climate, and grazing within a modelling system that enables robust addition of new components. OBJECTIVE This study uses APSIM Classic-Wheat as an example to examine yield prediction accuracy of biophysically based crop yield modelling and to analyse the factors influencing the model performance. METHODS We analysed yield prediction results of APSIM Classic-Wheat from 76 published studies across thirteen countries on four continents. In addition, a meta-database of modelled and observed yields from 30 studies was established and used to identify factors that influence yield prediction uncertainty. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Our analysis indicates that, with site-specific calibration, APSIM predicts yield with a root mean squared error (RMSE) smaller than 1 t/ha and a normalised RMSE (NRMSE) of about 28%, across a wide range of environmental conditions for independent evaluation periods. The results show increasing errors in yield with limited modelling information and adverse environmental conditions. Using soil hydraulic parameters derived from site-specific measurements and/or tuning cultivar parameters improves yield prediction accuracy: RMSE decreases from 1.25 t/ha to 0.64 t/ha and NRMSE from 32% to 14%. Lower model accuracy was found where APSIM overestimates yield under high water deficit condition and when it underestimates yield under nitrogen limitation. APSIM severely over-predicts yield when some abiotic stresses such as heatwaves and frost affect the crop growth. SIGNIFICANCE This paper uses APSIM-Wheat as an example to provide perspectives on crop model yield prediction performance under different conditions covering a wide spectrum of management practices, and environments. The findings deepen the understanding of model uncertainty associated with different calibration processes or under various stressed conditions. The results also indicate the need to improve the model's predictive skill by filling functional gaps in the wheat simulations and by assimilating external observations (e.g., biomass information estimated by remote sensing) to adjust the model simulation for stressed crops.

    @article{HAO2021103278,
    title = {Performance of a wheat yield prediction model and factors influencing the performance: A review and meta-analysis},
    journal = {Agricultural Systems},
    volume = {194},
    pages = {103278},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0308-521X},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103278},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308521X21002316},
    author = {Shirui Hao and Dongryeol Ryu and Andrew Western and Eileen Perry and Heye Bogena and Harrie Jan Hendricks Franssen},
    keywords = {Cropping system, APSIM classic, Wheat, Yield prediction performance, meta-analysis, Literature review},
    abstract = {CONTEXT
    Process-based crop models provide ways to predict crop growth, evaluate environmental impacts on crops, test various crop management options, and guide crop breeding. They can be used to explore options for mitigating climate change impacts when combined with climate projections and explore mitigation of environmental impacts of production. The Agricultural Production Systems SIMulator (APSIM) is a widely adopted crop model that offers modules for simulation of various crops, soil processes, climate, and grazing within a modelling system that enables robust addition of new components.
    OBJECTIVE
    This study uses APSIM Classic-Wheat as an example to examine yield prediction accuracy of biophysically based crop yield modelling and to analyse the factors influencing the model performance.
    METHODS
    We analysed yield prediction results of APSIM Classic-Wheat from 76 published studies across thirteen countries on four continents. In addition, a meta-database of modelled and observed yields from 30 studies was established and used to identify factors that influence yield prediction uncertainty.
    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
    Our analysis indicates that, with site-specific calibration, APSIM predicts yield with a root mean squared error (RMSE) smaller than 1 t/ha and a normalised RMSE (NRMSE) of about 28%, across a wide range of environmental conditions for independent evaluation periods. The results show increasing errors in yield with limited modelling information and adverse environmental conditions. Using soil hydraulic parameters derived from site-specific measurements and/or tuning cultivar parameters improves yield prediction accuracy: RMSE decreases from 1.25 t/ha to 0.64 t/ha and NRMSE from 32% to 14%. Lower model accuracy was found where APSIM overestimates yield under high water deficit condition and when it underestimates yield under nitrogen limitation. APSIM severely over-predicts yield when some abiotic stresses such as heatwaves and frost affect the crop growth.
    SIGNIFICANCE
    This paper uses APSIM-Wheat as an example to provide perspectives on crop model yield prediction performance under different conditions covering a wide spectrum of management practices, and environments. The findings deepen the understanding of model uncertainty associated with different calibration processes or under various stressed conditions. The results also indicate the need to improve the model's predictive skill by filling functional gaps in the wheat simulations and by assimilating external observations (e.g., biomass information estimated by remote sensing) to adjust the model simulation for stressed crops.}
    }

  • K. Baylis, T. Heckelei, and H. Storm, "Chapter 83 - Machine learning in agricultural economics," in Handbook of Agricultural Economics, C. B. Barrett and D. R. Just, Eds., Elsevier, 2021, vol. 5, pp. 4551-4612. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.hesagr.2021.10.007
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    With the substantial growth in novel data sources and computational power, machine learning holds great potential for economic analysis. However, like any new approach, the strengths and weaknesses of these tools need to be considered when deciding where and how they can be successfully applied. In this chapter, we introduce key ML methods, from penalized regressions, to tree-based methods to neural networks, relating these approaches to common econometric practice. We then explore the potential afforded by ML to fill gaps in our current methodological toolbox. We discuss use cases like the need for flexible functional forms, the use of unstructured data, and large numbers of explanatory variables in both prediction and causal analysis. We also highlight the challenges of complex simulation models including calibration, validation and computational demands and identify places where machine learning can help. We highlight these issues drawing from existing examples in agricultural and applied economics. To unpack the black box of ML, we present numerous approaches used in computer science and statistics for model interpretability. Finally, we highlight some ethical issues around the use of ML. We argue that economists can play a vital role in adapting ML methods for the use in economics by combining them with our domain knowledge of economic mechanisms, and our approach to causal identification.

    @InCollection{baylis20214551,
    title = {Chapter 83 - Machine learning in agricultural economics},
    editor = {Christopher B. Barrett and David R. Just},
    series = {Handbook of Agricultural Economics},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    volume = {5},
    pages = {4551-4612},
    year = {2021},
    booktitle = {Handbook of Agricultural Economics},
    issn = {1574-0072},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.hesagr.2021.10.007},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1574007221000074},
    author = {Kathy Baylis and Thomas Heckelei and Hugo Storm},
    keywords = {Machine learning, Agricultural economics, Deep learning, Artificial intelligence, Neural networks, Random forest, Simulation modeling, Causal estimation},
    abstract = {With the substantial growth in novel data sources and computational power, machine learning holds great potential for economic analysis. However, like any new approach, the strengths and weaknesses of these tools need to be considered when deciding where and how they can be successfully applied. In this chapter, we introduce key ML methods, from penalized regressions, to tree-based methods to neural networks, relating these approaches to common econometric practice. We then explore the potential afforded by ML to fill gaps in our current methodological toolbox. We discuss use cases like the need for flexible functional forms, the use of unstructured data, and large numbers of explanatory variables in both prediction and causal analysis. We also highlight the challenges of complex simulation models including calibration, validation and computational demands and identify places where machine learning can help. We highlight these issues drawing from existing examples in agricultural and applied economics. To unpack the black box of ML, we present numerous approaches used in computer science and statistics for model interpretability. Finally, we highlight some ethical issues around the use of ML. We argue that economists can play a vital role in adapting ML methods for the use in economics by combining them with our domain knowledge of economic mechanisms, and our approach to causal identification.},
    }

  • E. Stadtländer, T. Horváth, and S. Wrobel, "Learning weakly convex sets in metric spaces," in Joint European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases , 2021, p. 200–216. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-86520-7_13
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{stadtlander2021learning,
    title = {Learning weakly convex sets in metric spaces},
    author = {Stadtl{\"a}nder, Eike and Horv{\'a}th, Tam{\'a}s and Wrobel, Stefan},
    booktitle = {Joint European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases},
    pages = {200--216},
    year = {2021},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.06251.pdf},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-86520-7_13},
    organization = {Springer},
    }

  • Z. Akata, A. Geiger, T. Sattler, O. Zatsarynna, J. Sawatzky, and J. Gall, "Discovering Latent Classes for Semi-supervised Semantic Segmentation," in Proc. of German Conference Pattern Recognition, DAGM GCPR 2020 , 2021, p. 202–217. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-71278-5_15
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{akata2021discovering,
    title = {Discovering Latent Classes for Semi-supervised Semantic Segmentation},
    author = {Akata, Z and Geiger, A and Sattler, T and Zatsarynna, O and Sawatzky, J and Gall, J},
    booktitle = {Proc. of German Conference Pattern Recognition, DAGM GCPR 2020},
    volume = {12544},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/1912.12936.pdf},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-71278-5_15},
    pages = {202--217},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • S. Stark, J. Rhyner, J. Börner, A. Kopaleyshvili, and S. Middelhauve, "Bioökonomie in Nordrhein-Westfalen," , 2021. doi:20.500.11811/9399
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{stark2021biookonomie,
    title = {Bio{\"o}konomie in Nordrhein-Westfalen},
    author = {Stark, Sascha and Rhyner, Jakob and B{\"o}rner, Jan and Kopaleyshvili, Alexandra and Middelhauve, Stella},
    url={https://bonndoc.ulb.uni-bonn.de/xmlui/bitstream/handle/20.500.11811/9399/Abschlussbericht_Biooekonomie-in-NRW-1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y},
    doi={20.500.11811/9399},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Zentrum f{\"u}r Entwicklungsforschung (ZEF), Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms~…},
    }

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    title = {Soil organic matter in major pedogenic soil groups},
    author = {K{\"o}gel-Knabner, Ingrid and Amelung, Wulf},
    journal = {Geoderma},
    url={https://juser.fz-juelich.de/record/887801/files/KK%2BAM-Geoder%28postprint%29%20%28002%29.pdf},
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  • A. Mahlein, A. B. A. Alcántara, F. I. R. Yamati, and S. Paulus, "Unlocking the Potential of Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants for Precision Agriculture and Plant Phenotyping," in Optics and Photonics for Sensing the Environment , 2021, p. EW4G–2. doi:10.1364/es.2021.ew4g.2
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    @InProceedings{mahlein2021unlocking,
    title = {Unlocking the Potential of Hyperspectral Imaging of Plants for Precision Agriculture and Plant Phenotyping},
    author = {Mahlein, Anne-Katrin and Alc{\'a}ntara, Abel A Barreto and Yamati, Facundo R Ispizua and Paulus, Stefan},
    url={https://opg.optica.org/abstract.cfm?uri=ES-2021-EW4G.2},
    doi={10.1364/es.2021.ew4g.2},
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    organization = {Optical Society of America},
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  • U. Roscher, K. Acebron, J. Bendig, J. Krämer, V. Krieger, J. Quiros-Vargas, B. Siegmann, and O. Muller, "Measuring and Understanding the Dynamics of Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) and its Relation to Photochemical and Non-Photochemical Energy Dissipation - Scaling Leaf Level Regulation to Canopy and Ecosystem Remote Sensing," in 2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS , 2021, pp. 203-206. doi:10.1109/IGARSS47720.2021.9554870
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    @INPROCEEDINGS{9554870,
    author={Roscher, U. and Acebron, K. and Bendig, J. and Krämer, J. and Krieger, V. and Quiros-Vargas, J. and Siegmann, B. and Muller, O.},
    booktitle={2021 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium IGARSS},
    title={Measuring and Understanding the Dynamics of Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) and its Relation to Photochemical and Non-Photochemical Energy Dissipation - Scaling Leaf Level Regulation to Canopy and Ecosystem Remote Sensing},
    year={2021},
    volume={},
    number={},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9554870},
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    doi={10.1109/IGARSS47720.2021.9554870}}

  • S. Li, Y. Liu, and J. Gall, "Rethinking 3-D LiDAR Point Cloud Segmentation," IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, pp. 1-12, 2021. doi:10.1109/TNNLS.2021.3132836
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    @ARTICLE{9653732,
    author={Li, Shijie and Liu, Yun and Gall, Juergen},
    journal={IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems},
    title={Rethinking 3-D LiDAR Point Cloud Segmentation},
    year={2021},
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    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2008.03928.pdf},
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  • M. Günder, N. Piatkowski, L. Von Rueden, R. Sifa, and C. Bauckhage, "Towards Intelligent Food Waste Prevention: An Approach Using Scalable and Flexible Harvest Schedule Optimization With Evolutionary Algorithms," IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 169044-169055, 2021. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3137709
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    @ARTICLE{9658416,
    author={Günder, Maurice and Piatkowski, Nico and Von Rueden, Laura and Sifa, Rafet and Bauckhage, Christian},
    journal={IEEE Access},
    title={Towards Intelligent Food Waste Prevention: An Approach Using Scalable and Flexible Harvest Schedule Optimization With Evolutionary Algorithms},
    year={2021},
    volume={9},
    number={},
    url={https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?arnumber=9658416},
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  • R. Neuville, J. S. Bates, and F. Jonard, "Estimating forest structure from UAV-mounted LiDAR point cloud using machine learning," Remote sensing, vol. 13, iss. 3, p. 352, 2021. doi:10.3390/rs13030352
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    title = {Estimating forest structure from UAV-mounted LiDAR point cloud using machine learning},
    author = {Neuville, Romain and Bates, Jordan Steven and Jonard, Fran{\c{c}}ois},
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  • C. Gebauer and M. Bennewitz, "The Pitfall of More Powerful Autoencoders in Lidar-Based Navigation," arXiv preprint arXiv:2102.02127, 2021. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2102.02127
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    @Article{gebauer2021pitfall,
    title = {The Pitfall of More Powerful Autoencoders in Lidar-Based Navigation},
    author = {Gebauer, Christopher and Bennewitz, Maren},
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  • R. A. Rosu, P. Schütt, J. Quenzel, and S. Behnke, "LatticeNet: fast spatio-temporal point cloud segmentation using permutohedral lattices," Autonomous Robots, p. 1–16, 2021. doi:10.1007/s10514-021-09998-1
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    @Article{rosu2021latticenet,
    title = {LatticeNet: fast spatio-temporal point cloud segmentation using permutohedral lattices},
    author = {Rosu, Radu Alexandru and Sch{\"u}tt, Peer and Quenzel, Jan and Behnke, Sven},
    journal = {Autonomous Robots},
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  • P. Kraft, E. E. Rezaei, L. Breuer, F. Ewert, A. Große-Stoltenberg, T. Kleinebecker, D. Seserman, and C. Nendel, "Modelling Agroforestry’s Contributions to People—A Review of Available Models," Agronomy, vol. 11, iss. 11, p. 2106, 2021. doi:10.3390/agronomy11112106
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    @Article{kraft2021modelling,
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    author = {Kraft, Philipp and Rezaei, Ehsan Eyshi and Breuer, Lutz and Ewert, Frank and Gro{\ss}e-Stoltenberg, Andr{\'e} and Kleinebecker, Till and Seserman, Diana-Maria and Nendel, Claas},
    journal = {Agronomy},
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    }

  • G. Lopez, T. Gaiser, F. Ewert, and A. Srivastava, "Effects of Recent Climate Change on Maize Yield in Southwest Ecuador," Atmosphere, vol. 12, iss. 3, p. 299, 2021. doi:10.3390/atmos12030299
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    @Article{lopez2021effects,
    title = {Effects of Recent Climate Change on Maize Yield in Southwest Ecuador},
    author = {Lopez, Gina and Gaiser, Thomas and Ewert, Frank and Srivastava, Amit},
    journal = {Atmosphere},
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    }

  • T. Stella, H. Webber, J. E. Olesen, A. C. Ruane, S. Fronzek, S. Bregaglio, S. Mamidanna, M. Bindi, B. Collins, B. Faye, and others, "Methodology to assess the changing risk of yield failure due to heat and drought stress under climate change," Environmental Research Letters, vol. 16, iss. 10, p. 104033, 2021. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac2196
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    @Article{stella2021methodology,
    title = {Methodology to assess the changing risk of yield failure due to heat and drought stress under climate change},
    author = {Stella, Tommaso and Webber, Heidi and Olesen, J{\o}rgen E and Ruane, Alex C and Fronzek, Stefan and Bregaglio, Simone and Mamidanna, Sravya and Bindi, Marco and Collins, Brian and Faye, Babacar and others},
    journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
    volume = {16},
    number = {10},
    pages = {104033},
    url={https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/ac2196/pdf},
    doi={10.1088/1748-9326/ac2196},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {IOP Publishing},
    }

  • S. Li, Y. Zhou, J. Yi, and J. Gall, "Spatial-Temporal Consistency Network for Low-Latency Trajectory Forecasting," in 2021 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV) , 2021, pp. 1920-1929. doi:10.1109/ICCV48922.2021.00195
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    @INPROCEEDINGS{9711490,
    author={Li, Shijie and Zhou, Yanying and Yi, Jinhui and Gall, Juergen},
    booktitle={2021 IEEE/CVF International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)},
    title={Spatial-Temporal Consistency Network for Low-Latency Trajectory Forecasting},
    year={2021},
    volume={},
    number={},
    url={https://openaccess.thecvf.com/content/ICCV2021/papers/Li_Spatial-Temporal_Consistency_Network_for_Low-Latency_Trajectory_Forecasting_ICCV_2021_paper.pdf},
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    doi={10.1109/ICCV48922.2021.00195}}

  • M. Halstead, A. Ahmadi, C. Smitt, O. Schmittmann, and C. McCool, "Crop Agnostic Monitoring Driven by Deep Learning," Frontiers in plant science, vol. 12, 2021. doi:10.3389/fpls.2021.786702
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    @Article{halstead2021crop,
    title = {Crop Agnostic Monitoring Driven by Deep Learning},
    author = {Halstead, Michael and Ahmadi, Alireza and Smitt, Claus and Schmittmann, Oliver and McCool, Chris},
    journal = {Frontiers in plant science},
    volume = {12},
    url={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2021.786702/full},
    doi={10.3389/fpls.2021.786702},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • N. Wilke, B. Siegmann, J. A. Postma, O. Muller, V. Krieger, R. Pude, and U. Rascher, "Assessment of plant density for barley and wheat using UAV multispectral imagery for high-throughput field phenotyping," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 189, p. 106380, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.compag.2021.106380
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    @Article{wilke2021assessment,
    title = {Assessment of plant density for barley and wheat using UAV multispectral imagery for high-throughput field phenotyping},
    author = {Wilke, Norman and Siegmann, Bastian and Postma, Johannes A and Muller, Onno and Krieger, Vera and Pude, Ralf and Rascher, Uwe},
    journal = {Computers and Electronics in Agriculture},
    volume = {189},
    pages = {106380},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0168169921003975},
    doi={10.1016/j.compag.2021.106380},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • F. He, B. Thiele, D. Kraus, S. Bouteyine, M. Watt, T. Kraska, U. Schurr, and A. J. Kuhn, "Effects of Short-Term Root Cooling before Harvest on Yield and Food Quality of Chinese Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Bailey)," Agronomy, vol. 11, iss. 3, p. 577, 2021.
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    @Article{he2021effects,
    title = {Effects of Short-Term Root Cooling before Harvest on Yield and Food Quality of Chinese Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Alboglabra Bailey)},
    author = {He, Fang and Thiele, Bj{\"o}rn and Kraus, David and Bouteyine, Souhaila and Watt, Michelle and Kraska, Thorsten and Schurr, Ulrich and Kuhn, Arnd J{\"u}rgen},
    journal = {Agronomy},
    volume = {11},
    number = {3},
    pages = {577},
    url={https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/11/3/577},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute},
    }

  • S. De Cannière, M. Herbst, H. Vereecken, P. Defourny, and F. Jonard, "Constraining water limitation of photosynthesis in a crop growth model with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 267, p. 112722, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2021.112722
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    @Article{de2021constraining,
    title = {Constraining water limitation of photosynthesis in a crop growth model with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence},
    author = {De Canni{\`e}re, S and Herbst, M and Vereecken, H and Defourny, P and Jonard, Fran{\c{c}}ois},
    journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
    url={https://dial.uclouvain.be/pr/boreal/object/boreal%3A252126/datastream/PDF_01/view},
    doi={10.1016/j.rse.2021.112722},
    volume = {267},
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    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • Y. Huang, J. Weis, H. Vereecken, and H. Hendricks Franssen, "Long-term trends in agricultural droughts over Netherlands and Germany: how extreme was the year 2018?," Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, p. 1–27, 2021. doi:10.5194/hess-2021-569
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    @Article{huang2021long,
    title = {Long-term trends in agricultural droughts over Netherlands and Germany: how extreme was the year 2018?},
    author = {Huang, Yafei and Weis, Jonas and Vereecken, Harry and Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan},
    journal = {Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions},
    pages = {1--27},
    url={https://hess.copernicus.org/preprints/hess-2021-569/hess-2021-569.pdf},
    doi={10.5194/hess-2021-569},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Copernicus GmbH},
    }

  • M. Landl, A. Haupenthal, D. Leitner, E. Kroener, D. Vetterlein, R. Bol, H. Vereecken, J. Vanderborght, and A. Schnepf, "Simulating rhizodeposition patterns around growing and exuding root systems," in silico Plants, vol. 3, iss. 2, 2021. doi:10.1093/insilicoplants/diab028
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {In this study, we developed a novel model approach to compute the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of rhizodeposits around growing root systems in three dimensions. This model approach allows us to study the evolution of rhizodeposition patterns around complex three-dimensional root systems. Root systems were generated using the root architecture model CPlantBox. The concentration of rhizodeposits at a given location in the soil domain was computed analytically. To simulate the spread of rhizodeposits in the soil, we considered rhizodeposit release from the roots, rhizodeposit diffusion into the soil, rhizodeposit sorption to soil particles and rhizodeposit degradation by microorganisms. To demonstrate the capabilities of our new model approach, we performed simulations for the two example rhizodeposits mucilage and citrate and the example root system Vicia faba. The rhizodeposition model was parameterized using values from the literature. Our simulations showed that the rhizosphere soil volume with rhizodeposit concentrations above a defined threshold value (i.e. the rhizodeposit hotspot volume) exhibited a maximum at intermediate root growth rates. Root branching allowed the rhizospheres of individual roots to overlap, resulting in a greater volume of rhizodeposit hotspots. This was particularly important in the case of citrate, where overlap of rhizodeposition zones accounted for more than half of the total rhizodeposit hotspot volumes. Coupling a root architecture model with a rhizodeposition model allowed us to get a better understanding of the influence of root architecture as well as rhizodeposit properties on the evolution of the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of rhizodeposits around growing root systems.}

    @article{10.1093/insilicoplants/diab028,
    author = {Landl, Magdalena and Haupenthal, Adrian and Leitner, Daniel and Kroener, Eva and Vetterlein, Doris and Bol, Roland and Vereecken, Harry and Vanderborght, Jan and Schnepf, Andrea},
    title = "{Simulating rhizodeposition patterns around growing and exuding root systems}",
    journal = {in silico Plants},
    volume = {3},
    number = {2},
    year = {2021},
    month = {09},
    abstract = "{In this study, we developed a novel model approach to compute the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of rhizodeposits around growing root systems in three dimensions. This model approach allows us to study the evolution of rhizodeposition patterns around complex three-dimensional root systems. Root systems were generated using the root architecture model CPlantBox. The concentration of rhizodeposits at a given location in the soil domain was computed analytically. To simulate the spread of rhizodeposits in the soil, we considered rhizodeposit release from the roots, rhizodeposit diffusion into the soil, rhizodeposit sorption to soil particles and rhizodeposit degradation by microorganisms. To demonstrate the capabilities of our new model approach, we performed simulations for the two example rhizodeposits mucilage and citrate and the example root system Vicia faba. The rhizodeposition model was parameterized using values from the literature. Our simulations showed that the rhizosphere soil volume with rhizodeposit concentrations above a defined threshold value (i.e. the rhizodeposit hotspot volume) exhibited a maximum at intermediate root growth rates. Root branching allowed the rhizospheres of individual roots to overlap, resulting in a greater volume of rhizodeposit hotspots. This was particularly important in the case of citrate, where overlap of rhizodeposition zones accounted for more than half of the total rhizodeposit hotspot volumes. Coupling a root architecture model with a rhizodeposition model allowed us to get a better understanding of the influence of root architecture as well as rhizodeposit properties on the evolution of the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of rhizodeposits around growing root systems.}",
    issn = {2517-5025},
    doi = {10.1093/insilicoplants/diab028},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/insilicoplants/diab028},
    note = {diab028},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/insilicoplants/article-pdf/3/2/diab028/40681531/diab028.pdf},
    }

  • S. Hao, D. Ryu, A. Western, E. Perry, H. Bogena, and H. J. H. Franssen, "Performance of a wheat yield prediction model and factors influencing the performance: A review and meta-analysis," Agricultural Systems, vol. 194, p. 103278, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103278
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    @Article{hao2021performance,
    title = {Performance of a wheat yield prediction model and factors influencing the performance: A review and meta-analysis},
    author = {Hao, Shirui and Ryu, Dongryeol and Western, Andrew and Perry, Eileen and Bogena, Heye and Franssen, Harrie Jan Hendricks},
    journal = {Agricultural Systems},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0308521X21002316},
    doi={10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103278},
    volume = {194},
    pages = {103278},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • E. Blagodatskaya, M. Tarkka, C. Knief, R. Koller, S. Peth, V. Schmidt, S. Spielvogel, D. Uteau, M. Weber, and B. S. Razavi, "Bridging Microbial Functional Traits With Localized Process Rates at Soil Interfaces," Frontiers in microbiology, vol. 12, 2021. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.625697
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    @Article{blagodatskaya2021bridging,
    title = {Bridging Microbial Functional Traits With Localized Process Rates at Soil Interfaces},
    author = {Blagodatskaya, Evgenia and Tarkka, Mika and Knief, Claudia and Koller, Robert and Peth, Stephan and Schmidt, Volker and Spielvogel, Sandra and Uteau, Daniel and Weber, Matthias and Razavi, Bahar S},
    url={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2021.625697/full},
    doi={10.3389/fmicb.2021.625697},
    journal = {Frontiers in microbiology},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Frontiers Media SA},
    }

  • C. Pahmeyer, T. Kuhn, and W. Britz, "Single plots or shares of land-How modeling of crop choices in bio-economic farm models influences simulation results," 2021. doi:10.22004/ag.econ.313251
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    @TechReport{pahmeyer2021single,
    title = {Single plots or shares of land-How modeling of crop choices in bio-economic farm models influences simulation results},
    author = {Pahmeyer, Christoph and Kuhn, Till and Britz, Wolfgang},
    url={https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/313251/},
    doi={10.22004/ag.econ.313251},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • Z. Zhou, Z. Zhang, A. S. Mason, L. Chen, C. Liu, M. Qin, W. Li, B. Tian, Z. Wu, Z. Lei, and others, "Quantitative traits loci mapping and molecular marker development for total glutenin and glutenin fraction contents in wheat," BMC plant biology, vol. 21, iss. 1, p. 1–13, 2021. doi:10.1186/s12870-021-03221-0
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    @Article{zhou2021quantitative,
    title = {Quantitative traits loci mapping and molecular marker development for total glutenin and glutenin fraction contents in wheat},
    author = {Zhou, Zhengfu and Zhang, Ziwei and Mason, Annaliese S and Chen, Lingzhi and Liu, Congcong and Qin, Maomao and Li, Wenxu and Tian, Baoming and Wu, Zhengqing and Lei, Zhensheng and others},
    journal = {BMC plant biology},
    volume = {21},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--13},
    url={https://bmcplantbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12870-021-03221-0},
    doi={10.1186/s12870-021-03221-0},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {BioMed Central},
    }

  • E. I. Katche, A. Schierholt, S. V. Schiessl, Z. Lv, J. Batley, H. C. Becker, and A. S. Mason, "Genetic factors inherited from both diploid parents interact to affect genome stability and fertility in resynthesized allotetraploid B. napus," , 2021. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-552972/v1
    [BibTeX]
    @Article{katche2021genetic,
    title = {Genetic factors inherited from both diploid parents interact to affect genome stability and fertility in resynthesized allotetraploid B. napus},
    author = {Katche, Elizabeth Ihien and Schierholt, Antje and Schiessl, Sarah V and Lv, Zhenling and Batley, Jacqueline and Becker, Heiko C and Mason, Annaliese S},
    doi={10.21203/rs.3.rs-552972/v1},
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    }

  • W. Yang, P. Gutbrod, K. Gutbrod, H. Peisker, X. Song, A. Falz, A. J. Meyer, and P. Dörmann, "2-Hydroxy-phytanoyl-CoA lyase (AtHPCL) is involved in phytol metabolism in Arabidopsis," The Plant Journal, 2021. doi:10.1111/tpj.15632
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    @Article{yang20212,
    title = {2-Hydroxy-phytanoyl-CoA lyase (AtHPCL) is involved in phytol metabolism in Arabidopsis},
    author = {Yang, Wentao and Gutbrod, Philipp and Gutbrod, Katharina and Peisker, Helga and Song, Xiaoning and Falz, Anna-Lena and Meyer, Andreas J and D{\"o}rmann, Peter},
    journal = {The Plant Journal},
    url={https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/tpj.15632},
    doi={10.1111/tpj.15632},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Wiley Online Library},
    }

  • M. Schneider, M. Barbosa, A. Ballvora, and J. Leon, "Organic farming-Deep genotyping reveals specific selection footprints in barley populations," , 2021. doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-266048/v1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{schneider2021organic,
    title = {Organic farming-Deep genotyping reveals specific selection footprints in barley populations},
    url={https://assets.researchsquare.com/files/rs-266048/v1/749c6321-cc47-40d2-bafa-da9f6a2aa64a.pdf?c=1631878080},
    doi={10.21203/rs.3.rs-266048/v1},
    author = {Schneider, Michael and Barbosa, Marissa and Ballvora, Agim and Leon, Jens},
    year = {2021}
    }

  • J. Schielein, G. P. Frey, J. Miranda, R. A. de Souza, J. Börner, and J. Henderson, "The role of accessibility for land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon," Applied Geography, vol. 132, p. 102419, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2021.102419
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{schielein2021role,
    title = {The role of accessibility for land use and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon},
    author = {Schielein, Johannes and Frey, Gabriel Ponzoni and Miranda, Javier and de Souza, Rodrigo Ant{\^o}nio and Börner, Jan and Henderson, James},
    journal = {Applied Geography},
    volume = {132},
    pages = {102419},
    year = {2021},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0143622821000357},
    doi={10.1016/j.apgeog.2021.102419},
    publisher = {Elsevier}
    }

  • R. Giudice and J. Börner, "Benefits and costs of incentive-based forest conservation in the Peruvian Amazon," Forest Policy and Economics, vol. 131, p. 102559, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102559
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    @Article{giudice2021benefits,
    title = {Benefits and costs of incentive-based forest conservation in the Peruvian Amazon},
    author = {Giudice, Renzo and B{\"o}rner, Jan},
    journal = {Forest Policy and Economics},
    volume = {131},
    pages = {102559},
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1389934121001659},
    doi={10.1016/j.forpol.2021.102559},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • L. Peruzzo, X. Liu, C. Chou, E. B. Blancaflor, H. Zhao, X. Ma, B. Mary, V. Iván, M. Weigand, and Y. Wu, "Three-channel electrical impedance spectroscopy for field-scale root phenotyping," The Plant Phenome Journal, vol. 4, iss. 1, p. e20021, 2021. doi:10.1002/ppj2.20021
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    @Article{peruzzo2021three,
    title = {Three-channel electrical impedance spectroscopy for field-scale root phenotyping},
    author = {Peruzzo, Luca and Liu, Xiuwei and Chou, Chunwei and Blancaflor, Elison B and Zhao, Haijun and Ma, Xue-Feng and Mary, Benjamin and Iv{\'a}n, Veronika and Weigand, Maximilian and Wu, Yuxin},
    journal = {The Plant Phenome Journal},
    volume = {4},
    number = {1},
    pages = {e20021},
    url={https://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/ppj2.20021},
    doi={10.1002/ppj2.20021},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Wiley Online Library},
    }

  • R. Žydelis, L. Weihermüller, and M. Herbst, "Future climate change will accelerate maize phenological development and increase yield in the Nemoral climate," Science of The Total Environment, vol. 784, p. 147175, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147175
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{vzydelis2021future,
    title = {Future climate change will accelerate maize phenological development and increase yield in the Nemoral climate},
    author = {{\v{Z}}ydelis, R and Weiherm{\"u}ller, L and Herbst, Michael},
    journal = {Science of The Total Environment},
    volume = {784},
    pages = {147175},
    url={https://juser.fz-juelich.de/record/892017/files/Final_accepted_Manuscript.pdf},
    doi={10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147175},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • M. Habib-ur-Rahman, A. Raza, H. E. Ahrends, H. Hüging, and T. Gaiser, "Impact of in-field soil heterogeneity on biomass and yield of winter triticale in an intensively cropped hummocky landscape under temperate climate conditions," Precision agriculture, p. 1–27, 2021. doi:10.1007/s11119-021-09868-x
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{habib2021impact,
    title = {Impact of in-field soil heterogeneity on biomass and yield of winter triticale in an intensively cropped hummocky landscape under temperate climate conditions},
    author = {Habib-ur-Rahman, Muhammad and Raza, Ahsan and Ahrends, Hella Ellen and H{\"u}ging, Hubert and Gaiser, Thomas},
    journal = {Precision agriculture},
    pages = {1--27},
    url={https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11119-021-09868-x},
    doi={10.1007/s11119-021-09868-x},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Springer},
    }

  • F. Navarrete, M. Gallei, A. E. Kornienko, I. Saado, M. Khan, K. Chia, M. A. Darino, J. Bindics, and A. Djamei, "TOPLESS promotes plant immunity by repressing auxin signaling and is targeted by the fungal effector Naked1," Plant Communications, p. 100269, 2021. doi:10.1101/2021.05.04.442566
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{navarrete2021topless,
    title = {TOPLESS promotes plant immunity by repressing auxin signaling and is targeted by the fungal effector Naked1},
    author = {Navarrete, Fernando and Gallei, Michelle and Kornienko, Aleksandra E and Saado, Indira and Khan, Mamoona and Chia, Khong-Sam and Darino, Martin A and Bindics, Janos and Djamei, Armin},
    journal = {Plant Communications},
    pages = {100269},
    year = {2021},
    url={https://www.cell.com/plant-communications/pdf/S2590-3462(21)00183-8.pdf},
    doi={10.1101/2021.05.04.442566},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • J. Krämer, B. Siegmann, T. Kraska, O. Muller, and U. Rascher, "The potential of spatial aggregation to extract remotely sensed sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) of small-sized experimental plots for applications in crop phenotyping," International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 104, p. 102565, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2021.102565
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{kramer2021102565,
    title = {The potential of spatial aggregation to extract remotely sensed sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) of small-sized experimental plots for applications in crop phenotyping},
    journal = {International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation},
    volume = {104},
    pages = {102565},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0303-2434},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jag.2021.102565},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303243421002725},
    author = {Julie Krämer and Bastian Siegmann and Thorsten Kraska and Onno Muller and Uwe Rascher},
    keywords = {Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, SIF, Airborne remote sensing, Spatial aggregation, Outlier detection, Hampel identifier, Field phenotyping},
    }

  • H. Gulabani, K. Goswami, Y. Walia, A. Roy, J. J. Noor, K. D. Ingole, M. Kasera, D. Laha, R. F. H. Giehl, G. Schaaf, and S. Bhattacharjee, "TArabidopsis inositol polyphosphate kinases IPK1 and ITPK1 modulate crosstalk between SA-dependent immunity and phosphate-starvation responses," Plant Cell Reports, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02812-3
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{gulabani2021,
    title = {TArabidopsis inositol polyphosphate kinases IPK1 and ITPK1 modulate crosstalk between SA-dependent immunity and phosphate-starvation responses},
    journal = {Plant Cell Reports},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00299-021-02812-3},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00299-021-02812-3},
    author = {Gulabani, Hitika AND Goswami, Krishnendu AND Walia, Yashika And Roy, Abhisha AND Noor, Jewel Jameeta AND Ingole, Kishor D. AND Kasera, Mritunjay AND Laha, Debabrata AND Giehl, Ricardo F. H. AND Schaaf, Gabriel AND Bhattacharjee, Saikat},
    }

  • B. Schmitz, H. Kuhlmann, and C. Holst, "Towards the empirical determination of correlations in terrestrial laser scanner range observations and the comparison of the correlation structure of different scanners," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 182, pp. 228-241, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2021.10.012
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{schmitz2021228,
    title = {Towards the empirical determination of correlations in terrestrial laser scanner range observations and the comparison of the correlation structure of different scanners},
    journal = {ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing},
    volume = {182},
    pages = {228-241},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0924-2716},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2021.10.012},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092427162100280X},
    author = {B. Schmitz and H. Kuhlmann and C. Holst},
    keywords = {Variance-covariance matrix, Anisotropy, Point cloud, Autocovariance, Stochastic model, Terrestrial laser scanning},
    }

  • Y. Zeng, D. Hao, G. Badgley, A. Damm, U. Rascher, Y. Ryu, J. Johnson, V. Krieger, S. Wu, H. Qiu, Y. Liu, J. A. Berry, and M. Chen, "Estimating near-infrared reflectance of vegetation from hyperspectral data," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 267, p. 112723, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2021.112723
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{zeng2021112723,
    title = {Estimating near-infrared reflectance of vegetation from hyperspectral data},
    journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
    volume = {267},
    pages = {112723},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0034-4257},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2021.112723},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425721004430},
    author = {Yelu Zeng and Dalei Hao and Grayson Badgley and Alexander Damm and Uwe Rascher and Youngryel Ryu and Jennifer Johnson and Vera Krieger and Shengbiao Wu and Han Qiu and Yaling Liu and Joseph A. Berry and Min Chen},
    keywords = {Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), Hyperspectral remote sensing, Soil contamination, Near-infrared reflectance of vegetation (NIRv), Singular value decomposition (SVD), Red edge},
    }

  • T. Hertel, I. Elouafi, M. Tanticharoen, and F. Ewert, "Diversification for enhanced food systems resilience," Nature Food, vol. 2, pp. 832-834, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-021-00403-9
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{hertel2021,
    title = {Diversification for enhanced food systems resilience},
    journal = {Nature Food},
    volume = {2},
    pages = {832-834},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {2662-1355},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s43016-021-00403-9},
    url = {https://www.nature.com/articles/s43016-021-00403-9.pdf},
    author = {Hertel, Thomas AND Elouafi, Ismahane AND Tanticharoen, Morakot AND Ewert, Frank},
    keywords = {At the field, farm, household and market levels, multiple options exist for diversification of activities, building resilience of food systems to stresses and shocks},
    }

  • D. L. Giammarino, I. Aloise, C. Stachniss, and G. Grisetti, "Visual Place Recognition using LiDAR Intensity Information," in IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2021. doi:10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636649
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{digiammarino2021iros,
    author = {Giammarino, D. L. AND Aloise, I. AND Stachniss, C. AND Grisetti, G.},
    title = {{Visual Place Recognition using LiDAR Intensity Information}},
    booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/digiammarino2021iros.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636649}
    }

  • P. Rottmann, T. Posewsky, A. Milioto, C. Stachniss, and J. Behley, "Improving Monocular Depth Estimation by Semantic Pre-training," in IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2021. doi:10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636546
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{rottmann2021iros,
    author = {P. Rottmann AND T. Posewsky AND A. Milioto AND C. Stachniss AND J. Behley},
    title = {{Improving Monocular Depth Estimation by Semantic Pre-training}},
    booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2021},
    doi={10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636546},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/rottmann2021iros.pdf},
    }

  • B. Mersch, T. Höllen, K. Zhao, S. C., and R. Roscher, "Maneuver-based Trajectory Prediction for Self-driving Cars Using Spatio-temporal Convolutional Networks," in IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2021. doi:10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636875
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{mersch2021iros,
    author = {Mersch, B. AND Höllen, T. AND Zhao, K. AND Stachniss C. AND Roscher, R.},
    title = {{Maneuver-based Trajectory Prediction for Self-driving Cars Using Spatio-temporal Convolutional Networks}},
    booktitle = {IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2021},
    doi={10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636875},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/mersch2021iros.pdf},
    }

  • F. Stache, J. Westheider, F. Magistri, M. Popović, and C. Stachniss, "Adaptive Path Planning for UAV-based Multi-Resolution Semantic Segmentation," in European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR) , 2021. doi:10.1109/ecmr50962.2021.9568788
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{stache2021ecmr,
    author = {Stache, F. AND Westheider, J. AND Magistri, F. AND Popović, M. AND Stachniss, C.},
    title = {{Adaptive Path Planning for UAV-based Multi-Resolution Semantic Segmentation}},
    booktitle = {European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
    year = {2021},
    doi={10.1109/ecmr50962.2021.9568788},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/stache2021ecmr.pdf},
    }

  • M. Arora, L. Wiesmann, X. Chen, and C. Stachniss, "Static Map Construction for 3D LiDAR Point Clouds exploiting Ground Segmentation," in European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR) , 2021. doi:10.1109/ecmr50962.2021.9568799
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{arora2021ecmr,
    author = {Arora, M. AND Wiesmann, L. AND Chen, X. AND Stachniss, C. },
    title = {{Static Map Construction for 3D LiDAR Point Clouds exploiting Ground Segmentation}},
    booktitle = {European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
    year = {2021},
    doi={10.1109/ecmr50962.2021.9568799},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/arora2021ecmr.pdf},
    }

  • R. A. Rosu and S. Behnke, "EasyPBR: A Lightweight Physically-Based Renderer," in Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications , 2021. doi:10.5220/0010268902450252
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{rosu2021grapp,
    author = {Rosu, Radu Alexandru AND Behnke, Sven},
    title = {{EasyPBR: A Lightweight Physically-Based Renderer}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of 16th International Conference on Computer Graphics Theory and Applications},
    doi={10.5220/0010268902450252},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://www.ais.uni-bonn.de/papers/GRAPP_2021_Rosu_EasyPBR.pdf},
    }

  • M. Herbst, P. Pohlig, A. Graf, L. Weihermüller, M. Schmidt, J. Vanderborght, and H. Vereecken, "Quantification of water stress induced within-field variability of carbon dioxide fluxes in a sugar beet stand," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 297, p. 108242, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108242
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and soil respiration at field scale can exhibit considerable spatial variability linked to the heterogeneity of soil properties and state variables. In this study, we measured NEE with the eddy covariance (EC) method in a sugar beet field characterized by high spatial variability in soil physical properties. We further measured NEE and soil respiration by chambers as well as soil water content and temperature at 18 locations within the field. Spatially averaged chamber-measured NEE showed good agreement to the EC-based data. During a dry period high spatial variation of within-field NEE was detected with the chamber method. The coefficient of variation was on average 0.57 during the dry period, with a maximum of 0.72. Based on the depth-specific soil water content measurements the AgroC ecosystem model was inverted for soil hydraulic properties at each of the 18 locations, where soil water content was measured. Analyzing the model results revealed that root water uptake stress was the main driver of spatial and temporal variability in crop development and NEE, whereby the soil coarse material fraction (gravel content) and thickness of the layer above a gravel dominated soil layer were identified as the main influencing soil properties. The chamber-measured NEE and the flux footprint analysis showed that particularly during periods of severe root water uptake stress EC-based measurements would be prone to biases. A combination of the footprint model with the AgroC ecosystem model estimated a bias of 14\% for the dry period and a vegetation period bias of 6\% in relation to the average CO2 flux.

    @Article{herbst2021108242,
    title = {Quantification of water stress induced within-field variability of carbon dioxide fluxes in a sugar beet stand},
    journal = {Agricultural and Forest Meteorology},
    volume = {297},
    pages = {108242},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0168-1923},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108242},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192320303440},
    author = {M. Herbst and P. Pohlig and A. Graf and L. Weihermüller and M. Schmidt and J. Vanderborght and H. Vereecken},
    keywords = {Spatial variation, Net ecosystem exchange, Respiration, Eddy covariance, Crop model, Water stress},
    abstract = {Net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and soil respiration at field scale can exhibit considerable spatial variability linked to the heterogeneity of soil properties and state variables. In this study, we measured NEE with the eddy covariance (EC) method in a sugar beet field characterized by high spatial variability in soil physical properties. We further measured NEE and soil respiration by chambers as well as soil water content and temperature at 18 locations within the field. Spatially averaged chamber-measured NEE showed good agreement to the EC-based data. During a dry period high spatial variation of within-field NEE was detected with the chamber method. The coefficient of variation was on average 0.57 during the dry period, with a maximum of 0.72. Based on the depth-specific soil water content measurements the AgroC ecosystem model was inverted for soil hydraulic properties at each of the 18 locations, where soil water content was measured. Analyzing the model results revealed that root water uptake stress was the main driver of spatial and temporal variability in crop development and NEE, whereby the soil coarse material fraction (gravel content) and thickness of the layer above a gravel dominated soil layer were identified as the main influencing soil properties. The chamber-measured NEE and the flux footprint analysis showed that particularly during periods of severe root water uptake stress EC-based measurements would be prone to biases. A combination of the footprint model with the AgroC ecosystem model estimated a bias of 14\% for the dry period and a vegetation period bias of 6\% in relation to the average CO2 flux.},
    }

  • A. Dreier, F. Zimmermann, L. Klingbeil, C. Holst, and H. Kuhlmann, "Strategien zur Selektion von Satelliten in kinematischen GNSS-Anwendungen auf Basis von 3D-Umgebungsmodellen," Allgemeine Vermessungs-Nachrichten (AVN), 2021.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{dreier2021avn,
    author = {Dreier, A. AND Zimmermann, F. AND Klingbeil, L. AND Holst, C. AND Kuhlmann, H.},
    title = {{Strategien zur Selektion von Satelliten in kinematischen GNSS-Anwendungen auf Basis von 3D-Umgebungsmodellen}},
    journal = {Allgemeine Vermessungs-Nachrichten (AVN)},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://gispoint.de/artikelarchiv/avn/2021/avn-ausgabe-012021/6841-strategien-zur-selektion-von-satelliten-in-kinematischen-gnss-anwendungen-auf-basis-von-3d-umgebungsmodellen.html},
    }

  • K. Baylis, T. Heckelei, and T. W. Hertel, "Agricultural Trade and Environmental Sustainability," Annual Review of Resource Economics, vol. 13, iss. 1, pp. 379-401, 2021. doi:10.1146/annurev-resource-101420-090453
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{doi:10.1146/annurev-resource-101420-090453,
    author = {Baylis, Kathy and Heckelei, Thomas and Hertel, Thomas W.},
    title = {Agricultural Trade and Environmental Sustainability},
    journal = {Annual Review of Resource Economics},
    volume = {13},
    number = {1},
    pages = {379-401},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1146/annurev-resource-101420-090453},
    url = { https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-resource-101420-090453
    },
    eprint = { https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-resource-101420-090453},
    }

  • J. Krause, M. Günder, D. Schulz, and R. Gruna, "New active learning algorithms for near-infrared spectroscopy in agricultural applications," at - Automatisierungstechnik, vol. 69, iss. 4, p. 297–306, 2021. doi:doi:10.1515/auto-2020-0143
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{krausegünderschulzgruna+2021+297+306,
    author = {Julius Krause and Maurice Günder and Daniel Schulz and Robin Gruna},
    doi = {doi:10.1515/auto-2020-0143},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1515/auto-2020-0143},
    title = {New active learning algorithms for near-infrared spectroscopy in agricultural applications},
    journal = {at - Automatisierungstechnik},
    number = {4},
    volume = {69},
    year = {2021},
    pages = {297--306},
    }

  • V. Sushko, E. Schönfeld, D. Zhang, J. Gall, B. Schiele, and A. Khoreva, "You Only Need Adversarial Supervision for Semantic Image Synthesis," in International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR) , 2021.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{sushko2021iclr,
    author = {Sushko,V. AND Schönfeld, E. AND Zhang, D. AND Gall, J. AND Schiele, B. AND Khoreva, A.},
    title = {{You Only Need Adversarial Supervision for Semantic Image Synthesis}},
    booktitle = {International Conference on Learning Representations (ICLR)},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://openreview.net/pdf?id=yvQKLaqNE6M},
    }

  • J. Vanderborght, V. Couvreur, F. Meunier, A. Schnepf, H. Vereecken, M. Bouda, and M. Javaux, "From hydraulic root architecture models to macroscopic representations of root hydraulics in soil water flow and land surface models," Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, vol. 25, iss. 9, p. 4835–4860, 2021. doi:10.5194/hess-25-4835-2021
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{hess-25-4835-2021,
    author = {Vanderborght, J. and Couvreur, V. and Meunier, F. and Schnepf, A. and Vereecken, H. and Bouda, M. and Javaux, M.},
    title = {From hydraulic root architecture models to macroscopic representations of root hydraulics in soil water flow and land surface models},
    journal = {Hydrology and Earth System Sciences},
    volume = {25},
    year = {2021},
    number = {9},
    pages = {4835--4860},
    url = {https://hess.copernicus.org/articles/25/4835/2021/},
    doi = {10.5194/hess-25-4835-2021},
    }

  • C. Brogi, J. A. Huisman, L. Weihermüller, M. Herbst, and H. Vereecken, "Added value of geophysics-based soil mapping in agro-ecosystem simulations," SOIL, vol. 7, iss. 1, p. 125–143, 2021. doi:10.5194/soil-7-125-2021
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{soil-7-125-2021,
    author = {Brogi, C. and Huisman, J. A. and Weiherm\"uller, L. and Herbst, M. and Vereecken, H.},
    title = {Added value of geophysics-based soil mapping in agro-ecosystem simulations},
    journal = {SOIL},
    volume = {7},
    year = {2021},
    number = {1},
    pages = {125--143},
    url = {https://soil.copernicus.org/articles/7/125/2021/},
    doi = {10.5194/soil-7-125-2021},
    }

  • S. Li, J. Yi, Y. Abu Farha, and J. Gall, "Pose Refinement Graph Convolutional Network for Skeleton-based Action Recognition," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2021.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{li2021ieee,
    author = {Li, S. AND Yi, J. AND Abu Farha, Y. AND Gall, J.},
    title = {{Pose Refinement Graph Convolutional Network for Skeleton-based Action Recognition}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2010.07367.pdf},
    }

  • X. Chen, S. Li, B. Mersch, L. Wiesmann, J. Gall, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Moving Object Segmentation in 3D LiDAR Data: A Learning-based Approach Exploiting Sequential Data," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2021.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{chen2021ieee,
    author = {Chen, X. AND Li, S. AND Mersch, B. AND Wiesmann, L. AND Gall, J. AND Behley, J. AND Stachniss, C.},
    title = {{Moving Object Segmentation in 3D LiDAR Data: A Learning-based Approach Exploiting Sequential Data}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.08971.pdf},
    }

  • T. Stomberg, I. Weber, M. Schmitt, and R. Roscher, "JUNGLE-NET: USING EXPLAINABLE MACHINE LEARNING TO GAIN NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE APPEARANCE OF WILDERNESS IN SATELLITE IMAGERY," ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. V-3-2021, p. 317–324, 2021. doi:10.5194/isprs-annals-V-3-2021-317-2021
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{isprs-annals-v-3-2021-317-2021,
    author = {Stomberg, T. and Weber, I. and Schmitt, M. and Roscher, R.},
    title = {JUNGLE-NET: USING EXPLAINABLE MACHINE LEARNING TO GAIN NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE APPEARANCE OF WILDERNESS IN SATELLITE IMAGERY},
    journal = {ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences},
    volume = {V-3-2021},
    year = {2021},
    pages = {317--324},
    url = {https://www.isprs-ann-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/V-3-2021/317/2021/},
    doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-V-3-2021-317-2021},
    }

  • X. Chen, T. Läbe, A. Milioto, T. Röhling, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "OverlapNet: A Siamese Network for Computing LiDAR Scan Similarity with Applications to Loop Closing and Localization," Autonomous Robots, 2021. doi:10.1007/s10514-021-09999-0
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{chen2021autro,
    author = {Chen, X. AND Läbe, T. AND Milioto, A. AND Röhling, T. AND Behley, J. AND Stachniss, C.},
    title = {{OverlapNet: A Siamese Network for Computing LiDAR Scan Similarity with Applications to Loop Closing and Localization}},
    journal = {Autonomous Robots},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s10514-021-09999-0},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10514-021-09999-0#citeas},
    }

  • S. L. Bauke, A. Schnepf, C. von Sperber, N. Orlowski, H. Lewandowski, T. Selzner, F. Tamburini, and W. Amelung, "Tracing uptake and translocation of phosphorus in wheat using oxygen isotopes and mathematical modelling," New Phytologist, vol. 230, iss. 5, pp. 1883-1895, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17307
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Summary Understanding P uptake in soil–plant systems requires suitable P tracers. The stable oxygen isotope ratio in phosphate (expressed as δ18OP) is an alternative to radioactive labelling, but the degree to which plants preserve the δ18OP value of the P source is unclear. We hypothesised that the source signal will be preserved in roots rather than shoots. In soil and hydroponic experiments with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), we replaced irrigation water by 18O-labelled water for up to 10 d. We extracted plant inorganic phosphates with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), assessed temporal dynamics of δ18OTCA-P values after changing to 18O-labelled water and combined the results with a mathematical model. Within 1 wk, full equilibration of δ18OTCA-P values with the isotope value of the water in the growth medium occurred in shoots but not in roots. Model results further indicated that root δ18OTCA-P values were affected by back transport of phosphate from shoots to roots, with a greater contribution of source P at higher temperatures when back transport was reduced. Root δ18OTCA-P partially preserved the source signal, providing an indicator of P uptake sources. This now needs to be tested extensively for different species, soil and climate conditions to enable application in future ecosystem studies.

    @Article{https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17307,
    author = {Bauke, Sara L. and Schnepf, Andrea and von Sperber, Christian and Orlowski, Natalie and Lewandowski, Hans and Selzner, Tobias and Tamburini, Federica and Amelung, Wulf},
    title = {Tracing uptake and translocation of phosphorus in wheat using oxygen isotopes and mathematical modelling},
    journal = {New Phytologist},
    volume = {230},
    number = {5},
    pages = {1883-1895},
    keywords = {hydroponics, isotope model, oxygen isotope exchange, phosphate, plant P uptake, roots},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17307},
    url = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.17307},
    eprint = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/nph.17307},
    abstract = {Summary Understanding P uptake in soil–plant systems requires suitable P tracers. The stable oxygen isotope ratio in phosphate (expressed as δ18OP) is an alternative to radioactive labelling, but the degree to which plants preserve the δ18OP value of the P source is unclear. We hypothesised that the source signal will be preserved in roots rather than shoots. In soil and hydroponic experiments with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum), we replaced irrigation water by 18O-labelled water for up to 10 d. We extracted plant inorganic phosphates with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), assessed temporal dynamics of δ18OTCA-P values after changing to 18O-labelled water and combined the results with a mathematical model. Within 1 wk, full equilibration of δ18OTCA-P values with the isotope value of the water in the growth medium occurred in shoots but not in roots. Model results further indicated that root δ18OTCA-P values were affected by back transport of phosphate from shoots to roots, with a greater contribution of source P at higher temperatures when back transport was reduced. Root δ18OTCA-P partially preserved the source signal, providing an indicator of P uptake sources. This now needs to be tested extensively for different species, soil and climate conditions to enable application in future ecosystem studies.},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • E. Katche, R. Gaebelein, Z. Idris, P. Vasquez-Teuber, Y. Lo, D. Nugent, J. Batley, and A. S. Mason, "Stable, fertile lines produced by hybridization between allotetraploids Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have merged the A and C genomes," New Phytologist, vol. 230, iss. 3, pp. 1242-1257, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17225
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Summary Many flowering plant taxa contain allopolyploids that share one or more genomes in common. In the Brassica genus, crop species Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata share the B genome, with 2n = AABB and 2n = BBCC genome complements, respectively. Hybridization results in 2n = BBAC hybrids, but the fate of these hybrids over generations of self-pollination has never been reported. We produced and characterized B. juncea × B. carinata (2n = BBAC) interspecific hybrids over six generations of self-pollination under selection for high fertility using a combination of genotyping, fertility phenotyping, and cytogenetics techniques. Meiotic pairing behaviour improved from 68\% bivalents in the F1 to 98\% in the S5/S6 generations, and initially low hybrid fertility also increased to parent species levels. The S5/S6 hybrids contained an intact B genome (16 chromosomes) plus a new, stable A/C genome (18–20 chromosomes) resulting from recombination and restructuring of A and C-genome chromosomes. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that two genomes can come together to form a new, restructured genome in hybridization events between two allotetraploid species that share a common genome. This mechanism should be considered in interpreting phylogenies in taxa with multiple allopolyploid species.

    @Article{https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17225,
    author = {Katche, Elvis and Gaebelein, Roman and Idris, Zurianti and Vasquez-Teuber, Paula and Lo, Yu-tzu and Nugent, David and Batley, Jacqueline and Mason, Annaliese S.},
    title = {Stable, fertile lines produced by hybridization between allotetraploids Brassica juncea (AABB) and Brassica carinata (BBCC) have merged the A and C genomes},
    journal = {New Phytologist},
    volume = {230},
    number = {3},
    pages = {1242-1257},
    keywords = {Brassica, genome rearrangement, homoeologous exchanges, interspecific hybridization, polyploidy},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.17225},
    url = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nph.17225},
    eprint = {https://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/nph.17225},
    abstract = {Summary Many flowering plant taxa contain allopolyploids that share one or more genomes in common. In the Brassica genus, crop species Brassica juncea and Brassica carinata share the B genome, with 2n = AABB and 2n = BBCC genome complements, respectively. Hybridization results in 2n = BBAC hybrids, but the fate of these hybrids over generations of self-pollination has never been reported. We produced and characterized B. juncea × B. carinata (2n = BBAC) interspecific hybrids over six generations of self-pollination under selection for high fertility using a combination of genotyping, fertility phenotyping, and cytogenetics techniques. Meiotic pairing behaviour improved from 68\% bivalents in the F1 to 98\% in the S5/S6 generations, and initially low hybrid fertility also increased to parent species levels. The S5/S6 hybrids contained an intact B genome (16 chromosomes) plus a new, stable A/C genome (18–20 chromosomes) resulting from recombination and restructuring of A and C-genome chromosomes. Our results provide the first experimental evidence that two genomes can come together to form a new, restructured genome in hybridization events between two allotetraploid species that share a common genome. This mechanism should be considered in interpreting phylogenies in taxa with multiple allopolyploid species.},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • D. Bohnenkamp, J. Behmann, S. Paulus, U. Steiner, and A. Mahlein, "A Hyperspectral Library of Foliar Diseases of Wheat," Phytopathology®, p. PHYTO-09-19-0335-R, 2021. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-09-19-0335-R
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    This work established a hyperspectral library of important foliar diseases of wheat induced by different fungal pathogens, representing a time series from infection to symptom appearance for the purpose of detecting spectral changes. The data were generated under controlled conditions at the leaf scale. The transition from healthy to diseased leaf tissue was assessed, and spectral shifts were identified and used in combination with histological investigations to define developmental stages in pathogenesis for each disease. The spectral signatures of each plant disease that indicate a specific developmental stage during pathogenesis, defined as turning points, were combined into a spectral library. Machine learning analysis methods were applied and compared to test the potential of this library to detect and quantify foliar diseases in hyperspectral images. All evaluated classifiers had high accuracy (≤99\%) for the detection and identification of both biotrophic and necrotrophic fungi. The potential of applying spectral analysis methods in combination with a spectral library for the detection and identification of plant diseases is demonstrated. Further evaluation and development of these algorithms should contribute to a robust detection and identification system for plant diseases at different developmental stages and the promotion and development of site-specific management techniques for plant diseases under field conditions.

    @Article{bohnenkamppp,
    author = {Bohnenkamp, David and Behmann, Jan and Paulus, Stefan and Steiner, Ulrike and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    title = {A Hyperspectral Library of Foliar Diseases of Wheat},
    journal = {Phytopathology®},
    volume = {0},
    number = {0},
    pages = {PHYTO-09-19-0335-R},
    year = 2021,
    doi = {10.1094/PHYTO-09-19-0335-R},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-19-0335-R},
    eprint = {https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-09-19-0335-R},
    abstract = { This work established a hyperspectral library of important foliar diseases of wheat induced by different fungal pathogens, representing a time series from infection to symptom appearance for the purpose of detecting spectral changes. The data were generated under controlled conditions at the leaf scale. The transition from healthy to diseased leaf tissue was assessed, and spectral shifts were identified and used in combination with histological investigations to define developmental stages in pathogenesis for each disease. The spectral signatures of each plant disease that indicate a specific developmental stage during pathogenesis, defined as turning points, were combined into a spectral library. Machine learning analysis methods were applied and compared to test the potential of this library to detect and quantify foliar diseases in hyperspectral images. All evaluated classifiers had high accuracy (≤99\%) for the detection and identification of both biotrophic and necrotrophic fungi. The potential of applying spectral analysis methods in combination with a spectral library for the detection and identification of plant diseases is demonstrated. Further evaluation and development of these algorithms should contribute to a robust detection and identification system for plant diseases at different developmental stages and the promotion and development of site-specific management techniques for plant diseases under field conditions. },
    }

  • D. Hu, J. Jing, R. J. Snowdon, A. S. Mason, J. Shen, J. Meng, and J. Zou, "Exploring the gene pool of Brassica napus by genomics-based approaches," Plant Biotechnology Journal, vol. 19, iss. 9, pp. 1693-1712, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13636
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Summary De novo allopolyploidization in Brassica provides a very successful model for reconstructing polyploid genomes using progenitor species and relatives to broaden crop gene pools and understand genome evolution after polyploidy, interspecific hybridization and exotic introgression. B. napus (AACC), the major cultivated rapeseed species and the third largest oilseed crop in the world, is a young Brassica species with a limited genetic base resulting from its short history of domestication, cultivation, and intensive selection during breeding for target economic traits. However, the gene pool of B. napus has been significantly enriched in recent decades that has been benefit from worldwide effects by the successful introduction of abundant subgenomic variation and novel genomic variation via intraspecific, interspecific and intergeneric crosses. An important question in this respect is how to utilize such variation to breed crops adapted to the changing global climate. Here, we review the genetic diversity, genome structure, and population-level differentiation of the B. napus gene pool in relation to known exotic introgressions from various species of the Brassicaceae, especially those elucidated by recent genome-sequencing projects. We also summarize progress in gene cloning, trait-marker associations, gene editing, molecular marker-assisted selection and genome-wide prediction, and describe the challenges and opportunities of these techniques as molecular platforms to exploit novel genomic variation and their value in the rapeseed gene pool. Future progress will accelerate the creation and manipulation of genetic diversity with genomic-based improvement, as well as provide novel insights into the neo-domestication of polyploid crops with novel genetic diversity from reconstructed genomes.

    @Article{https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13636,
    author = {Hu, Dandan and Jing, Jinjie and Snowdon, Rod J. and Mason, Annaliese S. and Shen, Jinxiong and Meng, Jinling and Zou, Jun},
    title = {Exploring the gene pool of Brassica napus by genomics-based approaches},
    journal = {Plant Biotechnology Journal},
    volume = {19},
    number = {9},
    pages = {1693-1712},
    keywords = {polyploid crop, Brassica, gene pool, exotic introgressions, genomic changes, genomic-based improvement},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/pbi.13636},
    url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/pbi.13636},
    eprint = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/pbi.13636},
    abstract = {Summary De novo allopolyploidization in Brassica provides a very successful model for reconstructing polyploid genomes using progenitor species and relatives to broaden crop gene pools and understand genome evolution after polyploidy, interspecific hybridization and exotic introgression. B. napus (AACC), the major cultivated rapeseed species and the third largest oilseed crop in the world, is a young Brassica species with a limited genetic base resulting from its short history of domestication, cultivation, and intensive selection during breeding for target economic traits. However, the gene pool of B. napus has been significantly enriched in recent decades that has been benefit from worldwide effects by the successful introduction of abundant subgenomic variation and novel genomic variation via intraspecific, interspecific and intergeneric crosses. An important question in this respect is how to utilize such variation to breed crops adapted to the changing global climate. Here, we review the genetic diversity, genome structure, and population-level differentiation of the B. napus gene pool in relation to known exotic introgressions from various species of the Brassicaceae, especially those elucidated by recent genome-sequencing projects. We also summarize progress in gene cloning, trait-marker associations, gene editing, molecular marker-assisted selection and genome-wide prediction, and describe the challenges and opportunities of these techniques as molecular platforms to exploit novel genomic variation and their value in the rapeseed gene pool. Future progress will accelerate the creation and manipulation of genetic diversity with genomic-based improvement, as well as provide novel insights into the neo-domestication of polyploid crops with novel genetic diversity from reconstructed genomes.},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • F. Navarrete, N. Grujic, A. Stirnberg, I. Saado, D. Aleksza, M. Gallei, H. Adi, A. Alcântara, M. Khan, J. Bindics, M. Trujillo, and A. Djamei, "The Pleiades are a cluster of fungal effectors that inhibit host defenses," PLOS Pathogens, vol. 17, iss. 6, pp. 1-24, 2021. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1009641
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Biotrophic plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate the host physiology. Effectors suppress defenses and induce an environment favorable to disease development. Sequence-based prediction of effector function is impeded by their rapid evolution rate. In the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, effector-coding genes frequently organize in clusters. Here we describe the functional characterization of the pleiades, a cluster of ten effector genes, by analyzing the micro- and macroscopic phenotype of the cluster deletion and expressing these proteins in planta. Deletion of the pleiades leads to strongly impaired virulence and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected tissue. Eight of the Pleiades suppress the production of ROS upon perception of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although functionally redundant, the Pleiades target different host components. The paralogs Taygeta1 and Merope1 suppress ROS production in either the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. Merope1 targets and promotes the auto-ubiquitination activity of RFI2, a conserved family of E3 ligases that regulates the production of PAMP-triggered ROS burst in plants.

    @Article{10.1371/journal.ppat.1009641,
    doi = {10.1371/journal.ppat.1009641},
    author = {Navarrete, Fernando AND Grujic, Nenad AND Stirnberg, Alexandra AND Saado, Indira AND Aleksza, David AND Gallei, Michelle AND Adi, Hazem AND Alcântara, André AND Khan, Mamoona AND Bindics, Janos AND Trujillo, Marco AND Djamei, Armin},
    journal = {PLOS Pathogens},
    publisher = {Public Library of Science},
    title = {The Pleiades are a cluster of fungal effectors that inhibit host defenses},
    year = {2021},
    month = {06},
    volume = {17},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009641},
    pages = {1-24},
    abstract = {Biotrophic plant pathogens secrete effector proteins to manipulate the host physiology. Effectors suppress defenses and induce an environment favorable to disease development. Sequence-based prediction of effector function is impeded by their rapid evolution rate. In the maize pathogen Ustilago maydis, effector-coding genes frequently organize in clusters. Here we describe the functional characterization of the pleiades, a cluster of ten effector genes, by analyzing the micro- and macroscopic phenotype of the cluster deletion and expressing these proteins in planta. Deletion of the pleiades leads to strongly impaired virulence and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected tissue. Eight of the Pleiades suppress the production of ROS upon perception of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although functionally redundant, the Pleiades target different host components. The paralogs Taygeta1 and Merope1 suppress ROS production in either the cytoplasm or nucleus, respectively. Merope1 targets and promotes the auto-ubiquitination activity of RFI2, a conserved family of E3 ligases that regulates the production of PAMP-triggered ROS burst in plants.},
    number = {6},
    }

  • C. Pahmeyer, D. Schäfer, T. Kuhn, and W. Britz, "Data on a synthetic farm population of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia," Data in Brief, vol. 36, p. 107007, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2021.107007
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Farm-scale and agent-based models draw typically on detailed and preferably spatially explicit single farm data. Data protection standards however restrict or exclude their access, as for example in Germany. We provide data on a synthetic farm population of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, mainly based on the German Farm Structure Survey 2016 and plot specific crop data from 2019/2020. The population is derived from farm typology at administrative unit level to which the observed plots are allocated afterwards. The data contains 25,858 farms and covers 1.3 million ha of agricultural land, provided at plot scale in a geospatial vector and at farm scale in tabular format. For each plot, the managing farm (including the estimated farm's location), the number of livestock, the cultivated crop, as well as the corresponding administration units are indicated. Furthermore, spatial data such as yield information, soil characteristics, as well as monitoring data on environmental status are attached. The provided data allows for diverse analysis on the farm population in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia with farm, agent-based or different bio-physical models. Furthermore, it can serve as a test data set for models which require detailed and spatially explicit farm data.

    @Article{pahmeyer2021107007,
    title = {Data on a synthetic farm population of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia},
    journal = {Data in Brief},
    volume = {36},
    pages = {107007},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {2352-3409},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2021.107007},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352340921002912},
    author = {Christoph Pahmeyer and David Schäfer and Till Kuhn and Wolfgang Britz},
    keywords = {Synthetic farm population, Farm typology, Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia, Farm modeling, Agent-based modeling},
    abstract = {Farm-scale and agent-based models draw typically on detailed and preferably spatially explicit single farm data. Data protection standards however restrict or exclude their access, as for example in Germany. We provide data on a synthetic farm population of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, mainly based on the German Farm Structure Survey 2016 and plot specific crop data from 2019/2020. The population is derived from farm typology at administrative unit level to which the observed plots are allocated afterwards. The data contains 25,858 farms and covers 1.3 million ha of agricultural land, provided at plot scale in a geospatial vector and at farm scale in tabular format. For each plot, the managing farm (including the estimated farm's location), the number of livestock, the cultivated crop, as well as the corresponding administration units are indicated. Furthermore, spatial data such as yield information, soil characteristics, as well as monitoring data on environmental status are attached. The provided data allows for diverse analysis on the farm population in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia with farm, agent-based or different bio-physical models. Furthermore, it can serve as a test data set for models which require detailed and spatially explicit farm data.},
    }

  • C. Pahmeyer, T. Kuhn, and W. Britz, "‘Fruchtfolge’: A crop rotation decision support system for optimizing cropping choices with big data and spatially explicit modeling," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 181, p. 105948, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2020.105948
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Deciding on which crop to plant on a field and how to fertilize it has become increasingly complex as volatile markets, location factors as well as policy restrictions need to be considered simultaneously. To assist farmers in this process, we develop the web-based, open source decision support system ‘Fruchtfolge’ (German for ‘crop rotation’). It provides decision makers with a crop and coarse manure fertilization management recommendation for each field based on the solution of a single farm optimization model. The optimization model accounts for field specific location factors, labor endowments, field-to-farm distances and policy restrictions such as measures linked to the EU Nitrates Directives and the Greening of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. ‘Fruchtfolge’ is user-friendly by automatically including big data related to farm, location and management characteristics and providing instant feedback on alternative management choices. This way, creating a first optimal cropping plan generally requires less than five minutes. We apply the decision support system to a German case study farm which manages fields outside and inside a nitrate sensitive area. In the year 2021, revised fertilization regulations come in force in Germany, which amongst others lowers maximal allowed nitrogen applications relative to crop nutrient needs in nitrate sensitive areas. The regulations provoke profit losses of up to 15\% for the former optimal crop rotation. The optimal adaptation strategy proposed by ‘Fruchfolge’ diminishes this loss to 10\%. The reduction in profit loss clearly underlines the benefits of our support tool to take optimal cropping decisions in a complex environment. Future research should identify barriers of farmers to apply decision support systems and upon availability, integrate more detailed crop and field specific sensor data.

    @Article{pahmeyer2021105948,
    title = {‘Fruchtfolge’: A crop rotation decision support system for optimizing cropping choices with big data and spatially explicit modeling},
    journal = {Computers and Electronics in Agriculture},
    volume = {181},
    pages = {105948},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0168-1699},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2020.105948},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168169920331537},
    author = {C. Pahmeyer and T. Kuhn and W. Britz},
    keywords = {Big data, Decision Support System, Nitrates Directive, Fertilization Ordinance, Farm level simulation model},
    abstract = {Deciding on which crop to plant on a field and how to fertilize it has become increasingly complex as volatile markets, location factors as well as policy restrictions need to be considered simultaneously. To assist farmers in this process, we develop the web-based, open source decision support system ‘Fruchtfolge’ (German for ‘crop rotation’). It provides decision makers with a crop and coarse manure fertilization management recommendation for each field based on the solution of a single farm optimization model. The optimization model accounts for field specific location factors, labor endowments, field-to-farm distances and policy restrictions such as measures linked to the EU Nitrates Directives and the Greening of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. ‘Fruchtfolge’ is user-friendly by automatically including big data related to farm, location and management characteristics and providing instant feedback on alternative management choices. This way, creating a first optimal cropping plan generally requires less than five minutes. We apply the decision support system to a German case study farm which manages fields outside and inside a nitrate sensitive area. In the year 2021, revised fertilization regulations come in force in Germany, which amongst others lowers maximal allowed nitrogen applications relative to crop nutrient needs in nitrate sensitive areas. The regulations provoke profit losses of up to 15\% for the former optimal crop rotation. The optimal adaptation strategy proposed by ‘Fruchfolge’ diminishes this loss to 10\%. The reduction in profit loss clearly underlines the benefits of our support tool to take optimal cropping decisions in a complex environment. Future research should identify barriers of farmers to apply decision support systems and upon availability, integrate more detailed crop and field specific sensor data.},
    }

  • E. Cardona Santos, H. Storm, and S. Rasch, "The cost-effectiveness of conservation auctions in the presence of asset specificity: An agent-based model," Land Use Policy, vol. 102, p. 104907, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104907
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Payments for Environmental Services are a financial incentive for land users to conserve and restore ecosystems. One of the challenges in their implementation is to maximize their cost-effectiveness, or put in other words, to maximize the provision of environmental services for a given budget. This study focuses on two aspects that endanger the cost-effectiveness of such schemes: asymmetric information and asset specificity. If land users are better informed about their own provision costs, compared to the agency, they can increase their rents by demanding higher payments. The presence of asset specificity makes land users vulnerable to being harmed by opportunism. To compensate this risk, they could require higher payments or an exante compensation, likely to compromise compliance. Auctions are claimed to reduce informational rents by revealing land users’ true provision costs. However, their costeffectiveness has been shown to deteriorate if they are repeated over time because bidders can learn and adapt their strategies. Social interaction is particularly important in this context, as it allows land users to gather information on the bid cap; and it allows for trust building, which can substitute the costly formulation and enforcement of contracts, and thus reduce contracting costs. So far, there are only few studies analyzing the effect of asset specificity on the cost-effectiveness of auctions. Our study fills this gap using an agent-based model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of uniform and discriminatory one-shot and repeated auctions. In our model, land users are assumed to be embedded in a social network through which they can interact and learn. Our results suggest that repeated auctions can increase the cost-effectiveness of payments schemes in the presence of asset specificity despite of learning effects over time if land users face liquidity constraints and high time preferences.

    @Article{cardonasantos2021104907,
    title = {The cost-effectiveness of conservation auctions in the presence of asset specificity: An agent-based model},
    journal = {Land Use Policy},
    volume = {102},
    pages = {104907},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0264-8377},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2020.104907},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S026483771931258X},
    author = {Elsa {Cardona Santos} and Hugo Storm and Sebastian Rasch},
    keywords = {Agent-based modeling, Discriminatory auctions, Uniform auctions, Reforestation, Conservation, Asset specificity, Payments for environmental services, Social interaction, Trust},
    abstract = {Payments for Environmental Services are a financial incentive for land users to conserve and restore ecosystems. One of the challenges in their implementation is to maximize their cost-effectiveness, or put in other words, to maximize the provision of environmental services for a given budget. This study focuses on two aspects that endanger the cost-effectiveness of such schemes: asymmetric information and asset specificity. If land users are better informed about their own provision costs, compared to the agency, they can increase their rents by demanding higher payments. The presence of asset specificity makes land users vulnerable to being harmed by opportunism. To compensate this risk, they could require higher payments or an exante compensation, likely to compromise compliance. Auctions are claimed to reduce informational rents by revealing land users’ true provision costs. However, their costeffectiveness has been shown to deteriorate if they are repeated over time because bidders can learn and adapt their strategies. Social interaction is particularly important in this context, as it allows land users to gather information on the bid cap; and it allows for trust building, which can substitute the costly formulation and enforcement of contracts, and thus reduce contracting costs. So far, there are only few studies analyzing the effect of asset specificity on the cost-effectiveness of auctions. Our study fills this gap using an agent-based model to analyze the cost-effectiveness of uniform and discriminatory one-shot and repeated auctions. In our model, land users are assumed to be embedded in a social network through which they can interact and learn. Our results suggest that repeated auctions can increase the cost-effectiveness of payments schemes in the presence of asset specificity despite of learning effects over time if land users face liquidity constraints and high time preferences.},
    }

  • S. Rasch, T. Wünscher, F. Casasola, M. Ibrahim, and H. Storm, "Permanence of PES and the role of social context in the Regional Integrated Silvo-pastoral Ecosystem Management Project in Costa Rica," Ecological Economics, vol. 185, p. 107027, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2021.107027
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    We present rare, empirical evidence on the permanence of land use changes induced by a payments for ecosystem services (PES) program. A follow-up study was conducted a decade after the end of the Regional Integrated Silvo-pastoral Ecosystem Management Project (RISEMP) in Costa Rica. Econometric analysis found that silvo-pastoral practices persisted in the long term and are not reverted. On average there is also no meaningful intensification of practices after payments ceased. However, there is some heterogeneity on the individual level. We find that farms that increase adoption after the end of the project are farms with slower adoption during the project while some farms that decrease adoption are intense adopters. This indicates a pattern of convergence in the long run. Additionally, we challenge the assumption that payments are mono-causally inducing land use change by investigating non-monetary factors associated practice adoption. We find that not only PES explains adoption of silvo-pastoral practices. While it is challenging to establish clear casual linkages, we find that adoption is associated with the number of social ties to other farmers as well as negatively correlated to the exposure to traditional production paradigms measured as membership, as well as peer membership, in producer organisations.

    @Article{rasch2021107027,
    title = {Permanence of PES and the role of social context in the Regional Integrated Silvo-pastoral Ecosystem Management Project in Costa Rica},
    journal = {Ecological Economics},
    volume = {185},
    pages = {107027},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0921-8009},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2021.107027},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0921800921000859},
    author = {Sebastian Rasch and Tobias Wünscher and Francisco Casasola and Muhammad Ibrahim and Hugo Storm},
    abstract = {We present rare, empirical evidence on the permanence of land use changes induced by a payments for ecosystem services (PES) program. A follow-up study was conducted a decade after the end of the Regional Integrated Silvo-pastoral Ecosystem Management Project (RISEMP) in Costa Rica. Econometric analysis found that silvo-pastoral practices persisted in the long term and are not reverted. On average there is also no meaningful intensification of practices after payments ceased. However, there is some heterogeneity on the individual level. We find that farms that increase adoption after the end of the project are farms with slower adoption during the project while some farms that decrease adoption are intense adopters. This indicates a pattern of convergence in the long run. Additionally, we challenge the assumption that payments are mono-causally inducing land use change by investigating non-monetary factors associated practice adoption. We find that not only PES explains adoption of silvo-pastoral practices. While it is challenging to establish clear casual linkages, we find that adoption is associated with the number of social ties to other farmers as well as negatively correlated to the exposure to traditional production paradigms measured as membership, as well as peer membership, in producer organisations.},
    }

  • Y. Yu, L. Weihermüller, A. Klotzsche, L. Lärm, H. Vereecken, and J. A. Huisman, "Sequential and coupled inversion of horizontal borehole ground penetrating radar data to estimate soil hydraulic properties at the field scale," Journal of Hydrology, vol. 596, p. 126010, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126010
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Horizontal borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements can provide valuable information on soil water content (SWC) dynamics in the vadose zone, and hence show potential to estimate soil hydraulic properties. In this study, the performance of both sequential and coupled inversion workflows to obtain soil hydraulic properties from time-lapse horizontal borehole GPR data obtained during an infiltration experiment were compared using a synthetic modelling study and the analysis of actual field data. The sequential inversion using the vadose zone flow model HYDRUS-1D directly relied on SWC profiles determined from the travel time of GPR direct waves using the straight-wave approximation. The synthetic modelling study showed that sequential inversion did not provide accurate estimates of the soil hydraulic parameters due to interpretation errors in the estimated SWC near the infiltration front and the ground surface. In contrast, the coupled inversion approach, which combined HYDRUS-1D with a forward model of GPR wave propagation (gprMax3D) and GPR travel time information, provided accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties in the synthetic modelling study. The application of the coupled inversion approach to measured borehole GPR data also resulted in plausible estimates of the soil hydraulic parameters. It was concluded that coupled inversion should be preferred over sequential inversion of time-lapse horizontal borehole GPR data in the presence of strong SWC gradients that occur during infiltration events.

    @Article{yu2021126010,
    title = {Sequential and coupled inversion of horizontal borehole ground penetrating radar data to estimate soil hydraulic properties at the field scale},
    journal = {Journal of Hydrology},
    volume = {596},
    pages = {126010},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0022-1694},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2021.126010},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169421000573},
    author = {Yi Yu and Lutz Weihermüller and Anja Klotzsche and Lena Lärm and Harry Vereecken and Johan Alexander Huisman},
    keywords = {Ground penetrating radar, Hydrogeophysics, Coupled inversion},
    abstract = {Horizontal borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements can provide valuable information on soil water content (SWC) dynamics in the vadose zone, and hence show potential to estimate soil hydraulic properties. In this study, the performance of both sequential and coupled inversion workflows to obtain soil hydraulic properties from time-lapse horizontal borehole GPR data obtained during an infiltration experiment were compared using a synthetic modelling study and the analysis of actual field data. The sequential inversion using the vadose zone flow model HYDRUS-1D directly relied on SWC profiles determined from the travel time of GPR direct waves using the straight-wave approximation. The synthetic modelling study showed that sequential inversion did not provide accurate estimates of the soil hydraulic parameters due to interpretation errors in the estimated SWC near the infiltration front and the ground surface. In contrast, the coupled inversion approach, which combined HYDRUS-1D with a forward model of GPR wave propagation (gprMax3D) and GPR travel time information, provided accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties in the synthetic modelling study. The application of the coupled inversion approach to measured borehole GPR data also resulted in plausible estimates of the soil hydraulic parameters. It was concluded that coupled inversion should be preferred over sequential inversion of time-lapse horizontal borehole GPR data in the presence of strong SWC gradients that occur during infiltration events.},
    }

  • J. Henderson, J. Godar, G. P. Frey, J. Börner, and T. Gardner, "The Paraguayan Chaco at a crossroads: drivers of an emerging soybean frontier," Regional Environmental Change, vol. 21, 2021. doi:10.1007/s10113-021-01804-z
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{henderson2021,
    author = {Henderson, J. AND Godar, J. AND Frey, G. P. AND Börner, J. AND Gardner, T.},
    title = {{The Paraguayan Chaco at a crossroads: drivers of an emerging soybean frontier}},
    journal = {Regional Environmental Change},
    volume = {21},
    issue = {3},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s10113-021-01804-z},
    url = {https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10113-021-01804-z#citeas},
    }

  • H. Jorda, K. Huber, A. Kunkel, J. Vanderborght, M. Javaux, C. Oberdörster, K. Hammel, and A. Schnepf, "Mechanistic modeling of pesticide uptake with a 3D plant architecture model," Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 28, p. 55678–55689, 2021. doi:10.1007/s11356-021-14878-3
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{jorda2021espr,
    author = {Jorda, H. AND Huber, K. AND Kunkel, A. AND Vanderborght, J. AND Javaux, M. AND Oberdörster, C. AND Hammel, K. AND Schnepf, A.},
    title = {{Mechanistic modeling of pesticide uptake with a 3D plant architecture model}},
    journal = {Environmental Science and Pollution Research},
    volume = {28},
    issue = {39},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s11356-021-14878-3},
    pages = {55678–55689},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14878-3},
    }

  • A. Schnepf and X. He, "Rhizosphere 5 - shining light on the world beneath our feet," Plant and Soil, vol. 461, 2021. doi:10.1007/s11104-021-04942-9
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{schnepf2021plso,
    author = {Schnepf, A. AND He, X.},
    title = {{Rhizosphere 5 - shining light on the world beneath our feet}},
    journal = {Plant and Soil},
    volume = {461},
    issue = {1},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s11104-021-04942-9},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-021-04942-9},
    }

  • K. Zhank, A. S. Mason, M. A. Farooq, and et. al., "Challenges and prospects for a potential allohexaploid Brassica crop," Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 134, pp. 2711-2726, 2021. doi:10.1007/s00122-021-03845-8
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{zhang2021thapge,
    author = {Zhank, K. AND Mason, A. S. AND Farooq, M. A. AND et. al. },
    title = {{Challenges and prospects for a potential allohexaploid Brassica crop}},
    journal = {Theoretical and Applied Genetics},
    volume = {134},
    issue = {9},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s00122-021-03845-8},
    pages = {2711-2726},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03845-8},
    }

  • J. Behley, M. Garbade, A. Milioto, J. Quenzel, S. Behnke, J. Gall, and C. Stachniss, "Towards 3D LiDAR-based semantic scene understanding of 3D point cloud sequences: The SemanticKITTI Dataset," The International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 40, iss. 8-9, pp. 959-967, 2021. doi:10.1177/02783649211006735
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{doi:10.1177/02783649211006735,
    author = {Jens Behley and Martin Garbade and Andres Milioto and Jan Quenzel and Sven Behnke and Jürgen Gall and Cyrill Stachniss},
    title = {Towards 3D LiDAR-based semantic scene understanding of 3D point cloud sequences: The SemanticKITTI Dataset},
    journal = {The International Journal of Robotics Research},
    volume = {40},
    number = {8-9},
    pages = {959-967},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1177/02783649211006735},
    url = { https://doi.org/10.1177/02783649211006735
    },
    eprint = { https://doi.org/10.1177/02783649211006735},
    }

  • C. H. Bock, S. J. Pethybridge, J. G. A. Barbedo, P. D. Esker, A. -K. Mahlein, and E. M. Del Ponte, "A phytopathometry glossary for the twenty-first century: towards consistency and precision in intra- and inter-disciplinary dialogues," Tropical Plant Pathology, 2021. doi:10.1007/s40858-021-00454-0
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{bock2021troplapa,
    author = {Bock, C. H. AND Pethybridge, S. J. AND Barbedo, J. G. A. AND Esker, P. D. AND Mahlein, A.-K. AND Del Ponte, E. M.},
    title = {{A phytopathometry glossary for the twenty-first century: towards consistency and precision in intra- and inter-disciplinary dialogues}},
    journal = {Tropical Plant Pathology},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s40858-021-00454-0},
    url = {ttps://doi.org/10.1007/s40858-021-00454-0},
    }

  • N. Behrmann, J. Gall, and M. Noroozi, "Unsupervised Video Representation Learning by Bidirectional Feature Prediction," in Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision , 2021.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{behrmann2021apcv,
    author = {Behrmann, N. AND Gall, J. AND Noroozi, M.},
    title = {{Unsupervised Video Representation Learning by Bidirectional Feature Prediction}},
    booktitle = {Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://pages.iai.uni-bonn.de/gall_juergen/download/video_representation.pdf},
    }

  • S. Morandage, J. Vanderborght, M. Zörner, G. Cai, D. Leitner, H. Vereecken, and A. Schnepf, "Root architecture development in stony soils," Vadose Zone Journal, vol. 20, iss. 4, p. e20133, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20133
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract Soils with high stone content represent a challenge to root development, as each stone is an obstacle to root growth. A high stone content also affects soil properties such as temperature or water content, which in turn affects root growth. We investigated the effects of all soil properties combined on root development in the field using both experiments and modeling. Field experiments were carried out in rhizotron facilities during two consecutive growing seasons (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] and maize [Zea mays L.]) in silty loam soils with high (>50\%) and low (<4\%) stone contents. We extended the CPlantBox root architecture model to explicitly consider the presence of stones and simulated root growth on the plot scale over the whole vegetation period. We found that a linear increase of stone content resulted in a linear decrease of rooting depth across all stone contents and developmental stages considered, whereas rooting depth was only sensitive to cracks below a certain crack density and at earlier growth stages. Moreover, the impact of precipitation-influenced soil strength had a relatively stronger impact on simulated root arrival curves during the vegetation periods than soil temperature. Resulting differences between stony and non-stony soil of otherwise the same crop and weather conditions show similar trends as the differences observed in the rhizotron facilities. The combined belowground effects resulted in differences in characteristic root system measures of up to 48\%. In future work, comparison of absolute values will require including shoot effects—in particular, different carbon availabilities.

    @Article{https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20133,
    author = {Morandage, Shehan and Vanderborght, Jan and Zörner, Mirjam and Cai, Gaochao and Leitner, Daniel and Vereecken, Harry and Schnepf, Andrea},
    title = {Root architecture development in stony soils},
    journal = {Vadose Zone Journal},
    volume = {20},
    number = {4},
    pages = {e20133},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/vzj2.20133},
    url = {https://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/vzj2.20133},
    eprint = {https://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/vzj2.20133},
    abstract = {Abstract Soils with high stone content represent a challenge to root development, as each stone is an obstacle to root growth. A high stone content also affects soil properties such as temperature or water content, which in turn affects root growth. We investigated the effects of all soil properties combined on root development in the field using both experiments and modeling. Field experiments were carried out in rhizotron facilities during two consecutive growing seasons (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] and maize [Zea mays L.]) in silty loam soils with high (>50\%) and low (<4\%) stone contents. We extended the CPlantBox root architecture model to explicitly consider the presence of stones and simulated root growth on the plot scale over the whole vegetation period. We found that a linear increase of stone content resulted in a linear decrease of rooting depth across all stone contents and developmental stages considered, whereas rooting depth was only sensitive to cracks below a certain crack density and at earlier growth stages. Moreover, the impact of precipitation-influenced soil strength had a relatively stronger impact on simulated root arrival curves during the vegetation periods than soil temperature. Resulting differences between stony and non-stony soil of otherwise the same crop and weather conditions show similar trends as the differences observed in the rhizotron facilities. The combined belowground effects resulted in differences in characteristic root system measures of up to 48\%. In future work, comparison of absolute values will require including shoot effects—in particular, different carbon availabilities.},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • V. Roslinsky, K. C. Falk, R. Gaebelein, A. S. Mason, and C. Eynck, "Development of B. carinata with super-high erucic acid content through interspecific hybridization," Theoretical and Applied Genetics, vol. 134, pp. 3167-3181, 2021. doi:10.1007/s00122-021-03883-2
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{roslinsky2021thap,
    author = {Roslinsky, V. AND Falk, K. C. AND Gaebelein, R. AND Mason, A. S. AND Eynck, C.},
    title = {{Development of B. carinata with super-high erucic acid content through interspecific hybridization}},
    journal = {Theoretical and Applied Genetics},
    volume = {134},
    issue = {10},
    year = {2021},
    doi = {10.1007/s00122-021-03883-2},
    pages = {3167-3181},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s00122-021-03883-2},
    }

  • E. Riemer, D. Qiu, D. Laha, R. K. Harmel, P. Gaugler, V. Gaugler, M. Frei, M. Hajirezaei, N. P. Laha, L. Krusenbaum, R. Schneider, A. Saiardi, D. Fiedler, H. J. Jessen, G. Schaaf, and R. F. H. Giehl, "ITPK1 is an InsP6/ADP phosphotransferase that controls phosphate signaling in Arabidopsis," Molecular Plant, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2021.07.011
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    In plants, phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is regulated by the interaction of PHR transcription factors with stand-alone SPX proteins, which act as sensors for inositol pyrophosphates. In this study, we combined different methods to obtain a comprehensive picture of how inositol (pyro)phosphate metabolism is regulated by Pi and dependent on the inositol phosphate kinase ITPK1. We found that inositol pyrophosphates are more responsive to Pi than lower inositol phosphates, a response conserved across kingdoms. Using the capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) we could separate different InsP7 isomers in Arabidopsis and rice, and identify 4/6-InsP7 and a PP-InsP4 isomer hitherto not reported in plants. We found that the inositol pyrophosphates 1/3-InsP7, 5-InsP7, and InsP8 increase several fold in shoots after Pi resupply and that tissue-specific accumulation of inositol pyrophosphates relies on ITPK1 activities and MRP5-dependent InsP6 compartmentalization. Notably, ITPK1 is critical for Pi-dependent 5-InsP7 and InsP8 synthesis in planta and its activity regulates Pi starvation responses in a PHR-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ITPK1-mediated conversion of InsP6 to 5-InsP7 requires high ATP concentrations and that Arabidopsis ITPK1 has an ADP phosphotransferase activity to dephosphorylate specifically 5-InsP7 under low ATP. Collectively, our study provides new insights into Pi-dependent changes in nutritional and energetic states with the synthesis of regulatory inositol pyrophosphates.

    @Article{riemer2021,
    title = {ITPK1 is an InsP6/ADP phosphotransferase that controls phosphate signaling in Arabidopsis},
    journal = {Molecular Plant},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {1674-2052},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2021.07.011},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S167420522100277X},
    author = {Esther Riemer and Danye Qiu and Debabrata Laha and Robert K. Harmel and Philipp Gaugler and Verena Gaugler and Michael Frei and Mohammad-Reza Hajirezaei and Nargis Parvin Laha and Lukas Krusenbaum and Robin Schneider and Adolfo Saiardi and Dorothea Fiedler and Henning J. Jessen and Gabriel Schaaf and Ricardo F.H. Giehl},
    keywords = {inositol phosphates, inositol pyrophosphates, phosphate homeostasis, phosphate signaling, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase 1, diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate kinase},
    abstract = {In plants, phosphate (Pi) homeostasis is regulated by the interaction of PHR transcription factors with stand-alone SPX proteins, which act as sensors for inositol pyrophosphates. In this study, we combined different methods to obtain a comprehensive picture of how inositol (pyro)phosphate metabolism is regulated by Pi and dependent on the inositol phosphate kinase ITPK1. We found that inositol pyrophosphates are more responsive to Pi than lower inositol phosphates, a response conserved across kingdoms. Using the capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) we could separate different InsP7 isomers in Arabidopsis and rice, and identify 4/6-InsP7 and a PP-InsP4 isomer hitherto not reported in plants. We found that the inositol pyrophosphates 1/3-InsP7, 5-InsP7, and InsP8 increase several fold in shoots after Pi resupply and that tissue-specific accumulation of inositol pyrophosphates relies on ITPK1 activities and MRP5-dependent InsP6 compartmentalization. Notably, ITPK1 is critical for Pi-dependent 5-InsP7 and InsP8 synthesis in planta and its activity regulates Pi starvation responses in a PHR-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ITPK1-mediated conversion of InsP6 to 5-InsP7 requires high ATP concentrations and that Arabidopsis ITPK1 has an ADP phosphotransferase activity to dephosphorylate specifically 5-InsP7 under low ATP. Collectively, our study provides new insights into Pi-dependent changes in nutritional and energetic states with the synthesis of regulatory inositol pyrophosphates.},
    }

  • A. Dreier, J. Janßen, H. Kuhlmann, and L. Klingbeil, "Quality Analysis of Direct Georeferencing in Aspects of Absolute Accuracy and Precision for a UAV-Based Laser Scanning System," Remote Sensing, vol. 13, iss. 18, 2021. doi:10.3390/rs13183564
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The use of UAV-based laser scanning systems is increasing due to the rapid development in sensor technology, especially in applications such as topographic surveys or forestry. One advantage of these multi-sensor systems is the possibility of direct georeferencing of the derived 3D point clouds in a global reference frame without additional information from Ground Control Points (GCPs). This paper addresses the quality analysis of direct georeferencing of a UAV-based laser scanning system focusing on the absolute accuracy and precision of the system. The system investigated is based on the RIEGL miniVUX-SYS and the evaluation uses the estimated point clouds compared to a reference point cloud from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for two different study areas. The precision is estimated by multiple repetitions of the same measurement and the use of artificial objects, such as targets and tables, resulting in a standard deviation of <1.2 cm for the horizontal and vertical directions. The absolute accuracy is determined using a point-based evaluation, which results in the RMSE being <2 cm for the horizontal direction and <4 cm for the vertical direction, compared to the TLS reference. The results are consistent for the two different study areas with similar evaluation approaches but different flight planning and processing. In addition, the influence of different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) master stations is investigated and no significant difference was found between Virtual Reference Stations (VRS) and a dedicated master station. Furthermore, to control the orientation of the point cloud, a parameter-based analysis using planes in object space was performed, which showed a good agreement with the reference within the noise level of the point cloud. The calculated quality parameters are all smaller than the manufacturer’s specifications and can be transferred to other multi-sensor systems.

    @Article{rs13183564,
    author = {Dreier, Ansgar and Janßen, Jannik and Kuhlmann, Heiner and Klingbeil, Lasse},
    title = {Quality Analysis of Direct Georeferencing in Aspects of Absolute Accuracy and Precision for a UAV-Based Laser Scanning System},
    journal = {Remote Sensing},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2021},
    number = {18},
    article-number= {3564},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/13/18/3564},
    issn = {2072-4292},
    abstract = {The use of UAV-based laser scanning systems is increasing due to the rapid development in sensor technology, especially in applications such as topographic surveys or forestry. One advantage of these multi-sensor systems is the possibility of direct georeferencing of the derived 3D point clouds in a global reference frame without additional information from Ground Control Points (GCPs). This paper addresses the quality analysis of direct georeferencing of a UAV-based laser scanning system focusing on the absolute accuracy and precision of the system. The system investigated is based on the RIEGL miniVUX-SYS and the evaluation uses the estimated point clouds compared to a reference point cloud from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for two different study areas. The precision is estimated by multiple repetitions of the same measurement and the use of artificial objects, such as targets and tables, resulting in a standard deviation of <1.2 cm for the horizontal and vertical directions. The absolute accuracy is determined using a point-based evaluation, which results in the RMSE being <2 cm for the horizontal direction and <4 cm for the vertical direction, compared to the TLS reference. The results are consistent for the two different study areas with similar evaluation approaches but different flight planning and processing. In addition, the influence of different Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) master stations is investigated and no significant difference was found between Virtual Reference Stations (VRS) and a dedicated master station. Furthermore, to control the orientation of the point cloud, a parameter-based analysis using planes in object space was performed, which showed a good agreement with the reference within the noise level of the point cloud. The calculated quality parameters are all smaller than the manufacturer’s specifications and can be transferred to other multi-sensor systems.},
    doi = {10.3390/rs13183564},
    }

  • L. Drees, L. V. Junker-Frohn, J. Kierdorf, and R. Roscher, "Temporal prediction and evaluation of Brassica growth in the field using conditional generative adversarial networks," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 190, p. 106415, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2021.106415
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Farmers frequently assess plant growth and performance as basis for making decisions when to take action in the field, such as fertilization, weed control, or harvesting. The prediction of plant growth is a major challenge, as it is affected by numerous and highly variable environmental factors. This paper proposes a novel monitoring approach that comprises high-throughput imaging sensor measurements and their automatic analysis to predict future plant growth. Our approach’s core is a novel machine learning-based generative growth model based on conditional generative adversarial networks, which is able to predict the future appearance of individual plants. In experiments with RGB time series images of laboratory-grown Arabidopsis thaliana and field-grown cauliflower plants, we show that our approach produces realistic, reliable, and reasonable images of future growth stages. The automatic interpretation of the generated images through neural network-based instance segmentation allows the derivation of various phenotypic traits that describe plant growth.

    @Article{drees2021106415,
    title = {Temporal prediction and evaluation of Brassica growth in the field using conditional generative adversarial networks},
    journal = {Computers and Electronics in Agriculture},
    volume = {190},
    pages = {106415},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0168-1699},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2021.106415},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168169921004324},
    author = {Lukas Drees and Laura Verena Junker-Frohn and Jana Kierdorf and Ribana Roscher},
    keywords = {Generative adversarial networks, Agriculture, Cauliflower, Prediction, Plant growth},
    abstract = {Farmers frequently assess plant growth and performance as basis for making decisions when to take action in the field, such as fertilization, weed control, or harvesting. The prediction of plant growth is a major challenge, as it is affected by numerous and highly variable environmental factors. This paper proposes a novel monitoring approach that comprises high-throughput imaging sensor measurements and their automatic analysis to predict future plant growth. Our approach’s core is a novel machine learning-based generative growth model based on conditional generative adversarial networks, which is able to predict the future appearance of individual plants. In experiments with RGB time series images of laboratory-grown Arabidopsis thaliana and field-grown cauliflower plants, we show that our approach produces realistic, reliable, and reasonable images of future growth stages. The automatic interpretation of the generated images through neural network-based instance segmentation allows the derivation of various phenotypic traits that describe plant growth.},
    }

  • B. Siegmann, M. P. Cendrero-Mateo, S. Cogliati, A. Damm, J. Gamon, D. Herrera, C. Jedmowski, L. V. Junker-Frohn, T. Kraska, O. Muller, P. Rademske, C. van der Tol, J. Quiros-Vargas, P. Yang, and U. Rascher, "Downscaling of far-red solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of different crops from canopy to leaf level using a diurnal data set acquired by the airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant," Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 264, p. 112609, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2021.112609
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Remote sensing-based measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) are useful for assessing plant functioning at different spatial and temporal scales. SIF is the most direct measure of photosynthesis and is therefore considered important to advance capacity for the monitoring of gross primary production (GPP) while it has also been suggested that its yield facilitates the early detection of vegetation stress. However, due to the influence of different confounding effects, the apparent SIF signal measured at canopy level differs from the fluorescence emitted at leaf level, which makes its physiological interpretation challenging. One of these effects is the scattering of SIF emitted from leaves on its way through the canopy. The escape fraction (fesc) describes the scattering of SIF within the canopy and corresponds to the ratio of apparent SIF at canopy level to SIF at leaf level. In the present study, the fluorescence correction vegetation index (FCVI) was used to determine fesc of far-red SIF for three structurally different crops (sugar beet, winter wheat, and fruit trees) from a diurnal data set recorded by the airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. This unique data set, for the first time, allowed a joint analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of structural effects and thus the downscaling of far-red SIF from canopy (SIF760canopy) to leaf level (SIF760leaf). For a homogeneous crop such as winter wheat, it seems to be sufficient to determine fesc once a day to reliably scale SIF760 from canopy to leaf level. In contrast, for more complex canopies such as fruit trees, calculating fesc for each observation time throughout the day is strongly recommended. The compensation for structural effects, in combination with normalizing SIF760 to remove the effect of incoming radiation, further allowed the estimation of SIF emission efficiency (εSIF) at leaf level, a parameter directly related to the diurnal variations of plant photosynthetic efficiency.

    @Article{siegmann2021112609,
    title = {Downscaling of far-red solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of different crops from canopy to leaf level using a diurnal data set acquired by the airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant},
    journal = {Remote Sensing of Environment},
    volume = {264},
    pages = {112609},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0034-4257},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rse.2021.112609},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425721003291},
    author = {Bastian Siegmann and Maria Pilar Cendrero-Mateo and Sergio Cogliati and Alexander Damm and John Gamon and David Herrera and Christoph Jedmowski and Laura Verena Junker-Frohn and Thorsten Kraska and Onno Muller and Patrick Rademske and Christiaan {van der Tol} and Juan Quiros-Vargas and Peiqi Yang and Uwe Rascher},
    keywords = {Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, SIF, HyPlant, Diurnal course, Fluorescence correction vegetation index, FCVI, Fluorescence escape fraction, Photosynthetically active radiation},
    abstract = {Remote sensing-based measurements of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) are useful for assessing plant functioning at different spatial and temporal scales. SIF is the most direct measure of photosynthesis and is therefore considered important to advance capacity for the monitoring of gross primary production (GPP) while it has also been suggested that its yield facilitates the early detection of vegetation stress. However, due to the influence of different confounding effects, the apparent SIF signal measured at canopy level differs from the fluorescence emitted at leaf level, which makes its physiological interpretation challenging. One of these effects is the scattering of SIF emitted from leaves on its way through the canopy. The escape fraction (fesc) describes the scattering of SIF within the canopy and corresponds to the ratio of apparent SIF at canopy level to SIF at leaf level. In the present study, the fluorescence correction vegetation index (FCVI) was used to determine fesc of far-red SIF for three structurally different crops (sugar beet, winter wheat, and fruit trees) from a diurnal data set recorded by the airborne imaging spectrometer HyPlant. This unique data set, for the first time, allowed a joint analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of structural effects and thus the downscaling of far-red SIF from canopy (SIF760canopy) to leaf level (SIF760leaf). For a homogeneous crop such as winter wheat, it seems to be sufficient to determine fesc once a day to reliably scale SIF760 from canopy to leaf level. In contrast, for more complex canopies such as fruit trees, calculating fesc for each observation time throughout the day is strongly recommended. The compensation for structural effects, in combination with normalizing SIF760 to remove the effect of incoming radiation, further allowed the estimation of SIF emission efficiency (εSIF) at leaf level, a parameter directly related to the diurnal variations of plant photosynthetic efficiency.},
    }

  • A. Barreto, P. Lottes, F. R. Ispizua Yamati, S. Baumgarten, N. A. Wolf, C. Stachniss, A. Mahlein, and S. Paulus, "Automatic UAV-based counting of seedlings in sugar-beet field and extension to maize and strawberry," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 191, p. 106493, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2021.106493
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Counting crop seedlings is a time-demanding activity involved in diverse agricultural practices like plant cultivating, experimental trials, plant breeding procedures, and weed control. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying RGB cameras are novel tools for automatic field mapping, and the analysis of UAV images by deep learning methods can provide relevant agronomic information. UAV-based camera systems and a deep learning image analysis pipeline are implemented for a fully automated plant counting in sugar beet, maize, and strawberry fields in the present study. Five locations were monitored at different growth stages, and the crop number per plot was automatically predicted by using a fully convolutional network (FCN) pipeline. Our FCN-based approach is a single model for jointly determining both the exact stem location of crop and weed plants and a pixel-wise plant classification considering crop, weed, and soil. To determinate the approach performance, predicted crop counting was compared to visually assessed ground truth data. Results show that UAV-based counting of sugar-beet plants delivers forecast errors lower than 4.6%, and the main factors for performance are related to the intra-row distance and the growth stage. The pipeline’s extension to other crops is possible; the errors of the predictions are lower than 4% under practical field conditions for maize and strawberry fields. This work highlight the feasibility of automatic crop counting, which can reduce manual effort to the farmers.

    @Article{barreto2021106493,
    title = {Automatic UAV-based counting of seedlings in sugar-beet field and extension to maize and strawberry},
    journal = {Computers and Electronics in Agriculture},
    volume = {191},
    pages = {106493},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0168-1699},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2021.106493},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016816992100510X},
    author = {Abel Barreto and Philipp Lottes and Facundo Ramón {Ispizua Yamati} and Stephen Baumgarten and Nina Anastasia Wolf and Cyrill Stachniss and Anne-Katrin Mahlein and Stefan Paulus},
    keywords = {Deep learning, FCN, UAV, Sugar beet, Plant segmentation, Time-series, Intra-row distance, Growth stage},
    abstract = {Counting crop seedlings is a time-demanding activity involved in diverse agricultural practices like plant cultivating, experimental trials, plant breeding procedures, and weed control. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) carrying RGB cameras are novel tools for automatic field mapping, and the analysis of UAV images by deep learning methods can provide relevant agronomic information. UAV-based camera systems and a deep learning image analysis pipeline are implemented for a fully automated plant counting in sugar beet, maize, and strawberry fields in the present study. Five locations were monitored at different growth stages, and the crop number per plot was automatically predicted by using a fully convolutional network (FCN) pipeline. Our FCN-based approach is a single model for jointly determining both the exact stem location of crop and weed plants and a pixel-wise plant classification considering crop, weed, and soil. To determinate the approach performance, predicted crop counting was compared to visually assessed ground truth data. Results show that UAV-based counting of sugar-beet plants delivers forecast errors lower than 4.6%, and the main factors for performance are related to the intra-row distance and the growth stage. The pipeline’s extension to other crops is possible; the errors of the predictions are lower than 4% under practical field conditions for maize and strawberry fields. This work highlight the feasibility of automatic crop counting, which can reduce manual effort to the farmers.},
    }

  • P. Welke, F. Alkhoury, C. Bauckhage, and S. Wrobel, "Decision Snippet Features," in 2020 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR) , 2021, pp. 4260-4267. doi:10.1109/ICPR48806.2021.9412025
    [BibTeX]
    @InProceedings{9412025,
    author = {Welke, Pascal and Alkhoury, Fouad and Bauckhage, Christian and Wrobel, Stefan},
    booktitle = {2020 25th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR)},
    title = {Decision Snippet Features},
    year = {2021},
    volume = {},
    number = {},
    pages = {4260-4267},
    doi = {10.1109/ICPR48806.2021.9412025},
    }

  • T. Zaenker, C. Lehnert, C. McCool, and M. Bennewitz, "Combining Local and Global Viewpoint Planning for Fruit Coverage," in 2021 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR) , 2021, pp. 1-7. doi:10.1109/ECMR50962.2021.9568836
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9568836,
    author={Zaenker, Tobias and Lehnert, Chris and McCool, Chris and Bennewitz, Maren},
    booktitle={2021 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
    title={Combining Local and Global Viewpoint Planning for Fruit Coverage},
    year={2021},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={1-7},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2108.08114},
    doi={10.1109/ECMR50962.2021.9568836}}

  • N. Dengler, T. Zaenker, F. Verdoja, and M. Bennewitz, "Online Object-Oriented Semantic Mapping and Map Updating," in 2021 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR) , 2021, pp. 1-7. doi:10.1109/ECMR50962.2021.9568817
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9568817,
    author={Dengler, Nils and Zaenker, Tobias and Verdoja, Francesco and Bennewitz, Maren},
    booktitle={2021 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
    title={Online Object-Oriented Semantic Mapping and Map Updating},
    year={2021},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2011.06895},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={1-7},
    doi={10.1109/ECMR50962.2021.9568817}}

  • T. Zaenker, C. Smitt, C. McCool, and M. Bennewitz, "Viewpoint Planning for Fruit Size and Position Estimation," in Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2021, pp. 3271-3277. doi:10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636701
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{zaenker21iros,
    author = {T. Zaenker and C. Smitt and C. McCool and M. Bennewitz},
    title = {Viewpoint Planning for Fruit Size and Position Estimation},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2011.00275.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/iros51168.2021.9636701},
    pages={3271-3277},
    year = 2021,
    }

  • C. Smitt, M. Halstead, T. Zaenker, M. Bennewitz, and C. McCool, "PATHoBot: A Robot for Glasshouse Crop Phenotyping and Intervention," in Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2021, pp. 2324-2330. doi:10.1109/icra48506.2021.9562047
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{mccool21icra,
    author = {C. Smitt and M. Halstead and T. Zaenker and M. Bennewitz and C. McCool},
    title = {{PATHoBot}: {A} Robot for Glasshouse Crop Phenotyping and Intervention},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2010.16272.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/icra48506.2021.9562047},
    booktitle = {Proc.~of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2021},
    pages={2324-2330}}

  • A. Bonerath, J. Haunert, J. S. B. Mitchell, and B. Niedermann, "Shortcut Hulls: Vertex-restricted Outer Simplifications of Polygons," in Proceedings of the 33rd Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry , 2021, pp. 12-23. doi:10.1016/j.comgeo.2023.101983
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{bhmn_2021,
    author = {Annika Bonerath and Jan-Henrik Haunert and Joseph S. B. Mitchell and Benjamin Niedermann},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 33rd Canadian Conference on Computational Geometry},
    editor = {Meng He and Don Sheehy},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2106.13620.pdf},
    doi={10.1016/j.comgeo.2023.101983},
    pages = {12-23},
    title = {Shortcut Hulls: Vertex-restricted Outer Simplifications of Polygons},
    url = {https://projects.cs.dal.ca/cccg2021/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/CCCG2021.pdf},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • R. Baatz, H. J. Hendricks Franssen, E. Euskirchen, D. Sihi, M. Dietze, S. Ciavatta, K. Fennel, H. Beck, G. De Lannoy, V. R. N. Pauwels, A. Raiho, C. Montzka, M. Williams, U. Mishra, C. Poppe, S. Zacharias, A. Lausch, L. Samaniego, K. Van Looy, H. Bogena, M. Adamescu, M. Mirtl, A. Fox, K. Goergen, B. S. Naz, Y. Zeng, and H. Vereecken, "Reanalysis in Earth System Science: Toward Terrestrial Ecosystem Reanalysis," Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 59, iss. 3, p. e2020RG000715, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1029/2020RG000715
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract A reanalysis is a physically consistent set of optimally merged simulated model states and historical observational data, using data assimilation. High computational costs for modeled processes and assimilation algorithms has led to Earth system specific reanalysis products for the atmosphere, the ocean and the land separately. Recent developments include the advanced uncertainty quantification and the generation of biogeochemical reanalysis for land and ocean. Here, we review atmospheric and oceanic reanalyzes, and more in detail biogeochemical ocean and terrestrial reanalyzes. In particular, we identify land surface, hydrologic and carbon cycle reanalyzes which are nowadays produced in targeted projects for very specific purposes. Although a future joint reanalysis of land surface, hydrologic, and carbon processes represents an analysis of important ecosystem variables, biotic ecosystem variables are assimilated only to a very limited extent. Continuous data sets of ecosystem variables are needed to explore biotic-abiotic interactions and the response of ecosystems to global change. Based on the review of existing achievements, we identify five major steps required to develop terrestrial ecosystem reanalysis to deliver continuous data streams on ecosystem dynamics.

    @Article{https://doi.org/10.1029/2020rg000715,
    author = {Baatz, R. and Hendricks Franssen, H. J. and Euskirchen, E. and Sihi, D. and Dietze, M. and Ciavatta, S. and Fennel, K. and Beck, H. and De Lannoy, G. and Pauwels, V. R. N. and Raiho, A. and Montzka, C. and Williams, M. and Mishra, U. and Poppe, C. and Zacharias, S. and Lausch, A. and Samaniego, L. and Van Looy, K. and Bogena, H. and Adamescu, M. and Mirtl, M. and Fox, A. and Goergen, K. and Naz, B. S. and Zeng, Y. and Vereecken, H.},
    title = {Reanalysis in Earth System Science: Toward Terrestrial Ecosystem Reanalysis},
    journal = {Reviews of Geophysics},
    volume = {59},
    number = {3},
    pages = {e2020RG000715},
    keywords = {reanalysis, ecosystem reanalysis, land surface reanalysis, data assimilation, hydrologic reanalysis, carbon cycle reanalysis},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1029/2020RG000715},
    url = {https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/2020RG000715},
    eprint = {https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/2020RG000715},
    note = {e2020RG000715 2020RG000715},
    abstract = {Abstract A reanalysis is a physically consistent set of optimally merged simulated model states and historical observational data, using data assimilation. High computational costs for modeled processes and assimilation algorithms has led to Earth system specific reanalysis products for the atmosphere, the ocean and the land separately. Recent developments include the advanced uncertainty quantification and the generation of biogeochemical reanalysis for land and ocean. Here, we review atmospheric and oceanic reanalyzes, and more in detail biogeochemical ocean and terrestrial reanalyzes. In particular, we identify land surface, hydrologic and carbon cycle reanalyzes which are nowadays produced in targeted projects for very specific purposes. Although a future joint reanalysis of land surface, hydrologic, and carbon processes represents an analysis of important ecosystem variables, biotic ecosystem variables are assimilated only to a very limited extent. Continuous data sets of ecosystem variables are needed to explore biotic-abiotic interactions and the response of ecosystems to global change. Based on the review of existing achievements, we identify five major steps required to develop terrestrial ecosystem reanalysis to deliver continuous data streams on ecosystem dynamics.},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • D. Schunck, F. Magistri, R. A. Rosu, A. Cornelißen, N. Chebrolu, S. Paulus, J. Léon, S. Behnke, C. Stachniss, H. Kuhlmann, and L. Klingbeil, "Pheno4D: A spatio-temporal dataset of maize and tomato plant point clouds for phenotyping and advanced plant analysis ," PLOS ONE, vol. 16, iss. 8, pp. 1-18, 2021. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0256340
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Understanding the growth and development of individual plants is of central importance in modern agriculture, crop breeding, and crop science. To this end, using 3D data for plant analysis has gained attention over the last years. High-resolution point clouds offer the potential to derive a variety of plant traits, such as plant height, biomass, as well as the number and size of relevant plant organs. Periodically scanning the plants even allows for performing spatio-temporal growth analysis. However, highly accurate 3D point clouds from plants recorded at different growth stages are rare, and acquiring this kind of data is costly. Besides, advanced plant analysis methods from machine learning require annotated training data and thus generate intense manual labor before being able to perform an analysis. To address these issues, we present with this dataset paper a multi-temporal dataset featuring high-resolution registered point clouds of maize and tomato plants, which we manually labeled for computer vision tasks, such as for instance segmentation and 3D reconstruction, providing approximately 260 million labeled 3D points. To highlight the usability of the data and to provide baselines for other researchers, we show a variety of applications ranging from point cloud segmentation to non-rigid registration and surface reconstruction. We believe that our dataset will help to develop new algorithms to advance the research for plant phenotyping, 3D reconstruction, non-rigid registration, and deep learning on raw point clouds. The dataset is freely accessible at https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/data/pheno4d/.

    @Article{schunck2021plosone,
    author = {D. Schunck and F. Magistri and R.A. Rosu and A. Corneli{\ss}en and N. Chebrolu and S. Paulus and J. L\'eon and S. Behnke and C. Stachniss and H. Kuhlmann and L. Klingbeil},
    title = {{Pheno4D: A spatio-temporal dataset of maize and tomato plant point clouds for phenotyping and advanced plant analysis }},
    journal = {PLOS ONE},
    publisher = {Public Library of Science},
    year = 2021,
    month = {08},
    volume = {16},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0256340},
    pages = {1-18},
    abstract = {Understanding the growth and development of individual plants is of central importance in modern agriculture, crop breeding, and crop science. To this end, using 3D data for plant analysis has gained attention over the last years. High-resolution point clouds offer the potential to derive a variety of plant traits, such as plant height, biomass, as well as the number and size of relevant plant organs. Periodically scanning the plants even allows for performing spatio-temporal growth analysis. However, highly accurate 3D point clouds from plants recorded at different growth stages are rare, and acquiring this kind of data is costly. Besides, advanced plant analysis methods from machine learning require annotated training data and thus generate intense manual labor before being able to perform an analysis. To address these issues, we present with this dataset paper a multi-temporal dataset featuring high-resolution registered point clouds of maize and tomato plants, which we manually labeled for computer vision tasks, such as for instance segmentation and 3D reconstruction, providing approximately 260 million labeled 3D points. To highlight the usability of the data and to provide baselines for other researchers, we show a variety of applications ranging from point cloud segmentation to non-rigid registration and surface reconstruction. We believe that our dataset will help to develop new algorithms to advance the research for plant phenotyping, 3D reconstruction, non-rigid registration, and deep learning on raw point clouds. The dataset is freely accessible at https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/data/pheno4d/.},
    number = {8},
    doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0256340},
    }

  • A. T. Leite-Filho, B. S. Soares-Filho, J. L. Davis, G. M. Abrahão, and J. Börner, "Deforestation reduces rainfall and agricultural revenues in the Brazilian Amazon," Nature Communications, vol. 12, iss. 1, p. 2591, 2021. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22840-7
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    It has been suggested that rainfall in the Amazon decreases if forest loss exceeds some threshold, but the specific value of this threshold remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the relationship between historical deforestation and rainfall at different geographical scales across the Southern Brazilian Amazon (SBA). We also assess impacts of deforestation policy scenarios on the region's agriculture. Forest loss of up to 55–60{\%} within 28 km grid cells enhances rainfall, but further deforestation reduces rainfall precipitously. This threshold is lower at larger scales (45–50{\%} at 56 km and 25–30{\%} at 112 km grid cells), while rainfall decreases linearly within 224 km grid cells. Widespread deforestation results in a hydrological and economic negative-sum game, because lower rainfall and agricultural productivity at larger scales outdo local gains. Under a weak governance scenario, SBA may lose 56{\%} of its forests by 2050. Reducing deforestation prevents agricultural losses in SBA up to US{\$} 1 billion annually.

    @Article{312312312312,
    abstract = {It has been suggested that rainfall in the Amazon decreases if forest loss exceeds some threshold, but the specific value of this threshold remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the relationship between historical deforestation and rainfall at different geographical scales across the Southern Brazilian Amazon (SBA). We also assess impacts of deforestation policy scenarios on the region's agriculture. Forest loss of up to 55--60{\%} within 28 km grid cells enhances rainfall, but further deforestation reduces rainfall precipitously. This threshold is lower at larger scales (45--50{\%} at 56 km and 25--30{\%} at 112 km grid cells), while rainfall decreases linearly within 224 km grid cells. Widespread deforestation results in a hydrological and economic negative-sum game, because lower rainfall and agricultural productivity at larger scales outdo local gains. Under a weak governance scenario, SBA may lose 56{\%} of its forests by 2050. Reducing deforestation prevents agricultural losses in SBA up to US{\$} 1 billion annually.},
    author = {Leite-Filho, Argemiro Teixeira and Soares-Filho, Britaldo Silveira and Davis, Juliana Leroy and Abrah{\~a}o, Gabriel Medeiros and B{\"o}rner, Jan},
    da = {2021/05/10},
    date-added = {2021-06-20 19:44:53 +0000},
    date-modified = {2021-06-20 19:44:53 +0000},
    doi = {10.1038/s41467-021-22840-7},
    id = {Leite-Filho2021},
    isbn = {2041-1723},
    journal = {Nature Communications},
    number = {1},
    pages = {2591},
    title = {Deforestation reduces rainfall and agricultural revenues in the Brazilian Amazon},
    ty = {JOUR},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22840-7},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • D. Schulz, H. Yin, B. Tischbein, S. Verleysdonk, R. Adamou, and N. Kumar, "Land use mapping using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 time series in a heterogeneous landscape in Niger, Sahel," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 178, pp. 97-111, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2021.06.005
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Land use maps describe the spatial distribution of natural resources, cultural landscapes, and human settlements, serving as an important planning tool for decision makers. In the Sahel area, such information is valuable for risk management and mitigation in challenging sectors like food security, flood control, and urban planning. Due to its uniform quality across large areas in regular time steps, remote sensing imageries are essential input for producing land use maps. However, spatially and temporally heterogeneous landscapes in Sahel make classification of landscape features difficult. Our overall goal is to create an accurate, high resolution land use map covering Niamey, the capital of Niger and its surroundings which represents the unique landscape features in the Sahel using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 archives. We assessed the performance of three commonly used classifiers (i.e. Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF)) for land use classification. To understand the utility of different features from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 imagery for classification, we performed feature selection and compared mapping accuracies with and without feature selection. To leverage the strength of each classifier, we developed a classifier ensemble (CE) map based on the mapping accuracy of each land use class and each classifier. The results of this study showed that the performance of individual classifiers depends on feature selection method and accuracies can be improved by combining different classifiers. The ensemble map had an overall accuracy of 72+-3.9 percent and it was found superior in terms of accuracy particularly with respect to built-up areas compared to the existing global land cover products in the study area. Our classification scheme also better characterized the regional environment in the Sahel. For example, we mapped rice and bare rocks that have important regional implication, which are not included in the existing products. Overall, our approach highlights the potentiality of combining multi-modal imageries and multiple classifiers for mapping a heterogenous environment such as the Sahel with high spatial resolution.

    @Article{schulz202197,
    title = {Land use mapping using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 time series in a heterogeneous landscape in Niger, Sahel},
    journal = {ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing},
    volume = {178},
    pages = {97-111},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0924-2716},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2021.06.005},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924271621001635},
    author = {Dario Schulz and He Yin and Bernhard Tischbein and Sarah Verleysdonk and Rabani Adamou and Navneet Kumar},
    keywords = {Classifier ensemble, Land cover, Feature selection, West Africa, Seasonal change},
    abstract = {Land use maps describe the spatial distribution of natural resources, cultural landscapes, and human settlements, serving as an important planning tool for decision makers. In the Sahel area, such information is valuable for risk management and mitigation in challenging sectors like food security, flood control, and urban planning. Due to its uniform quality across large areas in regular time steps, remote sensing imageries are essential input for producing land use maps. However, spatially and temporally heterogeneous landscapes in Sahel make classification of landscape features difficult. Our overall goal is to create an accurate, high resolution land use map covering Niamey, the capital of Niger and its surroundings which represents the unique landscape features in the Sahel using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 archives. We assessed the performance of three commonly used classifiers (i.e. Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF)) for land use classification. To understand the utility of different features from Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 imagery for classification, we performed feature selection and compared mapping accuracies with and without feature selection. To leverage the strength of each classifier, we developed a classifier ensemble (CE) map based on the mapping accuracy of each land use class and each classifier. The results of this study showed that the performance of individual classifiers depends on feature selection method and accuracies can be improved by combining different classifiers. The ensemble map had an overall accuracy of 72+-3.9 percent and it was found superior in terms of accuracy particularly with respect to built-up areas compared to the existing global land cover products in the study area. Our classification scheme also better characterized the regional environment in the Sahel. For example, we mapped rice and bare rocks that have important regional implication, which are not included in the existing products. Overall, our approach highlights the potentiality of combining multi-modal imageries and multiple classifiers for mapping a heterogenous environment such as the Sahel with high spatial resolution.},
    }

  • M. Gerullis, T. Heckelei, and S. Rasch, "Toward understanding the governance of varietal and genetic diversity," Ecology and Society, vol. 26, iss. 2, 2021. doi:10.5751/ES-12333-260228
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{gerullis2021toward,
    title = {Toward understanding the governance of varietal and genetic diversity},
    author = {Gerullis, Maria and Heckelei, Thomas and Rasch, Sebastian},
    journal = {Ecology and Society},
    url={https://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol26/iss2/art28/},
    volume = {26},
    number = {2},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {The Resilience Alliance},
    doi = {10.5751/ES-12333-260228},
    }

  • A. Brugger, P. Schramowski, S. Paulus, U. Steiner, K. Kersting, and A. Mahlein, "Spectral signatures in the UV-range can be combined with secondary plant metabolites by deep learning to characterise barley – powdery mildew interaction," Plant Pathology, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.13411
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{bruggerpp,
    author = {Brugger, Anna and Schramowski, Patrick and Paulus, Stefan and Steiner, Ulrike and Kersting, Kristian and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    year = 2021,
    title = {Spectral signatures in the UV-range can be combined with secondary plant metabolites by deep learning to characterise barley – powdery mildew interaction},
    journal = {Plant Pathology},
    keywords = {Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, deep learning, Hordeum vulgare, Hyperspectral imaging, secondary plant metabolites, UV-range},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1111/ppa.13411},
    url = {https://bsppjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/ppa.13411},
    eprint = {https://bsppjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/ppa.13411},
    }

  • T. A. Marton and H. Storm, "The case of organic dairy conversion in Norway: Assessment of multivariate neighbourhood effects," Q Open, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2021. doi:10.1093/qopen/qoab009
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {This study examines the impact of neighbourhood effects and individual farm characteristics on the decision process of organic dairy conversion in Norway, using a unique, spatially explicit farm-level panel set comprising information at the population level from 2003 to 2015. Our results reveal a positive spatial spillover of neighbouring conversion, confirming previous findings. Additionally, we demonstrate that neighbouring organic dairy reversion (i.e. switching back to conventional dairy farming) and organic dairy exits (ceasing to farm altogether) exert notable negative spatial spillovers on organic conversion decisions that have not yet been shown in the literature. If organic dairy production is an important policy goal, such negative spatial spillover requires consideration within policy design and extension.}

    @Article{10.1093-qopen-qoab009,
    author = {Marton, Tibor A and Storm, Hugo},
    title = "The case of organic dairy conversion in Norway: Assessment of multivariate neighbourhood effects",
    journal = {Q Open},
    volume = {1},
    number = {1},
    year = {2021},
    month = {05},
    abstract = "{This study examines the impact of neighbourhood effects and individual farm characteristics on the decision process of organic dairy conversion in Norway, using a unique, spatially explicit farm-level panel set comprising information at the population level from 2003 to 2015. Our results reveal a positive spatial spillover of neighbouring conversion, confirming previous findings. Additionally, we demonstrate that neighbouring organic dairy reversion (i.e. switching back to conventional dairy farming) and organic dairy exits (ceasing to farm altogether) exert notable negative spatial spillovers on organic conversion decisions that have not yet been shown in the literature. If organic dairy production is an important policy goal, such negative spatial spillover requires consideration within policy design and extension.}",
    issn = {2633-9048},
    doi = {10.1093/qopen/qoab009},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/qopen/qoab009},
    note = {qoab009},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/qopen/article-pdf/1/1/qoab009/38391645/qoab009.pdf},
    }

  • S. J. Seidel, T. Gaiser, H. E. Ahrends, H. Hüging, S. Siebert, S. L. Bauke, M. I. Gocke, M. Koch, K. Schweitzer, G. Schaaf, and F. Ewert, "Crop response to P fertilizer omission under a changing climate - Experimental and modeling results over 115 years of a long-term fertilizer experiment," Field Crops Research, vol. 268, p. 108174, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108174
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{seidel2021108174,
    title = {Crop response to P fertilizer omission under a changing climate - Experimental and modeling results over 115 years of a long-term fertilizer experiment},
    journal = {Field Crops Research},
    volume = {268},
    pages = {108174},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0378-4290},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108174},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378429021001209},
    author = {S.J. Seidel and T. Gaiser and H.E. Ahrends and H. Hüging and S. Siebert and S.L. Bauke and M.I. Gocke and M. Koch and K. Schweitzer and G. Schaaf and F. Ewert},
    keywords = {Long-term field experiment, Climate change, Nutrient availability, Soil phosphorus simulation, Crop modeling},
    }

  • O. Spykman, A. Gabriel, M. Ptacek, and M. Gandorfer, "Farmers’ perspectives on field crop robots – Evidence from Bavaria, Germany," Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 186, p. 106176, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2021.106176
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Farmers’ attitudes toward field crop robots in a European setting have hardly been studied despite an increasing availability of the technology. Given the relevance of robots for small-scale agriculture, however, their acceptability in regions dominated by small-scale agriculture such as Bavaria, Germany, is of particular interest. Based on a sample of 174 farmers, an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the preference for large or small field crop robots in general and in specific settings and for mode of operation was carried out. Data were gathered using questionnaires at two events including lectures and field demonstrations and analyzed using bivariate tests. Farm size, farming system (organic/conventional), and occupational structure (part-time/full-time) were relevant attributes influencing the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of field crop robots. Generally, respondents from larger farms focus more on financial benefits from robots and prefer large autonomous tractors. Conversely, small-scale or organic farmers consider environmental benefits of field crop robots relatively more important and favor small robots. Organic farming also positively correlates with the intent to purchase field crop robots within the next five years. More farmers can generally imagine owning small robots as opposed to an autonomous tractor in ten years, but at the same time view autonomous tractors as more suitable for most specified agronomic tasks. Non-purchase options such as contractor services and machinery sharing represent the preferred modes of robot deployment.

    @Article{spykman2021106176,
    title = {Farmers’ perspectives on field crop robots – Evidence from Bavaria, Germany},
    journal = {Computers and Electronics in Agriculture},
    volume = {186},
    pages = {106176},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0168-1699},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2021.106176},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168169921001939},
    author = {O. Spykman and A. Gabriel and M. Ptacek and M. Gandorfer},
    keywords = {Farmer survey, Attitude, Autonomous, Digitalization, Field crop robot},
    abstract = {Farmers’ attitudes toward field crop robots in a European setting have hardly been studied despite an increasing availability of the technology. Given the relevance of robots for small-scale agriculture, however, their acceptability in regions dominated by small-scale agriculture such as Bavaria, Germany, is of particular interest. Based on a sample of 174 farmers, an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the preference for large or small field crop robots in general and in specific settings and for mode of operation was carried out. Data were gathered using questionnaires at two events including lectures and field demonstrations and analyzed using bivariate tests. Farm size, farming system (organic/conventional), and occupational structure (part-time/full-time) were relevant attributes influencing the evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of field crop robots. Generally, respondents from larger farms focus more on financial benefits from robots and prefer large autonomous tractors. Conversely, small-scale or organic farmers consider environmental benefits of field crop robots relatively more important and favor small robots. Organic farming also positively correlates with the intent to purchase field crop robots within the next five years. More farmers can generally imagine owning small robots as opposed to an autonomous tractor in ten years, but at the same time view autonomous tractors as more suitable for most specified agronomic tasks. Non-purchase options such as contractor services and machinery sharing represent the preferred modes of robot deployment.},
    }

  • F. Görlich, E. Marks, A. Mahlein, K. König, P. Lottes, and C. Stachniss, "UAV-Based Classification of Cercospora Leaf Spot Using RGB Images," Drones, vol. 5, iss. 2, 2021. doi:10.3390/drones5020034
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Plant diseases can impact crop yield. Thus, the detection of plant diseases using sensors that can be mounted on aerial vehicles is in the interest of farmers to support decision-making in integrated pest management and to breeders for selecting tolerant or resistant genotypes. This paper investigated the detection of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by Cercospora beticola in sugar beet using RGB imagery. We proposed an approach to tackle the CLS detection problem using fully convolutional neural networks, which operate directly on RGB images captured by a UAV. This efficient approach does not require complex multi- or hyper-spectral sensors, but provides reliable results and high sensitivity. We provided a detection pipeline for pixel-wise semantic segmentation of CLS symptoms, healthy vegetation, and background so that our approach can automatically quantify the grade of infestation. We thoroughly evaluated our system using multiple UAV datasets recorded from different sugar beet trial fields. The dataset consisted of a training and a test dataset and originated from different fields. We used it to evaluate our approach under realistic conditions and analyzed its generalization capabilities to unseen environments. The obtained results correlated to visual estimation by human experts significantly. The presented study underlined the potential of high-resolution RGB imaging and convolutional neural networks for plant disease detection under field conditions. The demonstrated procedure is particularly interesting for applications under practical conditions, as no complex and cost-intensive measuring system is required.

    @Article{goerlich2021drones,
    author = {Görlich, Florian and Marks, Elias and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin and König, Kathrin and Lottes, Philipp and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    title = {{UAV-Based Classification of Cercospora Leaf Spot Using RGB Images}},
    journal = {Drones},
    volume = {5},
    year = {2021},
    number = {2},
    article-number= {34},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2504-446X/5/2/34/pdf},
    issn = {2504-446X},
    abstract = {Plant diseases can impact crop yield. Thus, the detection of plant diseases using sensors that can be mounted on aerial vehicles is in the interest of farmers to support decision-making in integrated pest management and to breeders for selecting tolerant or resistant genotypes. This paper investigated the detection of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by Cercospora beticola in sugar beet using RGB imagery. We proposed an approach to tackle the CLS detection problem using fully convolutional neural networks, which operate directly on RGB images captured by a UAV. This efficient approach does not require complex multi- or hyper-spectral sensors, but provides reliable results and high sensitivity. We provided a detection pipeline for pixel-wise semantic segmentation of CLS symptoms, healthy vegetation, and background so that our approach can automatically quantify the grade of infestation. We thoroughly evaluated our system using multiple UAV datasets recorded from different sugar beet trial fields. The dataset consisted of a training and a test dataset and originated from different fields. We used it to evaluate our approach under realistic conditions and analyzed its generalization capabilities to unseen environments. The obtained results correlated to visual estimation by human experts significantly. The presented study underlined the potential of high-resolution RGB imaging and convolutional neural networks for plant disease detection under field conditions. The demonstrated procedure is particularly interesting for applications under practical conditions, as no complex and cost-intensive measuring system is required.},
    doi = {10.3390/drones5020034},
    }

  • C. Latka, T. Heckelei, A. Kuhn, H. Witzke, and L. Kornher, "CAP measures towards environmental sustainability—Trade opportunities for Africa?," Q Open, vol. 1, iss. 1, 2021. doi:10.1093/qopen/qoab003
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {Environmental sustainability is a core aspect of the proposed future EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Policy changes must not compromise socioeconomic development in low-income countries, whereas the extensification of EU agriculture may also create trade opportunities abroad. We apply a global agricultural-economic model to assess EU–African trade-related impacts of potential, environmentally motivated CAP changes. Restrictions on livestock density and nitrogen application reveal reduced EU production levels of meat. This lowers the EU's agricultural environmental burden and share in agricultural trade flows to Africa. However, overall food supply in Africa is not projected to deteriorate substantially, as imports from other world regions and increasing domestic production fill the gap. While this weakens the global emission reduction potential, net livestock producers in Africa may benefit from increasing producer prices. How far potentials for domestic production and trade can be used in African regions depends at least partly on their competitiveness vis-á-vis substituting importers.}

    @Article{10.1093/qopen/qoab003,
    author = {Latka, Catharina and Heckelei, Thomas and Kuhn, Arnim and Witzke, Heinz-Peter and Kornher, Lukas},
    title = "{CAP measures towards environmental sustainability—Trade opportunities for Africa?}",
    journal = {Q Open},
    volume = {1},
    number = {1},
    year = {2021},
    month = {03},
    abstract = "{Environmental sustainability is a core aspect of the proposed future EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Policy changes must not compromise socioeconomic development in low-income countries, whereas the extensification of EU agriculture may also create trade opportunities abroad. We apply a global agricultural-economic model to assess EU–African trade-related impacts of potential, environmentally motivated CAP changes. Restrictions on livestock density and nitrogen application reveal reduced EU production levels of meat. This lowers the EU's agricultural environmental burden and share in agricultural trade flows to Africa. However, overall food supply in Africa is not projected to deteriorate substantially, as imports from other world regions and increasing domestic production fill the gap. While this weakens the global emission reduction potential, net livestock producers in Africa may benefit from increasing producer prices. How far potentials for domestic production and trade can be used in African regions depends at least partly on their competitiveness vis-á-vis substituting importers.}",
    issn = {2633-9048},
    doi = {10.1093/qopen/qoab003},
    note = {qoab003},
    url = {https://academic.oup.com/qopen/article-pdf/1/1/qoab003/37766860/qoab003.pdf},
    }

  • A. Haupenthal, M. Brax, J. Bentz, H. F. Jungkunst, K. Schützenmeister, and E. Kroener, "Plants control soil gas exchanges possibly via mucilage," Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202000496
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract Background: Gaseous matter exchanges in soil are determined by the connectivity of the pore system which is easily clogged by fresh root exudates. However, it remains unclear how a hydrogel (e.g., mucilage) affects soil pore tortuosity and gas diffusion properties when drying. Aims: The aim of this viewpoint study is to extend the understanding of gas exchange processes in the rhizosphere by (a) relating it to the patterns formed by drying mucilage within pore space and (b) to give a concept of the effect of drying mucilage on soil gas diffusivity using the combination of experimental evidence and simulations. Methods: To describe the effect of mucilage on soil gas exchanges, we performed gas diffusion experiments on dry soil–mucilage samples and took images of glass beads mixed with mucilage to visualize the formation of mucilage after drying, using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy. Finally, we set up simulations to characterize the geometric distribution of mucilage within soil during the drying process. Results: Experiments of gas diffusion show that mucilage decreases gas diffusion coefficient in dry soil without significantly altering bulk density and porosity. Electron microscopy indicates that during drying mucilage forms filaments and interconnected structures throughout the pore space reducing gas phase connectivity. The evolution of these geometric structures is explained via pore scale modelling based on identifying the elastic strength of rhizodeposition during soil drying. Conclusion: Our results suggest that releasing mucilage may be a plant adaption strategy to actively alter gas diffusion in soil.

    @Article{https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202000496,
    author = {Haupenthal, Adrian and Brax, Mathilde and Bentz, Jonas and Jungkunst, Hermann F. and Schützenmeister, Klaus and Kroener, Eva},
    title = {Plants control soil gas exchanges possibly via mucilage},
    journal = {Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science},
    keywords = {gas diffusion coefficient, liquid bridges, mucilage, pore connectivity, pore scale simulation, respiration, rhizosphere},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.202000496},
    year = {2021},
    url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jpln.202000496},
    eprint = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/jpln.202000496},
    abstract = {Abstract Background: Gaseous matter exchanges in soil are determined by the connectivity of the pore system which is easily clogged by fresh root exudates. However, it remains unclear how a hydrogel (e.g., mucilage) affects soil pore tortuosity and gas diffusion properties when drying. Aims: The aim of this viewpoint study is to extend the understanding of gas exchange processes in the rhizosphere by (a) relating it to the patterns formed by drying mucilage within pore space and (b) to give a concept of the effect of drying mucilage on soil gas diffusivity using the combination of experimental evidence and simulations. Methods: To describe the effect of mucilage on soil gas exchanges, we performed gas diffusion experiments on dry soil–mucilage samples and took images of glass beads mixed with mucilage to visualize the formation of mucilage after drying, using Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy. Finally, we set up simulations to characterize the geometric distribution of mucilage within soil during the drying process. Results: Experiments of gas diffusion show that mucilage decreases gas diffusion coefficient in dry soil without significantly altering bulk density and porosity. Electron microscopy indicates that during drying mucilage forms filaments and interconnected structures throughout the pore space reducing gas phase connectivity. The evolution of these geometric structures is explained via pore scale modelling based on identifying the elastic strength of rhizodeposition during soil drying. Conclusion: Our results suggest that releasing mucilage may be a plant adaption strategy to actively alter gas diffusion in soil.},
    }

  • P. Yu, X. He, M. Baer, S. Beirinckx, T. Tian, Y. A. T. Moya, X. Zhang, M. Deichmann, F. P. Frey, V. Bresgen, C. Li, B. S. Razavi, G. Schaaf, N. von Wirén, Z. Su, M. Bucher, K. Tsuda, S. Goormachtig, X. Chen, and F. Hochholdinger, "Plant flavones enrich rhizosphere Oxalobacteraceae to improve maize performance under nitrogen deprivation," Nature Plants, p. 1–19, 2021. doi:10.1038/s41477-021-00897-y
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {Beneficial interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microorganisms are pivotal for plant fitness. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms controlling the feedback between root architecture and microbial community structure remain elusive in maize. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptomic gradients along the longitudinal root axis associate with specific shifts in rhizosphere microbial diversity. Moreover, we have established that root-derived flavones predominantly promote the enrichment of bacteria of the taxa Oxalobacteraceae in the rhizosphere, which in turn promote maize growth and nitrogen acquisition. Genetic experiments demonstrate that LRT1-mediated lateral root development coordinates the interactions of the root system with flavone-dependent Oxalobacteraceae under nitrogen deprivation. In summary, these experiments reveal the genetic basis of the reciprocal interactions between root architecture and the composition and diversity of specific microbial taxa in the rhizosphere resulting in improved plant performance. These findings may open new avenues towards the breeding of high-yielding and nutrient-efficient crops by exploiting their interaction with beneficial soil microorganisms. The link between rhizosphere microbial community, root architecture and performance in nitrogen-poor soils is comprehensively investigated in maize, and the role of exuded flavone to promote specific beneficial bacterial taxa is characterized.}

    @Article{10.1038/s41477-021-00897-y,
    year = {2021},
    title = {{Plant flavones enrich rhizosphere Oxalobacteraceae to improve maize performance under nitrogen deprivation}},
    author = {Yu, Peng and He, Xiaoming and Baer, Marcel and Beirinckx, Stien and Tian, Tian and Moya, Yudelsy A T and Zhang, Xuechen and Deichmann, Marion and Frey, Felix P and Bresgen, Verena and Li, Chunjian and Razavi, Bahar S and Schaaf, Gabriel and Wirén, Nicolaus von and Su, Zhen and Bucher, Marcel and Tsuda, Kenichi and Goormachtig, Sofie and Chen, Xinping and Hochholdinger, Frank},
    url={https://www.nature.com/articles/s41477-021-00897-y},
    journal = {Nature Plants},
    doi = {10.1038/s41477-021-00897-y},
    abstract = {{Beneficial interactions between plant roots and rhizosphere microorganisms are pivotal for plant fitness. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms controlling the feedback between root architecture and microbial community structure remain elusive in maize. Here, we demonstrate that transcriptomic gradients along the longitudinal root axis associate with specific shifts in rhizosphere microbial diversity. Moreover, we have established that root-derived flavones predominantly promote the enrichment of bacteria of the taxa Oxalobacteraceae in the rhizosphere, which in turn promote maize growth and nitrogen acquisition. Genetic experiments demonstrate that LRT1-mediated lateral root development coordinates the interactions of the root system with flavone-dependent Oxalobacteraceae under nitrogen deprivation. In summary, these experiments reveal the genetic basis of the reciprocal interactions between root architecture and the composition and diversity of specific microbial taxa in the rhizosphere resulting in improved plant performance. These findings may open new avenues towards the breeding of high-yielding and nutrient-efficient crops by exploiting their interaction with beneficial soil microorganisms. The link between rhizosphere microbial community, root architecture and performance in nitrogen-poor soils is comprehensively investigated in maize, and the role of exuded flavone to promote specific beneficial bacterial taxa is characterized.}},
    pages = {1--19},
    }

  • M. Popović, F. Thomas, S. Papatheodorou, N. Funk, T. Vidal-Calleja, and S. Leutenegger, "Volumetric Occupancy Mapping With Probabilistic Depth Completion for Robotic Navigation," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2021. doi:10.1109/lra.2021.3070308
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{popovic2021,
    author = {Marija Popovi{\'c} and Florian Thomas and Sotiris Papatheodorou and Nils Funk and Teresa Vidal-Calleja and Stefan Leutenegger},
    title = {{Volumetric Occupancy Mapping With Probabilistic Depth Completion for Robotic Navigation}},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2012.03023.pdf?trk=public_post_comment-text},
    doi={10.1109/lra.2021.3070308},
    journal = {{IEEE} Robotics and Automation Letters},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • S. Dadshani, B. Mathew, A. Ballvora, A. S. Mason, and J. Léon, "Detection of breeding signatures in wheat using a linkage disequilibrium-corrected mapping approach," Scientific Reports, vol. 11, iss. 1, p. 1–12, 2021. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85226-1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{dadshani2021detection,
    title = {Detection of breeding signatures in wheat using a linkage disequilibrium-corrected mapping approach},
    author = {Dadshani, Said and Mathew, Boby and Ballvora, Agim and Mason, Annaliese S and L{\'e}on, Jens},
    journal = {Scientific Reports},
    volume = {11},
    url={https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-85226-1.pdf},
    doi={10.1038/s41598-021-85226-1},
    number = {1},
    pages = {1--12},
    year = {2021},
    publisher = {Nature Publishing Group},
    }

  • E. Martinsson and H. Hansson, "Adjusting eco-efficiency to greenhouse gas emissions targets at farm level – The case of Swedish dairy farms," Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 287, p. 112313, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112313
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The purpose of this paper is to adjust the measure of eco-efficiency to account for specific sustainability targets at farm level. We assess eco-efficiency and adjust the scores according to a target of absolute levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and data from Swedish dairy farms as an illustrative example. In particular, the Swedish target of net-zero emissions in 2045 and vision of a fossil free economy are used to specify the GHG emission target used for assessing the adjusted eco-efficiency scores. We test for possible factors associated with the adjusted and unadjusted eco-efficiency using OLS-regression analysis. The study is based on data from the farm accounting data network (FADN) in year 2016 and considers the environmental pressures nutrients and contribution to global warming. Adjusted as well as unadjusted eco-efficiency scores suggest that Swedish dairy farms are highly inefficient, and that economic value added could increase by 64% (adj) or 67% (unadj) for conventional farms and by 42% (adj) or 41% (unadj) for organic farms at the same level of environmental pressure. Findings further suggest that adjusting the scores towards absolute levels of GHG emissions increases industry average efficiency. Comparing the unadjusted and adjusted efficiency scores using Spearman rank correlation indicates similar efficiency rankings between the unadjusted and adjusted scores. However, findings also indicate that adjusted and unadjusted eco-efficiency scores are associated with different influencing factors, which lends empirical support to the idea that the two types of efficiency scores are conceptually different. Policy recommendations can be made based on insights from the second stage analysis of possible influencing factors. In particular, adjusted eco-efficiency is associated with higher intensity of farming defined as output per livestock unit. Further, adjusted eco-efficiency is associated with a higher number of livestock units in conventional farms and with lower levels of labour per livestock unit in organic farms.

    @Article{martinsson2021112313,
    title = {Adjusting eco-efficiency to greenhouse gas emissions targets at farm level – The case of Swedish dairy farms},
    journal = {Journal of Environmental Management},
    volume = {287},
    pages = {112313},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0301-4797},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112313},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479721003753},
    author = {Elin Martinsson and Helena Hansson},
    keywords = {Common agricultural policy, Eco-efficiency, Livestock farming, Planetary boundaries, Sweden},
    abstract = {The purpose of this paper is to adjust the measure of eco-efficiency to account for specific sustainability targets at farm level. We assess eco-efficiency and adjust the scores according to a target of absolute levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and data from Swedish dairy farms as an illustrative example. In particular, the Swedish target of net-zero emissions in 2045 and vision of a fossil free economy are used to specify the GHG emission target used for assessing the adjusted eco-efficiency scores. We test for possible factors associated with the adjusted and unadjusted eco-efficiency using OLS-regression analysis. The study is based on data from the farm accounting data network (FADN) in year 2016 and considers the environmental pressures nutrients and contribution to global warming. Adjusted as well as unadjusted eco-efficiency scores suggest that Swedish dairy farms are highly inefficient, and that economic value added could increase by 64% (adj) or 67% (unadj) for conventional farms and by 42% (adj) or 41% (unadj) for organic farms at the same level of environmental pressure. Findings further suggest that adjusting the scores towards absolute levels of GHG emissions increases industry average efficiency. Comparing the unadjusted and adjusted efficiency scores using Spearman rank correlation indicates similar efficiency rankings between the unadjusted and adjusted scores. However, findings also indicate that adjusted and unadjusted eco-efficiency scores are associated with different influencing factors, which lends empirical support to the idea that the two types of efficiency scores are conceptually different. Policy recommendations can be made based on insights from the second stage analysis of possible influencing factors. In particular, adjusted eco-efficiency is associated with higher intensity of farming defined as output per livestock unit. Further, adjusted eco-efficiency is associated with a higher number of livestock units in conventional farms and with lower levels of labour per livestock unit in organic farms.},
    }

  • N. Chebrolu, F. Magistri, T. Läbe, and C. Stachniss, "Registration of Spatio-Temporal Point Clouds of Plants for Phenotyping," PLOS ONE, 2021. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247243
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{chebrolu2021plosone,
    author = {N. Chebrolu and F. Magistri and T. L{\"a}be and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Registration of Spatio-Temporal Point Clouds of Plants for Phenotyping}},
    journal = {PLOS ONE},
    year = {2021},
    doi={10.1371/journal.pone.0247243},
    url = {https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247243&type=printable},
    }

  • J. Weyler, A. Milioto, T. Falck, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Joint Plant Instance Detection and Leaf Count Estimation for In-Field Plant Phenotyping," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), 2021. doi:10.1109/lra.2021.3060712
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @Article{weyler2021ral,
    author = {J. Weyler and A. Milioto and T. Falck and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Joint Plant Instance Detection and Leaf Count Estimation for In-Field Plant Phenotyping}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)},
    year = {2021},
    url={https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jan-Weyler-2/publication/349468993_Joint_Plant_Instance_Detection_and_Leaf_Count_Estimation_for_In-Field_Plant_Phenotyping/links/60b4a368299bf1f6d588867f/Joint-Plant-Instance-Detection-and-Leaf-Count-Estimation-for-In-Field-Plant-Phenotyping.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/lra.2021.3060712},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/Is18Rey625I},
    }

  • L. Wiesmann, A. Milioto, X. Chen, C. Stachniss, and J. Behley, "Deep Compression for Dense Point Cloud Maps," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), 2021. doi:10.1109/lra.2021.3059633
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{wiesmann2021ral,
    author = {L. Wiesmann and A. Milioto and X. Chen and C. Stachniss and J. Behley},
    title = {{Deep Compression for Dense Point Cloud Maps}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)},
    year = {2021},
    doi={10.1109/lra.2021.3059633},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/wiesmann2021ral.pdf},
    }

  • N. Chebrolu, T. Läbe, O. Vysotska, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Adaptive Robust Kernels for Non-Linear Least Squares Problems," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), 2021. doi:10.1109/lra.2021.3061331
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{chebrolu2021ral,
    author = {N. Chebrolu and T. L\"{a}be and O. Vysotska and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Adaptive Robust Kernels for Non-Linear Least Squares Problems}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)},
    doi={10.1109/lra.2021.3061331},
    year = 2021,
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/chebrolu2021ral.pdf},
    }

  • F. Magistri, N. Chebrolu, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Towards In-Field Phenotyping Exploiting Differentiable Rendering with Self-Consistency Loss," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2021. doi:10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561356
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{magistri2021icra,
    author = {F. Magistri and N. Chebrolu and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Towards In-Field Phenotyping Exploiting Differentiable Rendering with Self-Consistency Loss}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2021},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/MF2A4ihY2lE},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/magistri2021icra.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561356},
    }

  • I. Vizzo, X. Chen, N. Chebrolu, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Poisson Surface Reconstruction for LiDAR Odometry and Mapping," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2021. doi:10.1109/icra48506.2021.9562069
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{vizzo2021icra,
    author = {I. Vizzo and X. Chen and N. Chebrolu and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Poisson Surface Reconstruction for LiDAR Odometry and Mapping}},
    url={https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Xieyuanli-Chen/publication/350399207_Poisson_Surface_Reconstruction_for_LiDAR_Odometry_and_Mapping/links/605daf9792851cd8ce69c865/Poisson-Surface-Reconstruction-for-LiDAR-Odometry-and-Mapping.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/icra48506.2021.9562069},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = 2021,
    }

  • X. Chen, I. Vizzo, T. Läbe, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Range Image-based LiDAR Localization for Autonomous Vehicles," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2021. doi:10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561335
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{chen2021icra,
    author = {X. Chen and I. Vizzo and T. L{\"a}be and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Range Image-based LiDAR Localization for Autonomous Vehicles}},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.12121.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561335},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = 2021,
    }

  • A. Reinke, X. Chen, and C. Stachniss, "Simple But Effective Redundant Odometry for Autonomous Vehicles," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2021. doi:10.1109/icra48506.2021.9562023
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{reinke2021icra,
    title = {{Simple But Effective Redundant Odometry for Autonomous Vehicles}},
    author = {A. Reinke and X. Chen and C. Stachniss},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2105.11783.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/icra48506.2021.9562023},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • J. Behley, A. Milioto, and C. Stachniss, "A Benchmark for LiDAR-based Panoptic Segmentation based on KITTI," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2021. doi:10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561476
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{behley2021icra,
    author = {J. Behley and A. Milioto and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{A Benchmark for LiDAR-based Panoptic Segmentation based on KITTI}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2003.02371.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/icra48506.2021.9561476},
    year = {2021},
    }

  • C. Carbone, D. Albani, F. Magistri, D. Ognibene, C. Stachniss, G. Kootstra, D. Nardi, and V. Trianni, "Monitoring and Mapping of Crop Fields with UAV Swarms Based on Information Gain," in Proc. of the Intl. Symp. on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS) , 2021. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-92790-5_24
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{carbone2021dars,
    author = {C. Carbone and D. Albani and F. Magistri and D. Ognibene and C. Stachniss and G. Kootstra and D. Nardi and V. Trianni},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2203.11766.pdf},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-92790-5_24},
    title = {{Monitoring and Mapping of Crop Fields with UAV Swarms Based on Information Gain}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the Intl. Symp. on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems (DARS)},
    year = 2021,
    }

  • J. S. Bates, C. Montzka, M. Schmidt, and F. Jonard, "Estimating Canopy Density Parameters Time-Series for Winter Wheat Using UAS Mounted LiDAR," Remote Sensing, vol. 13, iss. 4, 2021. doi:10.3390/rs13040710
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Monitoring of canopy density with related metrics such as leaf area index (LAI) makes a significant contribution to understanding and predicting processes in the soil–plant–atmosphere system and to indicating crop health and potential yield for farm management. Remote sensing methods using optical sensors that rely on spectral reflectance to calculate LAI have become more mainstream due to easy entry and availability. Methods with vegetation indices (VI) based on multispectral reflectance data essentially measure the green area index (GAI) or response to chlorophyll content of the canopy surface and not the entire aboveground biomass that may be present from non-green elements that are key to fully assessing the carbon budget. Methods with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) have started to emerge using gap fraction (GF) to estimate the plant area index (PAI) based on canopy density. These LiDAR methods have the main advantage of being sensitive to both green and non-green plant elements. They have primarily been applied to forest cover with manned airborne LiDAR systems (ALS) and have yet to be used extensively with crops such as winter wheat using LiDAR on unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This study contributes to a better understanding of the potential of LiDAR as a tool to estimate canopy structure in precision farming. The LiDAR method proved to have a high to moderate correlation in spatial variation to the multispectral method. The LiDAR-derived PAI values closely resemble the SunScan Ceptometer GAI ground measurements taken early in the growing season before major stages of senescence. Later in the growing season, when the canopy density was at its highest, a possible overestimation may have occurred. This was most likely due to the chosen flight parameters not providing the best depictions of canopy density with consideration of the LiDAR’s perspective, as the ground-based destructive measurements provided lower values of PAI. Additionally, a distinction between total LiDAR-derived PAI, multispectral-derived GAI, and brown area index (BAI) is made to show how the active and passive optical sensor methods used in this study can complement each other throughout the growing season.

    @Article{rs13040710,
    author = {Bates, Jordan Steven and Montzka, Carsten and Schmidt, Marius and Jonard, François},
    title = {Estimating Canopy Density Parameters Time-Series for Winter Wheat Using UAS Mounted LiDAR},
    journal = {Remote Sensing},
    volume = {13},
    year = {2021},
    number = {4},
    article-number= {710},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/13/4/710},
    issn = {2072-4292},
    abstract = {Monitoring of canopy density with related metrics such as leaf area index (LAI) makes a significant contribution to understanding and predicting processes in the soil–plant–atmosphere system and to indicating crop health and potential yield for farm management. Remote sensing methods using optical sensors that rely on spectral reflectance to calculate LAI have become more mainstream due to easy entry and availability. Methods with vegetation indices (VI) based on multispectral reflectance data essentially measure the green area index (GAI) or response to chlorophyll content of the canopy surface and not the entire aboveground biomass that may be present from non-green elements that are key to fully assessing the carbon budget. Methods with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) have started to emerge using gap fraction (GF) to estimate the plant area index (PAI) based on canopy density. These LiDAR methods have the main advantage of being sensitive to both green and non-green plant elements. They have primarily been applied to forest cover with manned airborne LiDAR systems (ALS) and have yet to be used extensively with crops such as winter wheat using LiDAR on unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). This study contributes to a better understanding of the potential of LiDAR as a tool to estimate canopy structure in precision farming. The LiDAR method proved to have a high to moderate correlation in spatial variation to the multispectral method. The LiDAR-derived PAI values closely resemble the SunScan Ceptometer GAI ground measurements taken early in the growing season before major stages of senescence. Later in the growing season, when the canopy density was at its highest, a possible overestimation may have occurred. This was most likely due to the chosen flight parameters not providing the best depictions of canopy density with consideration of the LiDAR’s perspective, as the ground-based destructive measurements provided lower values of PAI. Additionally, a distinction between total LiDAR-derived PAI, multispectral-derived GAI, and brown area index (BAI) is made to show how the active and passive optical sensor methods used in this study can complement each other throughout the growing season.},
    doi = {10.3390/rs13040710},
    }

  • L. Shang, T. Heckelei, M. K. Gerullis, J. Börner, and S. Rasch, "Adoption and diffusion of digital farming technologies - integrating farm-level evidence and system interaction," Agricultural Systems, vol. 190, p. 103074, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103074
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{shang2021103074,
    title = {Adoption and diffusion of digital farming technologies - integrating farm-level evidence and system interaction},
    journal = {Agricultural Systems},
    volume = {190},
    pages = {103074},
    year = {2021},
    issn = {0308-521X},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103074},
    url = {https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308521X21000275},
    author = {Linmei Shang and Thomas Heckelei and Maria K. Gerullis and Jan Börner and Sebastian Rasch},
    }

  • S. Gedicke, A. Bonerath, B. Niedermann, and J. -H. Haunert, "Zoomless Maps: External Labeling Methods for the Interactive Exploration of Dense Point Sets at a Fixed Map Scale," IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 27, iss. 2, pp. 1247-1256, 2021. doi:10.1109/TVCG.2020.3030399
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{9222088,
    author = {S. {Gedicke} and A. {Bonerath} and B. {Niedermann} and J. -H. {Haunert}},
    journal = {IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics},
    title = {Zoomless Maps: External Labeling Methods for the Interactive Exploration of Dense Point Sets at a Fixed Map Scale},
    year = {2021},
    volume = {27},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2008.13556.pdf},
    number = {2},
    pages = {1247-1256},
    doi = {10.1109/TVCG.2020.3030399},
    }

  • S. Hadir, T. Gaiser, H. Hüging, M. Athmann, D. Pfarr, R. Kemper, F. Ewert, and S. Seidel, "Sugar Beet Shoot and Root Phenotypic Plasticity to Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Lime Omission," Agriculture, vol. 11, iss. 1, 2021. doi:10.3390/agriculture11010021
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    In low input agriculture, a thorough understanding of the plant-nutrient interactions plays a central role. This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and liming omission on shoot growth as well as on topsoil root biomass, growth and morphology (tuber and fibrous roots) of sugar beet grown under field conditions at the Dikopshof long-term fertilizer experiment (Germany). Classical shoot observation methods were combined with root morphology and link measurements using an image analysis program. Omission of the nutrients N, P and K as well as of liming led to a significant decrease in shoot growth. Tuber yield was lowest for the unfertilized and the K omission treatment. The root shoot ratio was highest in the N deficient treatment. In the K omission treatment, a strategic change from a less herringbone root type (early stage) to a more herringbone root type (late stage), which is more efficient for the acquisition of mobile nutrients, was observed. By contrast, a change from a more herringbone (early stage) to a less herringbone root type (late stage) which is less expensive to produce and maintain was observed in the unfertilized treatment. We conclude that sugar beet alters its root morphology as a nutrient acquisition strategy.

    @Article{agriculture11010021,
    author = {Hadir, Sofia and Gaiser, Thomas and Hüging, Hubert and Athmann, Miriam and Pfarr, Daniel and Kemper, Roman and Ewert, Frank and Seidel, Sabine},
    title = {Sugar Beet Shoot and Root Phenotypic Plasticity to Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Lime Omission},
    journal = {Agriculture},
    volume = {11},
    year = {2021},
    number = {1},
    article-number= {21},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0472/11/1/21},
    issn = {2077-0472},
    abstract = {In low input agriculture, a thorough understanding of the plant-nutrient interactions plays a central role. This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) and liming omission on shoot growth as well as on topsoil root biomass, growth and morphology (tuber and fibrous roots) of sugar beet grown under field conditions at the Dikopshof long-term fertilizer experiment (Germany). Classical shoot observation methods were combined with root morphology and link measurements using an image analysis program. Omission of the nutrients N, P and K as well as of liming led to a significant decrease in shoot growth. Tuber yield was lowest for the unfertilized and the K omission treatment. The root shoot ratio was highest in the N deficient treatment. In the K omission treatment, a strategic change from a less herringbone root type (early stage) to a more herringbone root type (late stage), which is more efficient for the acquisition of mobile nutrients, was observed. By contrast, a change from a more herringbone (early stage) to a less herringbone root type (late stage) which is less expensive to produce and maintain was observed in the unfertilized treatment. We conclude that sugar beet alters its root morphology as a nutrient acquisition strategy.},
    doi = {10.3390/agriculture11010021},
    }

  • D. Wallach, T. Palosuo, P. Thorburn, Z. Hochman, F. Andrianasolo, S. Asseng, B. Basso, S. Buis, N. Crout, B. Dumont, R. Ferrise, T. Gaiser, S. Gayler, S. Hireman, S. Hoek, H. Horan, G. Hoogenboom, M. Huang, M. Jabloun, P. -E. Jasson, Q. Jing, E. Justes, C. K. Kersebaum, M. Launay, E. Lewan, Q. Luo, B. Maestrini, M. Moriondo, G. Padovan, J. E. Olesen, A. Poyda, E. Priesack, Q. B. Pullens J.W.M, N. Schütze, V. Shelia, A. Souissi, X. Specka, A. K. Srivastava, T. Stella, T. Streck, G. Trombi, E. Wallor, J. Wang, T. H. D. Weber, L. Weihermüller, A. de Wit, T. Wöhling, L. Xiao, C. Zhao, Y. Zhu, and S. J. Seidel, "Multi-model evaluation of phenology prediction for wheat in Australia," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 124, pp. 298-299, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108289
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{wallach2021agrformet,
    title = "Multi-model evaluation of phenology prediction for wheat in Australia",
    journal = "Agricultural and Forest Meteorology",
    volume = "124",
    pages = "298-299",
    year = "2021",
    issn = "1161-0301",
    url={https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0168192320303919},
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108289",
    author = {Wallach, D. and Palosuo, T. and Thorburn, P. and Hochman, Z. and Andrianasolo, F. and Asseng, S. and Basso, B. and Buis, S. and Crout, N. and Dumont, B. and Ferrise, R. and Gaiser, T. and Gayler, S. and Hireman, S. and Hoek, S. and Horan, H. and Hoogenboom, G. and Huang, M. and Jabloun, M. and Jasson, P.-E. and Jing, Q. and Justes, E. and Kersebaum, C.K. and Launay, M. and Lewan, E. and Luo, Q. and Maestrini, B. and Moriondo, M. and Padovan, G. and Olesen, J.E. and Poyda, A. and Priesack, E. and Pullens, J.W.M, Qian, B. and Schütze, N. and Shelia, V. and Souissi, A. and Specka, X. and Srivastava, A.K. and Stella, T. and Streck, T. and Trombi, G. and Wallor, E. and Wang, J. and Weber, T.H.D. and Weihermüller, L. and de Wit, A. and Wöhling, T. and Xiao, L. and Zhao, C. and Zhu, Y. and Seidel, S. J.},
    }

  • D. Wallach, T. Palosuo, P. Thorburn, E. Gourdain, S. Asseng, B. Basso, S. Buis, N. Crout, C. Dibari, B. Dumont, R. Ferrise, T. Gaiser, C. Garcia, S. Gayler, A. Ghahramani, Z. Hochman, S. Hoek, G. Hoogenboom, H. Horan, M. Huang, M. Jabloun, Q. Jing, E. Justes, K. C. Kersebaum, A. Klosterhalfen, M. Launay, Q. Luo, B. Maestrini, H. Mielenz, M. Moriondo, H. Nariman Zadeh, J. E. Olesen, A. Poyda, E. Priesack, J. W. M. Pullens, B. Qian, N. Schütze, V. Shelia, A. Souissi, X. Specka, A. K. Srivastava, T. Stella, T. Streck, G. Trombi, E. Wallor, J. Wang, T. K. D. Weber, L. Weihermüller, A. de Wit, T. Wöhling, L. Xiao, C. Zhao, Y. Zhu, and S. J. Seidel, "How well do crop modeling groups predict wheat phenology, given calibration data from the target population?," European Journal of Agronomy, vol. 124, p. 126195, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2020.126195
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Predicting phenology is essential for adapting varieties to different environmental conditions and for crop management. Therefore, it is important to evaluate how well different crop modeling groups can predict phenology. Multiple evaluation studies have been previously published, but it is still difficult to generalize the findings from such studies since they often test some specific aspect of extrapolation to new conditions, or do not test on data that is truly independent of the data used for calibration. In this study, we analyzed the prediction of wheat phenology in Northern France under observed weather and current management, which is a problem of practical importance for wheat management. The results of 27 modeling groups are evaluated, where modeling group encompasses model structure, i.e. the model equations, the calibration method and the values of those parameters not affected by calibration. The data for calibration and evaluation are sampled from the same target population, thus extrapolation is limited. The calibration and evaluation data have neither year nor site in common, to guarantee rigorous evaluation of prediction for new weather and sites. The best modeling groups, and also the mean and median of the simulations, have a mean absolute error (MAE) of about 3 days, which is comparable to the measurement error. Almost all models do better than using average number of days or average sum of degree days to predict phenology. On the other hand, there are important differences between modeling groups, due to model structural differences and to differences between groups using the same model structure, which emphasizes that model structure alone does not completely determine prediction accuracy. In addition to providing information for our specific environments and varieties, these results are a useful contribution to a knowledge base of how well modeling groups can predict phenology, when provided with calibration data from the target population.

    @Article{wallach2021126195,
    title = "How well do crop modeling groups predict wheat phenology, given calibration data from the target population?",
    journal = "European Journal of Agronomy",
    volume = "124",
    pages = "126195",
    year = "2021",
    issn = "1161-0301",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2020.126195",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1161030120302021",
    author = "Daniel Wallach and Taru Palosuo and Peter Thorburn and Emmanuelle Gourdain and Senthold Asseng and Bruno Basso and Samuel Buis and Neil Crout and Camilla Dibari and Benjamin Dumont and Roberto Ferrise and Thomas Gaiser and Cécile Garcia and Sebastian Gayler and Afshin Ghahramani and Zvi Hochman and Steven Hoek and Gerrit Hoogenboom and Heidi Horan and Mingxia Huang and Mohamed Jabloun and Qi Jing and Eric Justes and Kurt Christian Kersebaum and Anne Klosterhalfen and Marie Launay and Qunying Luo and Bernardo Maestrini and Henrike Mielenz and Marco Moriondo and Hasti {Nariman Zadeh} and Jørgen Eivind Olesen and Arne Poyda and Eckart Priesack and Johannes Wilhelmus Maria Pullens and Budong Qian and Niels Schütze and Vakhtang Shelia and Amir Souissi and Xenia Specka and Amit Kumar Srivastava and Tommaso Stella and Thilo Streck and Giacomo Trombi and Evelyn Wallor and Jing Wang and Tobias K.D. Weber and Lutz Weihermüller and Allard {de Wit} and Thomas Wöhling and Liujun Xiao and Chuang Zhao and Yan Zhu and Sabine J. Seidel",
    keywords = "Crop model, Phenology prediction, Model evaluation, Wheat",
    abstract = "Predicting phenology is essential for adapting varieties to different environmental conditions and for crop management. Therefore, it is important to evaluate how well different crop modeling groups can predict phenology. Multiple evaluation studies have been previously published, but it is still difficult to generalize the findings from such studies since they often test some specific aspect of extrapolation to new conditions, or do not test on data that is truly independent of the data used for calibration. In this study, we analyzed the prediction of wheat phenology in Northern France under observed weather and current management, which is a problem of practical importance for wheat management. The results of 27 modeling groups are evaluated, where modeling group encompasses model structure, i.e. the model equations, the calibration method and the values of those parameters not affected by calibration. The data for calibration and evaluation are sampled from the same target population, thus extrapolation is limited. The calibration and evaluation data have neither year nor site in common, to guarantee rigorous evaluation of prediction for new weather and sites. The best modeling groups, and also the mean and median of the simulations, have a mean absolute error (MAE) of about 3 days, which is comparable to the measurement error. Almost all models do better than using average number of days or average sum of degree days to predict phenology. On the other hand, there are important differences between modeling groups, due to model structural differences and to differences between groups using the same model structure, which emphasizes that model structure alone does not completely determine prediction accuracy. In addition to providing information for our specific environments and varieties, these results are a useful contribution to a knowledge base of how well modeling groups can predict phenology, when provided with calibration data from the target population.",
    }

  • C. Latka, M. Kuiper, S. Frank, T. Heckelei, P. Havlík, H. Witzke, A. Leip, H. D. Cui, A. Kuijsten, J. M. Geleijnse, and M. van Dijk, "Paying the price for environmentally sustainable and healthy EU diets," Global Food Security, vol. 28, p. 100437, 2021. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2020.100437
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    We review consumer-side interventions and their effectiveness to support a transition to healthier and more environmentally sustainable diets and identify taxes/subsidies as relevant instruments. To quantify the scope of necessary tax levels to achieve dietary recommendations on EU average, we apply three established economic models. Our business-as-usual food intake projections stress the need for policy intervention to resolve continued divergence from nutrition guidelines. Our findings suggest that food group specific taxes are effective in reaching nutrition and environmental sustainability targets. However, considerable tax levels are required to achieve the targeted consumption shifts, inducing a discussion about alternative policy designs and current model limitations. A coherent policy package is suggested to approach nutrition and sustainability objectives simultaneously.

    @Article{latka2021100437,
    title = "Paying the price for environmentally sustainable and healthy EU diets",
    journal = "Global Food Security",
    volume = "28",
    pages = "100437",
    year = "2021",
    issn = "2211-9124",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gfs.2020.100437",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211912420300912",
    author = "Catharina Latka and Marijke Kuiper and Stefan Frank and Thomas Heckelei and Petr Havlík and Heinz-Peter Witzke and Adrian Leip and Hao David Cui and Anneleen Kuijsten and Johanna M. Geleijnse and Michiel {van Dijk}",
    abstract = "We review consumer-side interventions and their effectiveness to support a transition to healthier and more environmentally sustainable diets and identify taxes/subsidies as relevant instruments. To quantify the scope of necessary tax levels to achieve dietary recommendations on EU average, we apply three established economic models. Our business-as-usual food intake projections stress the need for policy intervention to resolve continued divergence from nutrition guidelines. Our findings suggest that food group specific taxes are effective in reaching nutrition and environmental sustainability targets. However, considerable tax levels are required to achieve the targeted consumption shifts, inducing a discussion about alternative policy designs and current model limitations. A coherent policy package is suggested to approach nutrition and sustainability objectives simultaneously.",
    }

2020

  • A. P. Wasson, K. A. Nagel, S. Tracy, and M. Watt, "Beyond digging: noninvasive root and rhizosphere phenotyping," Trends in plant science, vol. 25, iss. 1, p. 119–120, 2020. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2019.10.011
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{wasson2020beyond,
    title = {Beyond digging: noninvasive root and rhizosphere phenotyping},
    author = {Wasson, Anton P and Nagel, Kerstin A and Tracy, Saoirse and Watt, Michelle},
    journal = {Trends in plant science},
    volume = {25},
    url={https://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/pdf/S1360-1385(19)30280-8.pdf},
    doi={10.1016/j.tplants.2019.10.011},
    number = {1},
    pages = {119--120},
    year = {2020},
    publisher = {Elsevier},
    }

  • F. Seiffarth, T. Horváth, and S. Wrobel, "Maximum margin separations in finite closure systems," in Joint European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases , 2020, p. 3–18. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-67658-2_1
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{seiffarth2020maximum,
    title = {Maximum margin separations in finite closure systems},
    author = {Seiffarth, Florian and Horv{\'a}th, Tam{\'a}s and Wrobel, Stefan},
    booktitle = {Joint European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases},
    url={https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-67658-2_1},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-67658-2_1},
    pages = {3--18},
    year = {2020},
    organization = {Springer},
    }

  • S. Ehosioke, F. Nguyen, S. Rao, T. Kremer, R. E. Placencia-Gomez, J. A. Huisman, A. Kemna, M. Javaux, and S. Garré, "Sensing the electrical properties of roots: A review," Vadose zone journal, 2020. doi:10.1002/vzj2.20082
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{ehosioke2020sensing,
    title = {Sensing the electrical properties of roots: A review},
    author = {Ehosioke, Solomon and Nguyen, Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric and Rao, Sathanarayan and Kremer, Thomas and Placencia-Gomez, Roguer Edmundo and Huisman, Johan Alexander and Kemna, Andreas and Javaux, Mathieu and Garr{\'e}, Sarah},
    journal = {Vadose zone journal},
    url={https://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1002/vzj2.20082},
    doi={10.1002/vzj2.20082},
    year = {2020},
    publisher = {Soil Science Society of America},
    }

  • J. S. Bates, C. Montzka, M. Schmidt, and F. Jonard, "Winter Wheat LAI Estimation Using UAV Mounted LiDAR," in 12th GeoMundus Conference (virtual) , 2020. doi:2078.1/241721
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{bates2020winter,
    title = {Winter Wheat LAI Estimation Using UAV Mounted LiDAR},
    author = {Bates, Jordan Steven and Montzka, Carsten and Schmidt, Marius and Jonard, Fran{\c{c}}ois},
    url={http://geomundus.org/2020/docs/papers/JordanBates.pdf},
    doi={2078.1/241721},
    booktitle = {12th GeoMundus Conference (virtual)},
    year = {2020},
    }

  • F. He, B. Thiele, S. Santhiraraja-Abresch, M. Watt, T. Kraska, A. Ulbrich, and A. J. Kuhn, "Effects of root temperature on the plant growth and food quality of Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey)," Agronomy, vol. 10, iss. 5, p. 702, 2020. doi:10.3390/agronomy10050702
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{he2020effects,
    title = {Effects of root temperature on the plant growth and food quality of Chinese broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey)},
    author = {He, Fang and Thiele, Bj{\"o}rn and Santhiraraja-Abresch, Sharin and Watt, Michelle and Kraska, Thorsten and Ulbrich, Andreas and Kuhn, Arnd J},
    journal = {Agronomy},
    volume = {10},
    url={https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4395/10/5/702},
    doi={10.3390/agronomy10050702},
    number = {5},
    pages = {702},
    year = {2020},
    publisher = {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute},
    }

  • P. Welke, "Efficient Frequent Subgraph Mining in Transactional Databases," in 2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA) , 2020, p. 307–314. doi:10.1109/dsaa49011.2020.00044
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{welke2020efficient,
    title = {Efficient Frequent Subgraph Mining in Transactional Databases},
    author = {Welke, Pascal},
    booktitle = {2020 IEEE 7th International Conference on Data Science and Advanced Analytics (DSAA)},
    url={https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pascal-Welke/publication/347083628_Efficient_Frequent_Subgraph_Mining_in_Transactional_Databases/links/623afd722116ee2bd8a9fc9f/Efficient-Frequent-Subgraph-Mining-in-Transactional-Databases.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/dsaa49011.2020.00044},
    pages = {307--314},
    year = {2020},
    organization = {IEEE},
    }

  • A. Mehler, W. Hemati, P. Welke, M. Konca, and T. Uslu, "Multiple Texts as a Limiting Factor in Online Learning: Quantifying (Dis-)similarities of Knowledge Networks," Frontiers in Education, vol. 5, 2020. doi:10.3389/feduc.2020.562670
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    We test the hypothesis that the extent to which one obtains information on a given topic through Wikipedia depends on the language in which it is consulted. Controlling the size factor, we investigate this hypothesis for a number of 25 subject areas. Since Wikipedia is a central part of the web-based information landscape, this indicates a language-related, linguistic bias. The article therefore deals with the question of whether Wikipedia exhibits this kind of linguistic relativity or not. From the perspective of educational science, the article develops a computational model of the information landscape from which multiple texts are drawn as typical input of web-based reading. For this purpose, it develops a hybrid model of intra- and intertextual similarity of different parts of the information landscape and tests this model on the example of 35 languages and corresponding Wikipedias. In the way it measures the similarities of hypertexts, the article goes beyond existing approaches by examining their structural and semantic aspects intra- and intertextually. In this way it builds a bridge between reading research, educational science, Wikipedia research and computational linguistics.

    @ARTICLE{10.3389/feduc.2020.562670,
    AUTHOR={Mehler, Alexander and Hemati, Wahed and Welke, Pascal and Konca, Maxim and Uslu, Tolga},
    TITLE={Multiple Texts as a Limiting Factor in Online Learning: Quantifying (Dis-)similarities of Knowledge Networks},
    JOURNAL={Frontiers in Education},
    VOLUME={5},
    YEAR={2020},
    URL={https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2020.562670},
    DOI={10.3389/feduc.2020.562670},
    ISSN={2504-284X},
    ABSTRACT={We test the hypothesis that the extent to which one obtains information on a given topic through Wikipedia depends on the language in which it is consulted. Controlling the size factor, we investigate this hypothesis for a number of 25 subject areas. Since Wikipedia is a central part of the web-based information landscape, this indicates a language-related, linguistic bias. The article therefore deals with the question of whether Wikipedia exhibits this kind of linguistic relativity or not. From the perspective of educational science, the article develops a computational model of the information landscape from which multiple texts are drawn as typical input of web-based reading. For this purpose, it develops a hybrid model of intra- and intertextual similarity of different parts of the information landscape and tests this model on the example of 35 languages and corresponding Wikipedias. In the way it measures the similarities of hypertexts, the article goes beyond existing approaches by examining their structural and semantic aspects intra- and intertextually. In this way it builds a bridge between reading research, educational science, Wikipedia research and computational linguistics.}
    }

  • M. Halstead, S. Denman, C. Fookes, and C. McCool, "Fruit Detection in the Wild: The Impact of Varying Conditions and Cultivar," in 2020 Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (DICTA) , 2020, pp. 1-8. doi:10.1109/DICTA51227.2020.9363407
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{9363407,
    author = {Halstead, Michael and Denman, Simon and Fookes, Clinton and McCool, Chris},
    booktitle = {2020 Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (DICTA)},
    title = {Fruit Detection in the Wild: The Impact of Varying Conditions and Cultivar},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {},
    number = {},
    pages = {1-8},
    url={https://www.conferences.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/21_CameraReady.pdf},
    doi = {10.1109/DICTA51227.2020.9363407},
    }

  • L. Drees, J. Kusche, and R. Roscher, "MULTI-MODAL DEEP LEARNING WITH SENTINEL-3 OBSERVATIONS FOR THE DETECTION OF OCEANIC INTERNAL WAVES," ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, vol. V-2-2020, p. 813–820, 2020. doi:10.5194/isprs-annals-V-2-2020-813-2020
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{isprs-annals-v-2-2020-813-2020,
    author = {Drees, L. and Kusche, J. and Roscher, R.},
    title = {MULTI-MODAL DEEP LEARNING WITH SENTINEL-3 OBSERVATIONS FOR THE DETECTION OF OCEANIC INTERNAL WAVES},
    journal = {ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences},
    volume = {V-2-2020},
    year = {2020},
    pages = {813--820},
    url = {https://www.isprs-ann-photogramm-remote-sens-spatial-inf-sci.net/V-2-2020/813/2020/},
    doi = {10.5194/isprs-annals-V-2-2020-813-2020},
    }

  • O. -H. Kwon, J. Tanke, and J. Gall, "Recursive Bayesian Filtering for Multiple Human Pose Tracking from Multiple Cameras," in Asian Conference on Computer Vision (ACCV'20) , 2020. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-69532-3_27
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{kwon2020accv,
    author = {Kwon, O.-H. AND Tanke, J. AND Gall, J.},
    title = {{Recursive Bayesian Filtering for Multiple Human Pose Tracking from Multiple Cameras}},
    booktitle = {Asian Conference on Computer Vision (ACCV'20)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-69532-3_27},
    url = {https://openaccess.thecvf.com/content/ACCV2020/papers/Kwon_Recursive_Bayesian_Filtering_for_Multiple_Human_Pose_Tracking_from_Multiple_ACCV_2020_paper.pdf},
    }

  • C. Lehnert, C. McCool, I. Sa, and T. Perez, "Performance improvements of a sweet pepper harvesting robot in protected cropping environments," Journal of Field Robotics, vol. 37, iss. 7, pp. 1197-1223, 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/rob.21973
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Abstract Using robots to harvest sweet peppers in protected cropping environments has remained unsolved despite considerable effort by the research community over several decades. In this paper, we present the robotic harvester, Harvey, designed for sweet peppers in protected cropping environments that achieved a 76.5\% success rate on 68 fruit (within a modified scenario) which improves upon our prior work which achieved 58\% on 24 fruit and related sweet pepper harvesting work which achieved 33\% on 39 fruit (for their best tool in a modified scenario). This improvement was primarily achieved through the introduction of a novel peduncle segmentation system using an efficient deep convolutional neural network, in conjunction with three-dimensional postfiltering to detect the critical cutting location. We benchmark the peduncle segmentation against prior art demonstrating an improvement in performance with a F1 score of 0.564 compared to 0.302. The robotic harvester uses a perception pipeline to detect a target sweet pepper and an appropriate grasp and cutting pose used to determine the trajectory of a multimodal harvesting tool to grasp the sweet pepper and cut it from the plant. A novel decoupling mechanism enables the gripping and cutting operations to be performed independently. We perform an in-depth analysis of the full robotic harvesting system to highlight bottlenecks and failure points that future work could address.

    @Article{https://doi.org/10.1002/rob.21973,
    author = {Lehnert, Chris and McCool, Chris and Sa, Inkyu and Perez, Tristan},
    title = {Performance improvements of a sweet pepper harvesting robot in protected cropping environments},
    journal = {Journal of Field Robotics},
    volume = {37},
    number = {7},
    pages = {1197-1223},
    keywords = {agriculture, grasping, manipulators, perception, robotic harvesting},
    doi = {https://doi.org/10.1002/rob.21973},
    url = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/rob.21973},
    eprint = {https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/rob.21973},
    abstract = {Abstract Using robots to harvest sweet peppers in protected cropping environments has remained unsolved despite considerable effort by the research community over several decades. In this paper, we present the robotic harvester, Harvey, designed for sweet peppers in protected cropping environments that achieved a 76.5\% success rate on 68 fruit (within a modified scenario) which improves upon our prior work which achieved 58\% on 24 fruit and related sweet pepper harvesting work which achieved 33\% on 39 fruit (for their best tool in a modified scenario). This improvement was primarily achieved through the introduction of a novel peduncle segmentation system using an efficient deep convolutional neural network, in conjunction with three-dimensional postfiltering to detect the critical cutting location. We benchmark the peduncle segmentation against prior art demonstrating an improvement in performance with a F1 score of 0.564 compared to 0.302. The robotic harvester uses a perception pipeline to detect a target sweet pepper and an appropriate grasp and cutting pose used to determine the trajectory of a multimodal harvesting tool to grasp the sweet pepper and cut it from the plant. A novel decoupling mechanism enables the gripping and cutting operations to be performed independently. We perform an in-depth analysis of the full robotic harvesting system to highlight bottlenecks and failure points that future work could address.},
    year = {2020},
    }

  • H. E. Ahrends, S. Siebert, E. E. Rezaei, S. J. Seidel, H. Hüging, F. Ewert, T. Döring, V. Rueda-Ayala, W. Eugster, and T. Gaiser, "Nutrient supply affects the yield stability of major European crops—a 50 year study," Environmental Research Letters, vol. 16, iss. 1, p. 14003, 2020. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/abc849
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Yield stability is important for food security and a sustainable crop production, especially under changing climatic conditions. It is well known that the variability of yields is linked to changes in meteorological conditions. However, little is known about the long-term effects of agronomic management strategies, such as the supply of important nutrients. We analysed the stability of four major European crops grown between 1955 and 2008 at a long-term fertilization experiment located in Germany. Six fertilizer treatments ranged from no fertilization over the omission of individual macronutrients to complete mineral fertilization with all major macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium). Yield stability was estimated for each crop × treatment combination using the relative yield deviation in each year from the corresponding (nonlinear) trend value (relative yield anomalies (RYA)). Stability was lowest for potato, followed by sugar beet and winter wheat and highest for winter rye. Stability was highest when soils had received all nutrients with the standard deviation of RYA being two to three times lower than for unfertilized plots. The omission of nitrogen and potassium was associated with a decrease in yield stability and a decrease in the number of simultaneous positive and negative yield anomalies among treatments. Especially in root crops nutrient supply strongly influenced both annual yield anomalies and changes in anomalies over time. During the second half of the observation period yield stability decreased for sugar beet and increased for winter wheat. Potato yields were more stable during the second period, but only under complete nutrient supply. The critical role of potassium supply for yield stability suggests potential links to changes in the water balance during the last decades. Results demonstrate the need to explicitly consider the response of crops to long-term nutrient supply for understanding and predicting changes in yield stability.

    @Article{ahrends_2020,
    doi = {10.1088/1748-9326/abc849},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/abc849},
    year = 2020,
    month = {dec},
    publisher = {{IOP} Publishing},
    volume = {16},
    number = {1},
    pages = {014003},
    author = {Hella Ellen Ahrends and Stefan Siebert and Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei and Sabine Julia Seidel and Hubert Hüging and Frank Ewert and Thomas Döring and Victor Rueda-Ayala and Werner Eugster and Thomas Gaiser},
    title = {Nutrient supply affects the yield stability of major European crops{\textemdash}a 50 year study},
    journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
    abstract = {Yield stability is important for food security and a sustainable crop production, especially under changing climatic conditions. It is well known that the variability of yields is linked to changes in meteorological conditions. However, little is known about the long-term effects of agronomic management strategies, such as the supply of important nutrients. We analysed the stability of four major European crops grown between 1955 and 2008 at a long-term fertilization experiment located in Germany. Six fertilizer treatments ranged from no fertilization over the omission of individual macronutrients to complete mineral fertilization with all major macronutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and calcium). Yield stability was estimated for each crop × treatment combination using the relative yield deviation in each year from the corresponding (nonlinear) trend value (relative yield anomalies (RYA)). Stability was lowest for potato, followed by sugar beet and winter wheat and highest for winter rye. Stability was highest when soils had received all nutrients with the standard deviation of RYA being two to three times lower than for unfertilized plots. The omission of nitrogen and potassium was associated with a decrease in yield stability and a decrease in the number of simultaneous positive and negative yield anomalies among treatments. Especially in root crops nutrient supply strongly influenced both annual yield anomalies and changes in anomalies over time. During the second half of the observation period yield stability decreased for sugar beet and increased for winter wheat. Potato yields were more stable during the second period, but only under complete nutrient supply. The critical role of potassium supply for yield stability suggests potential links to changes in the water balance during the last decades. Results demonstrate the need to explicitly consider the response of crops to long-term nutrient supply for understanding and predicting changes in yield stability.},
    }

  • T. Boas, H. Bogena, T. Grünwald, B. Heinesch, D. Ryu, M. Schmidt, H. Vereecken, A. Western, and H. -J. Hendricks-Franssen, "Improving the representation of cropland sites in the Community Land Model (CLM) version 5.0," Geoscientific Model Development Discussions, vol. 2020, p. 1–37, 2020. doi:10.5194/gmd-2020-241
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{gmd-2020-241,
    author = {Boas, T. and Bogena, H. and Gr\"unwald, T. and Heinesch, B. and Ryu, D. and Schmidt, M. and Vereecken, H. and Western, A. and Hendricks-Franssen, H.-J.},
    title = {Improving the representation of cropland sites in the Community Land Model (CLM) version 5.0},
    journal = {Geoscientific Model Development Discussions},
    volume = {2020},
    year = {2020},
    pages = {1--37},
    url = {https://gmd.copernicus.org/preprints/gmd-2020-241/},
    doi = {10.5194/gmd-2020-241},
    }

  • P. Welke, F. Seiffarth, M. Kamp, and S. Wrobel, "HOPS: Probabilistic Subtree Mining for Small and Large Graphs," in Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining , New York, NY, USA, 2020, p. 1275–1284. doi:10.1145/3394486.3403180
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Frequent subgraph mining, i.e., the identification of relevant patterns in graph databases, is a well-known data mining problem with high practical relevance, since next to summarizing the data, the resulting patterns can also be used to define powerful domain-specific similarity functions for prediction. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards subgraph mining algorithms that scale to complex graphs by focusing on tree patterns and probabilistically allowing a small amount of incompleteness in the result. Nonetheless, the complexity of the pattern matching component used for deciding subtree isomorphism on arbitrary graphs has significantly limited the scalability of existing approaches. In this paper, we adapt sampling techniques from mathematical combinatorics to the problem of probabilistic subtree mining in arbitrary databases of many small to medium-size graphs or a single large graph. By restricting on tree patterns, we provide an algorithm that approximately counts or decides subtree isomorphism for arbitrary transaction graphs in sub-linear time with one-sided error. Our empirical evaluation on a range of benchmark graph datasets shows that the novel algorithm substantially outperforms state-of-the-art approaches both in the task of approximate counting of embeddings in single large graphs and in probabilistic frequent subtree mining in large databases of small to medium sized graphs.

    @InProceedings{10.1145/3394486.3403180,
    author = {Welke, Pascal and Seiffarth, Florian and Kamp, Michael and Wrobel, Stefan},
    title = {HOPS: Probabilistic Subtree Mining for Small and Large Graphs},
    year = {2020},
    isbn = {9781450379984},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3394486.3403180},
    doi = {10.1145/3394486.3403180},
    abstract = {Frequent subgraph mining, i.e., the identification of relevant patterns in graph databases, is a well-known data mining problem with high practical relevance, since next to summarizing the data, the resulting patterns can also be used to define powerful domain-specific similarity functions for prediction. In recent years, significant progress has been made towards subgraph mining algorithms that scale to complex graphs by focusing on tree patterns and probabilistically allowing a small amount of incompleteness in the result. Nonetheless, the complexity of the pattern matching component used for deciding subtree isomorphism on arbitrary graphs has significantly limited the scalability of existing approaches. In this paper, we adapt sampling techniques from mathematical combinatorics to the problem of probabilistic subtree mining in arbitrary databases of many small to medium-size graphs or a single large graph. By restricting on tree patterns, we provide an algorithm that approximately counts or decides subtree isomorphism for arbitrary transaction graphs in sub-linear time with one-sided error. Our empirical evaluation on a range of benchmark graph datasets shows that the novel algorithm substantially outperforms state-of-the-art approaches both in the task of approximate counting of embeddings in single large graphs and in probabilistic frequent subtree mining in large databases of small to medium sized graphs.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining},
    pages = {1275–1284},
    numpages = {10},
    location = {Virtual Event, CA, USA},
    series = {KDD '20},
    }

  • A. Bonerath, B. Niedermann, J. Diederich, Y. Orgeig, J. Oehrlein, and J. Haunert, "A Time-Windowed Data Structure for Spatial Density Maps," in Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems , New York, NY, USA, 2020, p. 15–24. doi:10.1145/3397536.3422242
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The visualization of spatio-temporal data helps researchers understand global processes such as animal migration. In particular, interactively restricting the data to different time windows reveals new insights into the short-term and long-term changes of the research data. Inspired by this use case, we consider the visualization of point data annotated with time stamps. We pick up classical, grid-based density maps as the underlying visualization technique and enhance them with an efficient data structure for arbitrarily specified time-window queries. The running time of the queries is logarithmic in the total number of points and linear in the number of actually colored cells. In experiments on real-world data we show that the data structure answers time-window queries within milliseconds, which supports the interactive exploration of large point sets. Further, the data structure can be used to visualize additional decision problems, e.g., it can answer whether the sum or maximum of additional weights given with the points exceed a certain threshold. We have defined the data structure general enough to also support multiple thresholds expressed by different colors.

    @InProceedings{bhn-twdssdm-20,
    abstract = {The visualization of spatio-temporal data helps researchers understand global processes such as animal migration. In particular, interactively restricting the data to different time windows reveals new insights into the short-term and long-term changes of the research data. Inspired by this use case, we consider the visualization of point data annotated with time stamps. We pick up classical, grid-based density maps as the underlying visualization technique and enhance them with an efficient data structure for arbitrarily specified time-window queries. The running time of the queries is logarithmic in the total number of points and linear in the number of actually colored cells. In experiments on real-world data we show that the data structure answers time-window queries within milliseconds, which supports the interactive exploration of large point sets. Further, the data structure can be used to visualize additional decision problems, e.g., it can answer whether the sum or maximum of additional weights given with the points exceed a certain threshold. We have defined the data structure general enough to also support multiple thresholds expressed by different colors.},
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    author = {Bonerath, Annika and Niedermann, Benjamin and Diederich, Jim and Orgeig, Yannick and Oehrlein, Johannes and Haunert, Jan-Henrik},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems},
    doi = {10.1145/3397536.3422242},
    isbn = {9781450380195},
    keywords = {density maps, time-windowed data structure, point set},
    location = {Seattle, WA, USA},
    numpages = {10},
    pages = {15–24},
    publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
    series = {SIGSPATIAL '20},
    title = {A Time-Windowed Data Structure for Spatial Density Maps},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1145/3397536.3422242},
    year = {2020},
    }

  • M. T. de Moraes, Debiasi H., J. C. Franchini, A. A. Mastroberti, R. Levien, D. Leitner, and A. Schnepf, "Soil compaction impacts soybean root growth in an Oxisol from subtropical Brazil," Soil & Tillage Research, vol. 200, 2020. doi:10.1016/j.still.2020.104611
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{moraes2020str,
    title = "Soil compaction impacts soybean root growth in an Oxisol from subtropical Brazil",
    journal = "Soil \& Tillage Research",
    volume = "200",
    year = "2020",
    url={https://ainfo.cnptia.embrapa.br/digital/bitstream/item/220723/1/Oxisol.pdf},
    doi={10.1016/j.still.2020.104611},
    author = "de Moraes, M. T. and Debiasi, H., and Franchini, J. C. and Mastroberti, A. A. and Levien, R. and Leitner, D. and Schnepf, A.",
    }

  • N. Chebrolu, T. Läbe, and C. Stachniss, "Spatio-Temporal Non-Rigid Registration of 3D Point Clouds of Plants," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2020. doi:10.1109/icra40945.2020.9197569
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{chebrolu2020icra,
    title = {Spatio-Temporal Non-Rigid Registration of 3D Point Clouds of Plants},
    author = {N. Chebrolu and T. Läbe and C. Stachniss},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1109/icra40945.2020.9197569},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/chebrolu2020icra.pdf},
    videourl = {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGkep_aelBc},
    }

  • A. Ahmadi, L. Nardi, N. Chebrolu, and C. Stachniss, "Visual Servoing-based Navigation for Monitoring Row-Crop Fields," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2020. doi:10.1109/icra40945.2020.9197114
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @InProceedings{ahmadi2020icra,
    title = {Visual Servoing-based Navigation for Monitoring Row-Crop Fields},
    author = {A. Ahmadi and L. Nardi and N. Chebrolu and C. Stachniss},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1109/icra40945.2020.9197114},
    url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.12754},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/visual-crop-row-navigation},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/0qg6n4sshHk},
    }

  • X. Wu, S. Aravecchia, P. Lottes, C. Stachniss, and C. Pradalier, "Robotic Weed Control Using Automated Weed and Crop Classification," Journal of Field Robotics, vol. 37, pp. 322-340, 2020. doi:10.1002/rob.21938
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{wu2020jfr,
    title = {Robotic Weed Control Using Automated Weed and Crop Classification},
    author = {X. Wu and S. Aravecchia and P. Lottes and C. Stachniss and C. Pradalier},
    journal = {Journal of Field Robotics},
    year = {2020},
    volume = {37},
    numer = {2},
    pages = {322-340},
    doi={10.1002/rob.21938},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/wu2020jfr.pdf},
    }

  • L. Nardi and C. Stachniss, "Long-Term Robot Navigation in Indoor Environments Estimating Patterns in Traversability Changes," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2020. doi:10.1109/icra40945.2020.9197078
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{nardi2020icra,
    title = {Long-Term Robot Navigation in Indoor Environments Estimating Patterns in Traversability Changes},
    author = {L. Nardi and C. Stachniss},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1109/icra40945.2020.9197078},
    url = {http://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.12733},
    videourl = {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9lNcA3quzwU},
    }

  • X. Chen, T. Läbe, A. Milioto, T. Röhling, O. Vysotska, A. Haag, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "OverlapNet: Loop Closing for LiDAR-based SLAM," in Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS) , 2020. doi:10.15607/rss.2020.xvi.009
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @InProceedings{chen2020rss,
    author = {X. Chen and T. L\"abe and A. Milioto and T. R\"ohling and O. Vysotska and A. Haag and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{OverlapNet: Loop Closing for LiDAR-based SLAM}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.15607/rss.2020.xvi.009},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/OverlapNet/},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/YTfliBco6aw},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/chen2020rss.pdf},
    }

  • A. Milioto, J. Behley, C. McCool, and C. Stachniss, "LiDAR Panoptic Segmentation for Autonomous Driving," in 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2020. doi:10.1109/iros45743.2020.9340837
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{milioto2020iros,
    author = {A. Milioto and J. Behley and C. McCool and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{LiDAR Panoptic Segmentation for Autonomous Driving}},
    booktitle={2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1109/iros45743.2020.9340837},
    videourl = {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C9CTQSosr9I},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/milioto2020iros.pdf},
    }

  • S. R. Tracy, K. A. Nagel, J. A. Postma, H. Fassbender, A. Wasson, and M. Watt, "Crop Improvement from Phenotyping Roots: Highlights Reveal Expanding Opportunities," Trends in Plant Science, vol. 25, iss. 1, pp. 105-118, 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2019.10.015
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Root systems determine the water and nutrients for photosynthesis and harvested products, underpinning agricultural productivity. We highlight 11 programs that integrated root traits into germplasm for breeding, relying on phenotyping. Progress was successful but slow. Today’s phenotyping technologies will speed up root trait improvement. They combine multiple new alleles in germplasm for target environments, in parallel. Roots and shoots are detected simultaneously and nondestructively, seed to seed measures are automated, and field and laboratory technologies are increasingly linked. Available simulation models can aid all phenotyping decisions. This century will see a shift from single root traits to rhizosphere selections that can be managed dynamically on farms and a shift to phenotype-based improvement to accommodate the dynamic complexity of whole crop systems.

    @Article{tracy2020105,
    title = "Crop Improvement from Phenotyping Roots: Highlights Reveal Expanding Opportunities",
    journal = "Trends in Plant Science",
    volume = "25",
    number = "1",
    pages = "105 - 118",
    year = "2020",
    issn = "1360-1385",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tplants.2019.10.015",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1360138519302845",
    author = "Saoirse R. Tracy and Kerstin A. Nagel and Johannes A. Postma and Heike Fassbender and Anton Wasson and Michelle Watt",
    keywords = "root architecture, simulation model, combinatorial stresses, rhizosphere, agronomy, soil, breeding, water, climate, imaging",
    abstract = "Root systems determine the water and nutrients for photosynthesis and harvested products, underpinning agricultural productivity. We highlight 11 programs that integrated root traits into germplasm for breeding, relying on phenotyping. Progress was successful but slow. Today’s phenotyping technologies will speed up root trait improvement. They combine multiple new alleles in germplasm for target environments, in parallel. Roots and shoots are detected simultaneously and nondestructively, seed to seed measures are automated, and field and laboratory technologies are increasingly linked. Available simulation models can aid all phenotyping decisions. This century will see a shift from single root traits to rhizosphere selections that can be managed dynamically on farms and a shift to phenotype-based improvement to accommodate the dynamic complexity of whole crop systems.",
    }

  • O. Zatsarynna, J. Sawatzky, and J. Gall, "Discovering Latent Classes for Semi-Supervised Semantic Segmentation," in DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR) , 2020. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-71278-5_15
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{zatsarynna2020gcpr,
    author = {Zatsarynna, O. and Sawatzky, J. and Gall, J.},
    title = {{Discovering Latent Classes for Semi-Supervised Semantic Segmentation}},
    booktitle = {DAGM German Conference on Pattern Recognition (GCPR)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-71278-5_15},
    url = {http://pages.iai.uni-bonn.de/gall_juergen/download/jgall_latentclasses_gcpr2020.pdf},
    }

  • W. Amelung, D. Bossio, W. de Vries, I. Kögel-Knabner, J. Lehmann, R. Amundson, R. Bol, C. Collins, R. Lal, J. Leifeld, B. Minasny, G. Pan, K. Paustian, C. Rumpel, J. Sanderman, J. W. van Groenigen, S. Mooney, B. van Wesemael, M. Wander, and A. Chabbi, "Towards a global-scale soil climate mitigation strategy," Nature Communications, vol. 11, 2020. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18887-7
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {Sustainable soil carbon sequestration practices need to be rapidly scaled up and implemented to contribute to climate change mitigation. We highlight that the major potential for carbon sequestration is in cropland soils, especially those with large yield gaps and/or large historic soil organic carbon losses. The implementation of soil carbon sequestration measures requires a diverse set of options, each adapted to local soil conditions and management opportunities, and accounting for site-specific trade-offs. We propose the establishment of a soil information system containing localised information on soil group, degradation status, crop yield gap, and the associated carbon-sequestration potentials, as well as the provision of incentives and policies to translate management options into region- and soil-specific practices.}

    @Article{amelung2020,
    author = {W. Amelung and D. Bossio and W. de Vries and I. Kögel-Knabner and J. Lehmann and R. Amundson and R. Bol and C. Collins and R. Lal and J. Leifeld and B. Minasny and G. Pan and K. Paustian and C. Rumpel and J. Sanderman and J. W. van Groenigen and S. Mooney and B. van Wesemael and M. Wander and A. Chabbi},
    title = "{Towards a global-scale soil climate mitigation strategy}",
    journal = {Nature Communications},
    volume = {11},
    year = {2020},
    month = {10},
    abstract = "{Sustainable soil carbon sequestration practices need to be rapidly scaled up and implemented to contribute to climate change mitigation. We highlight that the major potential for carbon sequestration is in cropland soils, especially those with large yield gaps and/or large historic soil organic carbon losses. The implementation of soil carbon sequestration measures requires a diverse set of options, each adapted to local soil conditions and management opportunities, and accounting for site-specific trade-offs. We propose the establishment of a soil information system containing localised information on soil group, degradation status, crop yield gap, and the associated carbon-sequestration potentials, as well as the provision of incentives and policies to translate management options into region- and soil-specific practices.}",
    doi = {10.1038/s41467-020-18887-7},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18887-7},
    }

  • H. Webber, G. Lischeid, M. Sommer, R. Finger, C. Nendel, T. Gaiser, and F. Ewert, "No perfect storm for crop yield failure in Germany," Environmental Research Letters, vol. 15, iss. 10, p. 104012, 2020. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aba2a4
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Large-scale crop yield failures are increasingly associated with food price spikes and food insecurity and are a large source of income risk for farmers. While the evidence linking extreme weather to yield failures is clear, consensus on the broader set of weather drivers and conditions responsible for recent yield failures is lacking. We investigate this for the case of four major crops in Germany over the past 20 years using a combination of machine learning and process-based modelling. Our results confirm that years associated with widespread yield failures across crops were generally associated with severe drought, such as in 2018 and to a lesser extent 2003. However, for years with more localized yield failures and large differences in spatial patterns of yield failures between crops, no single driver or combination of drivers was identified. Relatively large residuals of unexplained variation likely indicate the importance of non-weather related factors, such as management (pest, weed and nutrient management and possible interactions with weather) explaining yield failures. Models to inform adaptation planning at farm, market or policy levels are here suggested to require consideration of cumulative resource capture and use, as well as effects of extreme events, the latter largely missing in process-based models. However, increasingly novel combinations of weather events under climate change may limit the extent to which data driven methods can replace process-based models in risk assessments.

    @Article{webber_2020,
    doi = {10.1088/1748-9326/aba2a4},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1088%2F1748-9326%2Faba2a4},
    year = 2020,
    month = {sep},
    publisher = {{IOP} Publishing},
    volume = {15},
    number = {10},
    pages = {104012},
    author = {Heidi Webber and Gunnar Lischeid and Michael Sommer and Robert Finger and Claas Nendel and Thomas Gaiser and Frank Ewert},
    title = {No perfect storm for crop yield failure in Germany},
    journal = {Environmental Research Letters},
    abstract = {Large-scale crop yield failures are increasingly associated with food price spikes and food insecurity and are a large source of income risk for farmers. While the evidence linking extreme weather to yield failures is clear, consensus on the broader set of weather drivers and conditions responsible for recent yield failures is lacking. We investigate this for the case of four major crops in Germany over the past 20 years using a combination of machine learning and process-based modelling. Our results confirm that years associated with widespread yield failures across crops were generally associated with severe drought, such as in 2018 and to a lesser extent 2003. However, for years with more localized yield failures and large differences in spatial patterns of yield failures between crops, no single driver or combination of drivers was identified. Relatively large residuals of unexplained variation likely indicate the importance of non-weather related factors, such as management (pest, weed and nutrient management and possible interactions with weather) explaining yield failures. Models to inform adaptation planning at farm, market or policy levels are here suggested to require consideration of cumulative resource capture and use, as well as effects of extreme events, the latter largely missing in process-based models. However, increasingly novel combinations of weather events under climate change may limit the extent to which data driven methods can replace process-based models in risk assessments.},
    }

  • J. Yi, L. Krusenbaum, P. Unger, H. Hüging, S. J. Seidel, G. Schaaf, and J. Gall, "Deep Learning for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies in Sugar Beet Using RGB Images," Sensors, vol. 12, 2020. doi:10.3390/s20205893
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {In order to enable timely actions to prevent major losses of crops caused by lack of nutrients and, hence, increase the potential yield throughout the growing season while at the same time prevent excess fertilization with detrimental environmental consequences, early, non-invasive, and on-site detection of nutrient deficiency is required. Current non-invasive methods for assessing the nutrient status of crops deal in most cases with nitrogen (N) deficiency only and optical sensors to diagnose N deficiency, such as chlorophyll meters or canopy reflectance sensors, do not monitor N, but instead measure changes in leaf spectral properties that may or may not be caused by N deficiency. In this work, we study how well nutrient deficiency symptoms can be recognized in RGB images of sugar beets. To this end, we collected the Deep Nutrient Deficiency for Sugar Beet (DND-SB) dataset, which contains 5648 images of sugar beets growing on a long-term fertilizer experiment with nutrient deficiency plots comprising N, phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) deficiency, as well as the omission of liming (Ca), full fertilization, and no fertilization at all. We use the dataset to analyse the performance of five convolutional neural networks for recognizing nutrient deficiency symptoms and discuss their limitations.}

    @Article{yi2020deep,
    author = {Yi, Jinhui and Krusenbaum, Lukas and Unger, Paula and Hüging, Hubert and Seidel, Sabine J and Schaaf, Gabriel and Gall, Juergen},
    title = "{Deep Learning for Non-Invasive Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies in Sugar Beet Using RGB Images}",
    journal = {Sensors},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2020},
    month = {10},
    abstract = "{In order to enable timely actions to prevent major losses of crops caused by lack of nutrients and, hence, increase the potential yield throughout the growing season while at the same time prevent excess fertilization with detrimental environmental consequences, early, non-invasive, and on-site detection of nutrient deficiency is required. Current non-invasive methods for assessing the nutrient status of crops deal in most cases with nitrogen (N) deficiency only and optical sensors to diagnose N deficiency, such as chlorophyll meters or canopy reflectance sensors, do not monitor N, but instead measure changes in leaf spectral properties that may or may not be caused by N deficiency. In this work, we study how well nutrient deficiency symptoms can be recognized in RGB images of sugar beets. To this end, we collected the Deep Nutrient Deficiency for Sugar Beet (DND-SB) dataset, which contains 5648 images of sugar beets growing on a long-term fertilizer experiment with nutrient deficiency plots comprising N, phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) deficiency, as well as the omission of liming (Ca), full fertilization, and no fertilization at all. We use the dataset to analyse the performance of five convolutional neural networks for recognizing nutrient deficiency symptoms and discuss their limitations.}",
    doi = {10.3390/s20205893},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.3390/s20205893},
    }

  • B. H. Gebrekidan, T. Heckelei, and S. Rasch, "Characterizing Farmers and Farming System in Kilombero Valley Floodplain, Tanzania," Sustainability, vol. 12, 2020. doi:10.3390/su12177114
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {Recognizing the diversity of farmers is crucial for the success of agricultural, rural, or environmental programs and policies aimed at the sustainable use of natural resources. In this study, based on survey data collected in the Kilombero Valley Floodplain (KVF) in Tanzania, we design a typology of farmers to describe the range of farm types and farming systems systematically, and to understand their livelihood and land use behavior. The KVF is the largest, low-altitude, seasonally-flooded, freshwater wetland in East Africa. Despite its values, KVF is a very fragile ecosystem threatened by current and future human interventions. We apply multivariate statistical analysis (a combination of principal component analysis and cluster analysis) to identify farm groups that are homogenous within and heterogeneous between groups. Three farm types were identified: “Monocrop rice producer”, “Diversifier”, and “Agropastoralist”. Monocrop rice producers are the dominant farm types, accounting for 65 percent of the farm households in the valley, characterized by more than 80 percent of the land allocated to rice, showing strong market participation and high utilization of labor. Diversifiers, on the other hand, allocate more land to maize and vegetables. Agropastoralists account for 7 percent of the surveyed farmers and differ from the other two groups by, on average, larger land ownership, a combination of livestock and crop production, and larger household sizes. This typology represents the diversity of farmers in KVF concerning their land use and livelihood strategy, and will allow to target policy interventions. Besides, it may also inform further research about the diverse landscape of floodplain farming, through the classification and interpretation of different socio-economic positions of farm households.}

    @Article{gebrekidan2020,
    author = {Gebrekidan, Bisrat Haile and Heckelei, Thomas and Rasch, Sebastian},
    title = "{Characterizing Farmers and Farming System in Kilombero Valley Floodplain, Tanzania}",
    journal = {Sustainability},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2020},
    month = {08},
    abstract = "{Recognizing the diversity of farmers is crucial for the success of agricultural, rural, or environmental programs and policies aimed at the sustainable use of natural resources. In this study, based on survey data collected in the Kilombero Valley Floodplain (KVF) in Tanzania, we design a typology of farmers to describe the range of farm types and farming systems systematically, and to understand their livelihood and land use behavior. The KVF is the largest, low-altitude, seasonally-flooded, freshwater wetland in East Africa. Despite its values, KVF is a very fragile ecosystem threatened by current and future human interventions. We apply multivariate statistical analysis (a combination of principal component analysis and cluster analysis) to identify farm groups that are homogenous within and heterogeneous between groups. Three farm types were identified: “Monocrop rice producer”, “Diversifier”, and “Agropastoralist”. Monocrop rice producers are the dominant farm types, accounting for 65 percent of the farm households in the valley, characterized by more than 80 percent of the land allocated to rice, showing strong market participation and high utilization of labor. Diversifiers, on the other hand, allocate more land to maize and vegetables. Agropastoralists account for 7 percent of the surveyed farmers and differ from the other two groups by, on average, larger land ownership, a combination of livestock and crop production, and larger household sizes. This typology represents the diversity of farmers in KVF concerning their land use and livelihood strategy, and will allow to target policy interventions. Besides, it may also inform further research about the diverse landscape of floodplain farming, through the classification and interpretation of different socio-economic positions of farm households.}",
    doi = {10.3390/su12177114},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.3390/su12177114},
    }

  • T. Zaenker, F. Verdoja, and V. Kyrki, "Hypermap Mapping Framework and its Application to Autonomous Semantic Exploration," in 2020 IEEE Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration , 2020, pp. 133-139. doi:10.1109/mfi49285.2020.9235231
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{zaenker2020hypermap,
    title = {Hypermap Mapping Framework and its Application to Autonomous Semantic Exploration},
    author = {Zaenker, Tobias and Verdoja, Francesco and Kyrki, Ville},
    booktitle = {2020 IEEE Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1109/mfi49285.2020.9235231},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.09526},
    organization = {IEEE},
    pages={133-139},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.09526.pdf}
    }

  • C. Gebauer and M. Bennewitz, "Penalized Bootstrapping for Reinforcement Learning in Robot Control," in 2nd International Conference on Machine Learning & Applications , 2020. doi:10.5121/csit.2020.101114
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{gebauer2020penalized,
    title = {Penalized Bootstrapping for Reinforcement Learning in Robot Control},
    author = {Gebauer, Christopher and Bennewitz, Maren},
    booktitle = {2nd International Conference on Machine Learning \& Applications},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.5121/csit.2020.101114},
    url = {https://www.hrl.uni-bonn.de/publications/papers/gebauer20deeprl.pdf},
    }

  • P. Regier, L. Gesing, and M. Bennewitz, "Deep Reinforcement Learning for Navigation in Cluttered Environments," in 2nd International Conference on Machine Learning & Applications , 2020. doi:10.5121/csit.2020.101117
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{regier2020deep,
    title = {Deep Reinforcement Learning for Navigation in Cluttered Environments},
    author = {Regier, Peter and Gesing, Lukas and Bennewitz, Maren},
    booktitle = {2nd International Conference on Machine Learning \& Applications},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.5121/csit.2020.101117},
    url = {https://www.hrl.uni-bonn.de/publications/papers/regier20cmla.pdf},
    }

  • D. Gogoll, P. Lottes, J. Weyler, N. Petrinic, and C. Stachniss, "Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Transferring Plant Classification Systems to New Field Environments, Crops, and Robots," in 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2020. doi:10.1109/iros45743.2020.9341277
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{gogoll2020iros,
    author = {D. Gogoll and P. Lottes and J. Weyler and N. Petrinic and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Unsupervised Domain Adaptation for Transferring Plant Classification Systems to New Field Environments, Crops, and Robots}},
    booktitle={2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    doi={10.1109/iros45743.2020.9341277},
    year = {2020},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/gogoll2020iros.pdf},
    videourl = {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6K79Ih6KXTs},
    }

  • F. Magistri, N. Chebrolu, and C. Stachniss, "Segmentation-Based 4D Registration of Plants Point Clouds for Phenotyping," in 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2020. doi:10.1109/iros45743.2020.9340918
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{magistri2020iros,
    author = {F. Magistri and N. Chebrolu and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Segmentation-Based 4D Registration of Plants Point Clouds for Phenotyping}},
    booktitle={2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1109/iros45743.2020.9340918},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/magistri2020iros.pdf},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/OV39kb5Nqg8},
    }

  • X. Chen, T. Läbe, L. Nardi, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Learning an Overlap-based Observation Model for 3D LiDAR Localization," in 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2020. doi:10.1109/iros45743.2020.9340769
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{chen2020iros,
    author = {X. Chen and T. L\"abe and L. Nardi and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Learning an Overlap-based Observation Model for 3D LiDAR Localization}},
    booktitle={2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2020},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/chen2020iros.pdf},
    doi={10.1109/iros45743.2020.9340769},
    videourl = {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BozPqy_6YcE},
    }

  • F. Langer, A. Milioto, A. Haag, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "Domain Transfer for Semantic Segmentation of LiDAR Data using Deep Neural Networks," in 2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2020, pp. 8263-8270. doi:10.1109/IROS45743.2020.9341508
    [BibTeX]

    Inferring semantic information towards an understanding of the surrounding environment is crucial for autonomous vehicles to drive safely. Deep learning-based segmentation methods can infer semantic information directly from laser range data, even in the absence of other sensor modalities such as cameras. In this paper, we address improving the generalization capabilities of such deep learning models to range data that was captured using a different sensor and in situations where no labeled data is available for the new sensor setup. Our approach assists the domain transfer of a LiDAR-only semantic segmentation model to a different sensor and environment exploiting existing geometric mapping systems. To this end, we fuse sequential scans in the source dataset into a dense mesh and render semi-synthetic scans that match those of the target sensor setup. Unlike simulation, this approach provides a real-to-real transfer of geometric information and delivers additionally more accurate remission information. We implemented and thoroughly tested our approach by transferring semantic scans between two different real-world datasets with different sensor setups. Our experiments show that we can improve the segmentation performance substantially with zero manual re-labeling. This approach solves the number one feature request since we released our semantic segmentation library LiDAR-bonnetal [18].

    @INPROCEEDINGS{9341508,
    author={Langer, Ferdinand and Milioto, Andres and Haag, Alexandre and Behley, Jens and Stachniss, Cyrill},
    booktitle={2020 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    title={Domain Transfer for Semantic Segmentation of LiDAR Data using Deep Neural Networks},
    year={2020},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={8263-8270},
    abstract={Inferring semantic information towards an understanding of the surrounding environment is crucial for autonomous vehicles to drive safely. Deep learning-based segmentation methods can infer semantic information directly from laser range data, even in the absence of other sensor modalities such as cameras. In this paper, we address improving the generalization capabilities of such deep learning models to range data that was captured using a different sensor and in situations where no labeled data is available for the new sensor setup. Our approach assists the domain transfer of a LiDAR-only semantic segmentation model to a different sensor and environment exploiting existing geometric mapping systems. To this end, we fuse sequential scans in the source dataset into a dense mesh and render semi-synthetic scans that match those of the target sensor setup. Unlike simulation, this approach provides a real-to-real transfer of geometric information and delivers additionally more accurate remission information. We implemented and thoroughly tested our approach by transferring semantic scans between two different real-world datasets with different sensor setups. Our experiments show that we can improve the segmentation performance substantially with zero manual re-labeling. This approach solves the number one feature request since we released our semantic segmentation library LiDAR-bonnetal [18].},
    keywords={},
    doi={10.1109/IROS45743.2020.9341508},
    ISSN={2153-0866},
    month={Oct},}

  • R. Sheikh, A. Milioto, P. Lottes, C. Stachniss, M. Bennewitz, and T. Schultz, "Gradient and Log-based Active Learning for Semantic Segmentation of Crop and Weed for Agricultural Robots," in 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , 2020, pp. 1350-1356. doi:10.1109/ICRA40945.2020.9196722
    [BibTeX]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9196722,
    author={Sheikh, Rasha and Milioto, Andres and Lottes, Philipp and Stachniss, Cyrill and Bennewitz, Maren and Schultz, Thomas},
    booktitle={2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
    title={Gradient and Log-based Active Learning for Semantic Segmentation of Crop and Weed for Agricultural Robots},
    year={2020},
    volume={},
    number={},
    pages={1350-1356},
    doi={10.1109/ICRA40945.2020.9196722}}

  • B. Heeren, S. Paulus, H. Goldbach, H. Kuhlmann, A. Mahlein, M. Rumpf, and B. Wirth, "Statistical shape analysis of tap roots: a methodological case study on laser scanned sugar beets," BMC Bioinformatics, vol. 21, iss. 1, 2020. doi:10.1186/s12859-020-03654-8
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {The efficient and robust statistical analysis of the shape of plant organs of different cultivars is an important investigation issue in plant breeding and enables a robust cultivar description within the breeding progress. Laserscanning is a highly accurate and high resolution technique to acquire the 3D shape of plant surfaces. The computation of a shape based principal component analysis (PCA) built on concepts from continuum mechanics has proven to be an effective tool for a qualitative and quantitative shape examination.}

    @Article{heeren2020,
    author = {Heeren, Behrend and Paulus, Stefan and Goldbach, Heiner and Kuhlmann, Heiner and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin and Rumpf, Martin and Wirth, Benedikt},
    title = "{Statistical shape analysis of tap roots: a methodological case study on laser scanned sugar beets}",
    journal = {BMC Bioinformatics},
    volume = {21},
    number = {1},
    year = {2020},
    month = {07},
    abstract = "{The efficient and robust statistical analysis of the shape of plant organs of different cultivars is an important investigation issue in plant breeding and enables a robust cultivar description within the breeding progress. Laserscanning is a highly accurate and high resolution technique to acquire the 3D shape of plant surfaces. The computation of a shape based principal component analysis (PCA) built on concepts from continuum mechanics has proven to be an effective tool for a qualitative and quantitative shape examination.}",
    issn = {1471-2105},
    doi = {10.1186/s12859-020-03654-8},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-020-03654-8},
    }

  • S. Paulus and A. Mahlein, "Technical workflows for hyperspectral plant image assessment and processing on the greenhouse and laboratory scale," GigaScience, vol. 9, iss. 8, 2020. doi:10.1093/gigascience/giaa090
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {The use of hyperspectral cameras is well established in the field of plant phenotyping, especially as a part of high-throughput routines in greenhouses. Nevertheless, the workflows used differ depending on the applied camera, the plants being imaged, the experience of the users, and the measurement set-up.This review describes a general workflow for the assessment and processing of hyperspectral plant data at greenhouse and laboratory scale. Aiming at a detailed description of possible error sources, a comprehensive literature review of possibilities to overcome these errors and influences is provided. The processing of hyperspectral data of plants starting from the hardware sensor calibration, the software processing steps to overcome sensor inaccuracies, and the preparation for machine learning is shown and described in detail. Furthermore, plant traits extracted from spectral hypercubes are categorized to standardize the terms used when describing hyperspectral traits in plant phenotyping. A scientific data perspective is introduced covering information for canopy, single organs, plant development, and also combined traits coming from spectral and 3D measuring devices.This publication provides a structured overview on implementing hyperspectral imaging into biological studies at greenhouse and laboratory scale. Workflows have been categorized to define a trait-level scale according to their metrological level and the processing complexity. A general workflow is shown to outline procedures and requirements to provide fully calibrated data of the highest quality. This is essential for differentiation of the smallest changes from hyperspectral reflectance of plants, to track and trace hyperspectral development as an answer to biotic or abiotic stresses.}

    @Article{10.1093/gigascience/giaa090,
    author = {Paulus, Stefan and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    title = "{Technical workflows for hyperspectral plant image assessment and processing on the greenhouse and laboratory scale}",
    journal = {GigaScience},
    volume = {9},
    number = {8},
    year = {2020},
    month = {08},
    abstract = "{The use of hyperspectral cameras is well established in the field of plant phenotyping, especially as a part of high-throughput routines in greenhouses. Nevertheless, the workflows used differ depending on the applied camera, the plants being imaged, the experience of the users, and the measurement set-up.This review describes a general workflow for the assessment and processing of hyperspectral plant data at greenhouse and laboratory scale. Aiming at a detailed description of possible error sources, a comprehensive literature review of possibilities to overcome these errors and influences is provided. The processing of hyperspectral data of plants starting from the hardware sensor calibration, the software processing steps to overcome sensor inaccuracies, and the preparation for machine learning is shown and described in detail. Furthermore, plant traits extracted from spectral hypercubes are categorized to standardize the terms used when describing hyperspectral traits in plant phenotyping. A scientific data perspective is introduced covering information for canopy, single organs, plant development, and also combined traits coming from spectral and 3D measuring devices.This publication provides a structured overview on implementing hyperspectral imaging into biological studies at greenhouse and laboratory scale. Workflows have been categorized to define a trait-level scale according to their metrological level and the processing complexity. A general workflow is shown to outline procedures and requirements to provide fully calibrated data of the highest quality. This is essential for differentiation of the smallest changes from hyperspectral reflectance of plants, to track and trace hyperspectral development as an answer to biotic or abiotic stresses.}",
    issn = {2047-217X},
    doi = {10.1093/gigascience/giaa090},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/gigascience/giaa090},
    note = {giaa090},
    eprint = {https://academic.oup.com/gigascience/article-pdf/9/8/giaa090/33667602/giaa090.pdf},
    }

  • P. Schramowski, W. Stammer, S. Teso, A. Brugger, F. Herbert, X. Shao, H. Luigs, A. Mahlein, and K. Kersting, "Making deep neural networks right for the right scientific reasons by interacting with their explanations," Nature Machine Intelligence, vol. 2, 2020. doi:10.1038/s42256-020-0212-3
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Deep neural networks have demonstrated excellent performances in many real-world applications. Unfortunately, they may show Clever Hans-like behaviour (making use of confounding factors within datasets) to achieve high performance. In this work we introduce the novel learning setting of explanatory interactive learning and illustrate its benefits on a plant phenotyping research task. Explanatory interactive learning adds the scientist into the training loop, who interactively revises the original model by providing feedback on its explanations. Our experimental results demonstrate that explanatory interactive learning can help to avoid Clever Hans moments in machine learning and encourages (or discourages, if appropriate) trust in the underlying model.

    @Article{schramowski2020,
    title = "Making deep neural networks right for the right scientific reasons by interacting with their explanations",
    journal = "Nature Machine Intelligence",
    volume = "2",
    year = "2020",
    issn = "2522-5839",
    doi = "10.1038/s42256-020-0212-3",
    url = "https://doi.org/10.1038/s42256-020-0212-3",
    author = "Schramowski, Patrick and Stammer, Wolfgang and Teso, Stefano and Brugger, Anna and Herbert, Franziska and Shao, Xiaoting and Luigs, Hans-Georg and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin and Kersting, Kristian",
    abstract = "Deep neural networks have demonstrated excellent performances in many real-world applications. Unfortunately, they may show Clever Hans-like behaviour (making use of confounding factors within datasets) to achieve high performance. In this work we introduce the novel learning setting of explanatory interactive learning and illustrate its benefits on a plant phenotyping research task. Explanatory interactive learning adds the scientist into the training loop, who interactively revises the original model by providing feedback on its explanations. Our experimental results demonstrate that explanatory interactive learning can help to avoid Clever Hans moments in machine learning and encourages (or discourages, if appropriate) trust in the underlying model.",
    }

  • M. Langensiepen, M. A. K. Jansen, A. Wingler, B. Demmig-Adams, W. W. Adams, I. C. Dodd, V. Fotopoulos, R. Snowdon, E. Fenollosa, M. C. De Tullio, G. Buck-Sorlin, and S. Munné-Bosch, "Linking integrative plant physiology with agronomy to sustain future plant production," Environmental and Experimental Botany, vol. 178, p. 104125, 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2020.104125
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Sustainable production of high-quality food is one of today’s major challenges of agriculture. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of plant physiological processes and a more integrated approach with respect to current agronomical practices are needed. In this review, various examples of cooperation between integrative plant physiology and agronomy are discussed, and this demonstrates the complexity of these interrelations. The examples are meant to stimulate discussions on how both research areas can deliver solutions to avoid looming food crises due to population growth and climate change. In the last decades, unprecedented progress has been made in the understanding of how plants grow and develop in a variety of environments and in response to biotic stresses, but appropriate management and interpretation of the resulting complex datasets remains challenging. After providing an historical overview of integrative plant physiology, we discuss possible avenues of integration, involving advances in integrative plant physiology, to sustain plant production in the current post-omics era. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to practice the transdisciplinary mindset required, emphasising a broader approach to sustainable production of high-quality food in the future, whereby all those who are involved are made partners in knowledge generation processes through transdisciplinary cooperation.

    @Article{langensiepen2020104125,
    title = "Linking integrative plant physiology with agronomy to sustain future plant production",
    journal = "Environmental and Experimental Botany",
    volume = "178",
    pages = "104125",
    year = "2020",
    issn = "0098-8472",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2020.104125",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098847220301519",
    author = "Matthias Langensiepen and Marcel A.K. Jansen and Astrid Wingler and Barbara Demmig-Adams and William W. Adams and Ian C. Dodd and Vasileios Fotopoulos and Rod Snowdon and Erola Fenollosa and Mario C. {De Tullio} and Gerhard Buck-Sorlin and Sergi Munné-Bosch",
    keywords = "Food production, Molecular plant biology, Plant physiology, Agronomy, Sustainability, Transdisciplinarity",
    abstract = "Sustainable production of high-quality food is one of today’s major challenges of agriculture. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of plant physiological processes and a more integrated approach with respect to current agronomical practices are needed. In this review, various examples of cooperation between integrative plant physiology and agronomy are discussed, and this demonstrates the complexity of these interrelations. The examples are meant to stimulate discussions on how both research areas can deliver solutions to avoid looming food crises due to population growth and climate change. In the last decades, unprecedented progress has been made in the understanding of how plants grow and develop in a variety of environments and in response to biotic stresses, but appropriate management and interpretation of the resulting complex datasets remains challenging. After providing an historical overview of integrative plant physiology, we discuss possible avenues of integration, involving advances in integrative plant physiology, to sustain plant production in the current post-omics era. Finally, recommendations are provided on how to practice the transdisciplinary mindset required, emphasising a broader approach to sustainable production of high-quality food in the future, whereby all those who are involved are made partners in knowledge generation processes through transdisciplinary cooperation.",
    }

  • J. Bömer, L. Zabawa, P. Sieren, A. Kicherer, L. Klingbeil, U. Rascher, O. Muller, H. Kuhlmann, and R. Roscher, "Automatic Differentiation of Damaged and Unharmed Grapes Using RGB Images and Convolutional Neural Networks," in Computer Vision – ECCV 2020 Workshops , Cham, 2020, p. 347–359.
    [BibTeX]

    Knowledge about the damage of grapevine berries in the vineyard is important for breeders and farmers. Damage to berries can be caused for example by mechanical machines during vineyard management, various diseases, parasites or abiotic stress like sun damage. The manual detection of damaged berries in the field is a subjective and labour-intensive task, and automatic detection by machine learning methods is challenging if all variants of damage should be modelled. Our proposed method detects regions of damaged berries in images in an efficient and objective manner using a shallow neural network, where the severeness of the damage is visualized with a heatmap.

    @InProceedings{10.1007/978-3-030-65414-6_24,
    author="B{\"o}mer, Jonas
    and Zabawa, Laura
    and Sieren, Philipp
    and Kicherer, Anna
    and Klingbeil, Lasse
    and Rascher, Uwe
    and Muller, Onno
    and Kuhlmann, Heiner
    and Roscher, Ribana",
    editor="Bartoli, Adrien
    and Fusiello, Andrea",
    title="Automatic Differentiation of Damaged and Unharmed Grapes Using RGB Images and Convolutional Neural Networks",
    booktitle="Computer Vision -- ECCV 2020 Workshops",
    year="2020",
    publisher="Springer International Publishing",
    address="Cham",
    pages="347--359",
    abstract="Knowledge about the damage of grapevine berries in the vineyard is important for breeders and farmers. Damage to berries can be caused for example by mechanical machines during vineyard management, various diseases, parasites or abiotic stress like sun damage. The manual detection of damaged berries in the field is a subjective and labour-intensive task, and automatic detection by machine learning methods is challenging if all variants of damage should be modelled. Our proposed method detects regions of damaged berries in images in an efficient and objective manner using a shallow neural network, where the severeness of the damage is visualized with a heatmap.",
    isbn="978-3-030-65414-6"
    }

  • J. Quenzel, R. A. Rosu, T. Läbe, C. Stachniss, and S. Behnke, "Beyond Photometric Consistency: Gradient-based Dissimilarity for Improving Visual Odometry and Stereo Matching," in 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , 2020, pp. 272-278. doi:10.1109/ICRA40945.2020.9197483
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @INPROCEEDINGS{9197483,
    author={Quenzel, Jan and Rosu, Radu Alexandru and Läbe, Thomas and Stachniss, Cyrill and Behnke, Sven},
    booktitle={2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
    title={Beyond Photometric Consistency: Gradient-based Dissimilarity for Improving Visual Odometry and Stereo Matching},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2004.04090.pdf},
    year={2020},
    pages={272-278},
    doi={10.1109/ICRA40945.2020.9197483},
    }

  • A. Barreto, S. Paulus, M. Varrelmann, and A. Mahlein, "Hyperspectral imaging of symptoms induced by Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet: comparison of input data and different machine learning algorithms," Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, vol. 127, iss. 4, 2020. doi:10.1007/s41348-020-00344-8
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in sugar beet production worldwide. Root and crown rot caused by this fungus are traditionally recognized later in the cropping season by rating the above-ground symptoms like wilting and chlorosis on foliage, and dark brown lesions at the base of petioles. The present study was designed to evaluate noninvasive sensors and machine learning for measuring disease incidence and early detection. Eight-weeks-old plants were inoculated with the pathogen in two different concentrations and under controlled conditions. Hyperspectral images in the visible and near-infrared range from leaf were obtained in time-series. One hundred thirty and fifteen spectral features were selected in two levels by using the recursive feature elimination method (RFE) and a clustering approach. Subsequently, five types of machine-learning methods were employed to train four types of spectral data containing reflectance values, vegetation indices, selected variables of the RFE process and selected variables of an RFE-clustering process. The best classifier was obtained from a partial least squares modeling process and required a number of 15 spectral features, which include first and second derivatives of the wavelength spectrum as well as the Ctr3, EVI and PSSRa vegetation index. This investigation proves that under controlled conditions early detection of indirect symptoms caused by Rhizoctonia root rot in sugar-beet plants is possible. Scoring of disease incidence of Rhizoctonia root rot at 10 dai was 3 to 5 times higher with a machine-learning classifier in comparison with the human visual rating.

    @Article{barreto2020,
    author = {Barreto, Abel and Paulus, Stefan and Varrelmann, Mark and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    title = {Hyperspectral imaging of symptoms induced by Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet: comparison of input data and different machine learning algorithms},
    journal = {Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection},
    volume = {127},
    year = {2020},
    number = {4},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/s41348-020-00344-8},
    issn = {1861-3837},
    abstract = {The fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important soil-borne diseases in sugar beet production worldwide. Root and crown rot caused by this fungus are traditionally recognized later in the cropping season by rating the above-ground symptoms like wilting and chlorosis on foliage, and dark brown lesions at the base of petioles. The present study was designed to evaluate noninvasive sensors and machine learning for measuring disease incidence and early detection. Eight-weeks-old plants were inoculated with the pathogen in two different concentrations and under controlled conditions. Hyperspectral images in the visible and near-infrared range from leaf were obtained in time-series. One hundred thirty and fifteen spectral features were selected in two levels by using the recursive feature elimination method (RFE) and a clustering approach. Subsequently, five types of machine-learning methods were employed to train four types of spectral data containing reflectance values, vegetation indices, selected variables of the RFE process and selected variables of an RFE-clustering process. The best classifier was obtained from a partial least squares modeling process and required a number of 15 spectral features, which include first and second derivatives of the wavelength spectrum as well as the Ctr3, EVI and PSSRa vegetation index. This investigation proves that under controlled conditions early detection of indirect symptoms caused by Rhizoctonia root rot in sugar-beet plants is possible. Scoring of disease incidence of Rhizoctonia root rot at 10 dai was 3 to 5 times higher with a machine-learning classifier in comparison with the human visual rating.},
    doi = {10.1007/s41348-020-00344-8},
    }

  • F. Savian, M. Martini, P. Ermacora, S. Paulus, and A. Mahlein, "Prediction of the Kiwifruit Decline Syndrome in Diseased Orchards by Remote Sensing," Remote Sensing, vol. 12, iss. 14, 2020. doi:10.3390/rs12142194
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Eight years after the first record in Italy, Kiwifruit Decline (KD), a destructive disease causing root rot, has already affected more than 25% of the area under kiwifruit cultivation in Italy. Diseased plants are characterised by severe decay of the fine roots and sudden wilting of the canopy, which is only visible after the season’s first period of heat (July–August). The swiftness of symptom appearance prevents correct timing and positioning for sampling of the disease, and is therefore a barrier to aetiological studies. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of thermal and multispectral imaging for the detection of KD using an unsupervised classifier. Thus, RGB, multispectral and thermal data from a kiwifruit orchard, with healthy and diseased plants, were acquired simultaneously during two consecutive growing seasons (2017–2018) using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform. Data reduction was applied to the clipped areas of the multispectral and thermal data from the 2017 survey. Reduced data were then classified with two unsupervised algorithms, a K-means and a hierarchical method. The plant vigour (canopy size and presence/absence of wilted leaves) and the health shifts exhibited by asymptomatic plants between 2017 and 2018 were evaluated from RGB data via expert assessment and used as the ground truth for cluster interpretation. Multispectral data showed a high correlation with plant vigour, while temperature data demonstrated a good potential use in predicting health shifts, especially in highly vigorous plants that were asymptomatic in 2017 and became symptomatic in 2018. The accuracy of plant vigour assessment was above 73% when using multispectral data, while clustering of the temperature data allowed the prediction of disease outbreak one year in advance, with an accuracy of 71%. Based on our results, the unsupervised clustering of remote sensing data could be a reliable tool for the identification of sampling areas, and can greatly improve aetiological studies of this new disease in kiwifruit.

    @Article{rs12142194,
    author = {Savian, Francesco and Martini, Marta and Ermacora, Paolo and Paulus, Stefan and Mahlein, Anne-Katrin},
    title = {Prediction of the Kiwifruit Decline Syndrome in Diseased Orchards by Remote Sensing},
    journal = {Remote Sensing},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2020},
    number = {14},
    article-number= {2194},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/12/14/2194},
    issn = {2072-4292},
    abstract = {Eight years after the first record in Italy, Kiwifruit Decline (KD), a destructive disease causing root rot, has already affected more than 25% of the area under kiwifruit cultivation in Italy. Diseased plants are characterised by severe decay of the fine roots and sudden wilting of the canopy, which is only visible after the season’s first period of heat (July–August). The swiftness of symptom appearance prevents correct timing and positioning for sampling of the disease, and is therefore a barrier to aetiological studies. The aim of this study is to test the feasibility of thermal and multispectral imaging for the detection of KD using an unsupervised classifier. Thus, RGB, multispectral and thermal data from a kiwifruit orchard, with healthy and diseased plants, were acquired simultaneously during two consecutive growing seasons (2017–2018) using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platform. Data reduction was applied to the clipped areas of the multispectral and thermal data from the 2017 survey. Reduced data were then classified with two unsupervised algorithms, a K-means and a hierarchical method. The plant vigour (canopy size and presence/absence of wilted leaves) and the health shifts exhibited by asymptomatic plants between 2017 and 2018 were evaluated from RGB data via expert assessment and used as the ground truth for cluster interpretation. Multispectral data showed a high correlation with plant vigour, while temperature data demonstrated a good potential use in predicting health shifts, especially in highly vigorous plants that were asymptomatic in 2017 and became symptomatic in 2018. The accuracy of plant vigour assessment was above 73% when using multispectral data, while clustering of the temperature data allowed the prediction of disease outbreak one year in advance, with an accuracy of 71%. Based on our results, the unsupervised clustering of remote sensing data could be a reliable tool for the identification of sampling areas, and can greatly improve aetiological studies of this new disease in kiwifruit.},
    doi = {10.3390/rs12142194},
    }

  • F. Jonard, D. S. Cannière, N. Brüggemann, P. Gentine, S. D. J. Gianotti, G. Lobet, D. G. Miralles, C. Montzka, B. R. Pagán, U. Rascher, and H. Vereecken, "Value of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence for quantifying hydrological states and fluxes: Current status and challenges," Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, vol. 291, p. 108088, 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108088
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Predictions of hydrological states and fluxes, especially transpiration, are poorly constrained in hydrological models due to large uncertainties in parameterization and process description. Novel technologies like remote sensing of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF)—which provides information from the photosynthetic apparatus—may help in constraining water cycle components. This paper discusses the nature of the plant physiological basis of the fluorescence signal and analyses the current literature linking hydrological states and fluxes to SIF. Given the connection between photosynthesis and transpiration, through the water use efficiency, SIF may serve as a pertinent constraint for hydrological models. The FLuorescence EXplorer (FLEX) satellite, planned to be launched in 2023, is expected to provide spatially high-resolution measurements of red and far-red SIF complementing the products from existing satellite missions and the high-temporal resolution products from upcoming geostationary missions. This new data stream may allow us to better constrain plant transpiration, assess the impacts of water stress on plants, and infer processes occurring in the root zone through the soil-plant water column. To make optimal use of this data, progress needs to be made in 1) our process representation of spatially aggregated fluorescence signals from spaceborne SIF instruments, 2) integration of fluorescence processes in hydrological models—particularly when paired with other satellite data, 3) quantifying the impact of soil moisture on SIF across scales, and 4) assessment of the accuracy of SIF measurements—especially from space.

    @Article{jonard2020108088,
    title = "Value of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence for quantifying hydrological states and fluxes: Current status and challenges",
    journal = "Agricultural and Forest Meteorology",
    volume = "291",
    pages = "108088",
    year = "2020",
    issn = "0168-1923",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2020.108088",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168192320301908",
    author = "F. Jonard and S. De Cannière and N. Brüggemann and P. Gentine and D.J. Short Gianotti and G. Lobet and D.G. Miralles and C. Montzka and B.R. Pagán and U. Rascher and H. Vereecken",
    keywords = "Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, Soil water availability, Drought stress, Transpiration, Hydrological processes, Radiative transfer model",
    abstract = "Predictions of hydrological states and fluxes, especially transpiration, are poorly constrained in hydrological models due to large uncertainties in parameterization and process description. Novel technologies like remote sensing of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF)—which provides information from the photosynthetic apparatus—may help in constraining water cycle components. This paper discusses the nature of the plant physiological basis of the fluorescence signal and analyses the current literature linking hydrological states and fluxes to SIF. Given the connection between photosynthesis and transpiration, through the water use efficiency, SIF may serve as a pertinent constraint for hydrological models. The FLuorescence EXplorer (FLEX) satellite, planned to be launched in 2023, is expected to provide spatially high-resolution measurements of red and far-red SIF complementing the products from existing satellite missions and the high-temporal resolution products from upcoming geostationary missions. This new data stream may allow us to better constrain plant transpiration, assess the impacts of water stress on plants, and infer processes occurring in the root zone through the soil-plant water column. To make optimal use of this data, progress needs to be made in 1) our process representation of spatially aggregated fluorescence signals from spaceborne SIF instruments, 2) integration of fluorescence processes in hydrological models—particularly when paired with other satellite data, 3) quantifying the impact of soil moisture on SIF across scales, and 4) assessment of the accuracy of SIF measurements—especially from space.",
    }

  • P. Gaugler, V. Gaugler, M. Kamleitner, and G. Schaaf, "Extraction and Quantification of Soluble, Radiolabeled Inositol Polyphosphates from Different Plant Species using SAX-HPLC," Journal of Visualized Experiments, iss. 160, 2020. doi:10.3791/61495
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{gaugler_gaugler_kamleitner_schaaf_2020,
    title = {Extraction and Quantification of Soluble, Radiolabeled Inositol Polyphosphates from Different Plant Species using SAX-HPLC},
    url = {https://www.jove.com/video/61495/extraction-quantification-soluble-radiolabeled-inositol},
    doi = {10.3791/61495},
    number = {160},
    journal = {Journal of Visualized Experiments},
    author = {Philipp Gaugler and Verena Gaugler and Marília Kamleitner and Gabriel Schaaf},
    year = {2020},
    month = {Jun},
    }

  • P. Schramowski, W. Stammer, S. Teso, A. Brugger, X. Shao, H. Luigs, A. Mahlein, and K. Kersting, Right for the Wrong Scientific Reasons: Revising Deep Networks by Interacting with their Explanations, 2020.
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Misc{schramowski2020right,
    title = {Right for the Wrong Scientific Reasons: Revising Deep Networks by Interacting with their Explanations},
    author = {Patrick Schramowski and Wolfgang Stammer and Stefano Teso and Anna Brugger and Xiaoting Shao and Hans-Georg Luigs and Anne-Katrin Mahlein and Kristian Kersting},
    year = {2020},
    eprint = {2001.05371},
    archiveprefix = {arXiv},
    url={https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wolfgang-Stammer-2/publication/338620916_Right_for_the_Wrong_Scientific_Reasons_Revising_Deep_Networks_by_Interacting_with_their_Explanations/links/5e25951b92851c067e217f7f/Right-for-the-Wrong-Scientific-Reasons-Revising-Deep-Networks-by-Interacting-with-their-Explanations.pdf},
    primaryclass = {cs.LG},
    }

  • C. H. Bock, J. G. A. Barbedo, E. D. M. Ponte, D. Bohnenkamp, and A. Mahlein, "From visual estimates to fully automated sensor-based measurements of plant disease severity: status and challenges for improving accuracy," Phytopathology Research 2, 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/s42483-020-00049-8
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The severity of plant diseases, traditionally the proportion of the plant tissue exhibiting symptoms, is a key quantitative variable to know for many diseases and is prone to error. Good quality disease severity data should be accurate (close to the true value). Earliest quantification of disease severity was by visual estimates. Sensor-based image analysis including visible spectrum and hyperspectral and multispectral sensors are established technologies that promise to substitute, or complement visual ratings. Indeed, these technologies have measured disease severity accurately under controlled conditions but are yet to demonstrate their full potential for accurate measurement under field conditions. Sensor technology is advancing rapidly, and artificial intelligence may help overcome issues for automating severity measurement under hyper-variable field conditions. The adoption of appropriate scales, training, instruction and aids (standard area diagrams) has contributed to improved accuracy of visual estimates. The apogee of accuracy for visual estimation is likely being approached, and any remaining increases in accuracy are likely to be small. Due to automation and rapidity, sensor-based measurement offers potential advantages compared with visual estimates, but the latter will remain important for years to come. Mobile, automated sensor-based systems will become increasingly common in controlled conditions and, eventually, in the field for measuring plant disease severity for the purpose of research and decision making.

    @Article{bock2020,
    title = "From visual estimates to fully automated sensor-based measurements of plant disease severity: status and challenges for improving accuracy",
    journal = "Phytopathology Research 2",
    year = "2020",
    issn = "2524-4167",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1186/s42483-020-00049-8",
    url = "https://phytopatholres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s42483-020-00049-8",
    author = "Clive H. Bock and Jayme G. A. Barbedo and Emerson M. Del Ponte and David Bohnenkamp and Anne-Katrin Mahlein",
    abstract = "The severity of plant diseases, traditionally the proportion of the plant tissue exhibiting symptoms, is a key quantitative variable to know for many diseases and is prone to error. Good quality disease severity data should be accurate (close to the true value). Earliest quantification of disease severity was by visual estimates. Sensor-based image analysis including visible spectrum and hyperspectral and multispectral sensors are established technologies that promise to substitute, or complement visual ratings. Indeed, these technologies have measured disease severity accurately under controlled conditions but are yet to demonstrate their full potential for accurate measurement under field conditions. Sensor technology is advancing rapidly, and artificial intelligence may help overcome issues for automating severity measurement under hyper-variable field conditions. The adoption of appropriate scales, training, instruction and aids (standard area diagrams) has contributed to improved accuracy of visual estimates. The apogee of accuracy for visual estimation is likely being approached, and any remaining increases in accuracy are likely to be small. Due to automation and rapidity, sensor-based measurement offers potential advantages compared with visual estimates, but the latter will remain important for years to come. Mobile, automated sensor-based systems will become increasingly common in controlled conditions and, eventually, in the field for measuring plant disease severity for the purpose of research and decision making.",
    }

  • B. Müller, F. Hoffmann, T. Heckelei, C. Müller, T. W. Hertel, G. J. Polhill, M. [. Wijk], T. Achterbosch, P. Alexander, C. Brown, D. Kreuer, F. Ewert, J. Ge, J. D. A. Millington, R. Seppelt, P. H. Verburg, and H. Webber, "Modelling food security: Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale," Global Environmental Change, vol. 63, p. 102085, 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102085
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.

    @Article{muller2020102085,
    title = "Modelling food security: Bridging the gap between the micro and the macro scale",
    journal = "Global Environmental Change",
    volume = "63",
    pages = "102085",
    year = "2020",
    issn = "0959-3780",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102085",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959378019307277",
    author = "Birgit Müller and Falk Hoffmann and Thomas Heckelei and Christoph Müller and Thomas W. Hertel and J. Gareth Polhill and Mark [van Wijk] and Thom Achterbosch and Peter Alexander and Calum Brown and David Kreuer and Frank Ewert and Jiaqi Ge and James D.A. Millington and Ralf Seppelt and Peter H. Verburg and Heidi Webber",
    keywords = "Food security, Multi-scale interactions, Model integration, Agent-based models, Economic equilibrium models, Crop models, Social-ecological feedbacks, Land use",
    abstract = "Achieving food and nutrition security for all in a changing and globalized world remains a critical challenge of utmost importance. The development of solutions benefits from insights derived from modelling and simulating the complex interactions of the agri-food system, which range from global to household scales and transcend disciplinary boundaries. A wide range of models based on various methodologies (from food trade equilibrium to agent-based) seek to integrate direct and indirect drivers of change in land use, environment and socio-economic conditions at different scales. However, modelling such interaction poses fundamental challenges, especially for representing non-linear dynamics and adaptive behaviours. We identify key pieces of the fragmented landscape of food security modelling, and organize achievements and gaps into different contextual domains of food security (production, trade, and consumption) at different spatial scales. Building on in-depth reflection on three core issues of food security – volatility, technology, and transformation – we identify methodological challenges and promising strategies for advancement. We emphasize particular requirements related to the multifaceted and multiscale nature of food security. They include the explicit representation of transient dynamics to allow for path dependency and irreversible consequences, and of household heterogeneity to incorporate inequality issues. To illustrate ways forward we provide good practice examples using meta-modelling techniques, non-equilibrium approaches and behavioural-based modelling endeavours. We argue that further integration of different model types is required to better account for both multi-level agency and cross-scale feedbacks within the food system.",
    }

  • L. Zabawa, A. Kicherer, L. Klingbeil, R. Töpfer, H. Kuhlmann, and R. Roscher, "Counting of grapevine berries in images via semantic segmentation using convolutional neural networks," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, vol. 164, pp. 73-83, 2020. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.04.002
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The extraction of phenotypic traits is often very time and labour intensive. Especially the investigation in viticulture is restricted to an on-site analysis due to the perennial nature of grapevine. Traditionally skilled experts examine small samples and extrapolate the results to a whole plot. Thereby different grapevine varieties and training systems, e.g. vertical shoot positioning (VSP) and semi minimal pruned hedges (SMPH) pose different challenges. In this paper we present an objective framework based on automatic image analysis which works on two different training systems. The images are collected semi automatic by a camera system which is installed in a modified grape harvester. The system produces overlapping images from the sides of the plants. Our framework uses a convolutional neural network to detect single berries in images by performing a semantic segmentation. Each berry is then counted with a connected component algorithm. We compare our results with the Mask-RCNN, a state-of-the-art network for instance segmentation and with a regression approach for counting. The experiments presented in this paper show that we are able to detect green berries in images despite of different training systems. We achieve an accuracy for the berry detection of 94.0% in the VSP and 85.6% in the SMPH.

    @Article{zabawa202073,
    title = "Counting of grapevine berries in images via semantic segmentation using convolutional neural networks",
    journal = "ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing",
    volume = "164",
    pages = "73 - 83",
    year = "2020",
    issn = "0924-2716",
    doi = "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2020.04.002",
    url = "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924271620300939",
    author = "Laura Zabawa and Anna Kicherer and Lasse Klingbeil and Reinhard Töpfer and Heiner Kuhlmann and Ribana Roscher",
    keywords = "Deep learning, Semantic segmentation, Geoinformation, High-throughput analysis, Plant phenotyping, Vitis",
    abstract = "The extraction of phenotypic traits is often very time and labour intensive. Especially the investigation in viticulture is restricted to an on-site analysis due to the perennial nature of grapevine. Traditionally skilled experts examine small samples and extrapolate the results to a whole plot. Thereby different grapevine varieties and training systems, e.g. vertical shoot positioning (VSP) and semi minimal pruned hedges (SMPH) pose different challenges. In this paper we present an objective framework based on automatic image analysis which works on two different training systems. The images are collected semi automatic by a camera system which is installed in a modified grape harvester. The system produces overlapping images from the sides of the plants. Our framework uses a convolutional neural network to detect single berries in images by performing a semantic segmentation. Each berry is then counted with a connected component algorithm. We compare our results with the Mask-RCNN, a state-of-the-art network for instance segmentation and with a regression approach for counting. The experiments presented in this paper show that we are able to detect green berries in images despite of different training systems. We achieve an accuracy for the berry detection of 94.0% in the VSP and 85.6% in the SMPH.",
    }

  • A. Bonerath, J. -H. Haunert, and B. Niedermann, "Tight Rectilinear Hulls of Simple Polygons," in Proceedings of the 36th European Workshop on Computational Geometry (EuroCG'20) , 2020. doi:10.1016/j.comgeo.2023.101983
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    A polygon is called C-oriented if the orientations of all its edges stem from a pre-defined set C. The schematization of a polygon is then a C-oriented polygon that describes and simplifies the shape of the input polygon with respect to given hard and soft constraints. We study the case that the C-oriented polygon needs to contain the input polygon such that it is tight in the sense that it cannot be shrunk without starting to overlap with the input polygon; we call this a tight C-hull of the polygon. We restrict the tight C-hull to be a simple polygon. We aim at a tight C-hull that optimally balances the number of bends, the total edge length and the enclosed area. For the case that both polygons are rectilinear, we present a dynamic-programming approach that yields such a tight hull in polynomial time. For arbitrary simple polygons we can use the same approach to obtain approximate tight rectilinear hulls.

    @InProceedings{bhn-trhsp-20,
    abstract = {A polygon is called C-oriented if the orientations of all its edges stem from a pre-defined set C. The schematization of a polygon is then a C-oriented polygon that describes and simplifies the shape of the input polygon with respect to given hard and soft constraints. We study the case that the C-oriented polygon needs to contain the input polygon such that it is tight in the sense that it cannot be shrunk without starting to overlap with the input polygon; we call this a tight C-hull of the polygon. We restrict the tight C-hull to be a simple polygon. We aim at a tight C-hull that optimally balances the number of bends, the total edge length and the enclosed area. For the case that both polygons are rectilinear, we present a dynamic-programming approach that yields such a tight hull in polynomial time. For arbitrary simple polygons we can use the same approach to obtain approximate tight rectilinear hulls.},
    author = {Bonerath, A. and Haunert, J.-H. and Niedermann, B.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 36th European Workshop on Computational Geometry (EuroCG'20)},
    note = {Preprint.},
    title = {{Tight Rectilinear Hulls of Simple Polygons}},
    url = {https://www1.pub.informatik.uni-wuerzburg.de/eurocg2020/data/uploads/papers/eurocg20_paper_83.pdf},
    year = {2020},
    doi={10.1016/j.comgeo.2023.101983},
    }

  • E. Heinz, C. Holst, H. Kuhlmann, and L. Klingbeil, "Design and Evaluation of a Permanently Installed Plane-Based Calibration Field for Mobile Laser Scanning Systems," Remote Sensing, vol. 12, iss. 3, 2020. doi:10.3390/rs12030555
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    Mobile laser scanning has become an established measuring technique that is used for many applications in the fields of mapping, inventory, and monitoring. Due to the increasing operationality of such systems, quality control w.r.t. calibration and evaluation of the systems becomes more and more important and is subject to on-going research. This paper contributes to this topic by using tools from geodetic configuration analysis in order to design and evaluate a plane-based calibration field for determining the lever arm and boresight angles of a 2D laser scanner w.r.t. a GNSS/IMU unit (Global Navigation Satellite System, Inertial Measurement Unit). In this regard, the impact of random, systematic, and gross observation errors on the calibration is analyzed leading to a plane setup that provides accurate and controlled calibration parameters. The designed plane setup is realized in the form of a permanently installed calibration field. The applicability of the calibration field is tested with a real mobile laser scanning system by frequently repeating the calibration. Empirical standard deviations of <1 ... 1.5 mm for the lever arm and <0.005 ∘ for the boresight angles are obtained, which was priorly defined to be the goal of the calibration. In order to independently evaluate the mobile laser scanning system after calibration, an evaluation environment is realized consisting of a network of control points as well as TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) reference point clouds. Based on the control points, both the horizontal and vertical accuracy of the system is found to be < 10 mm (root mean square error). This is confirmed by comparisons to the TLS reference point clouds indicating a well calibrated system. Both the calibration field and the evaluation environment are permanently installed and can be used for arbitrary mobile laser scanning systems.

    @Article{rs12030555,
    author = {Heinz, Erik and Holst, Christoph and Kuhlmann, Heiner and Klingbeil, Lasse},
    title = {Design and Evaluation of a Permanently Installed Plane-Based Calibration Field for Mobile Laser Scanning Systems},
    journal = {Remote Sensing},
    volume = {12},
    year = {2020},
    number = {3},
    article-number= {555},
    url = {https://www.mdpi.com/2072-4292/12/3/555},
    issn = {2072-4292},
    abstract = {Mobile laser scanning has become an established measuring technique that is used for many applications in the fields of mapping, inventory, and monitoring. Due to the increasing operationality of such systems, quality control w.r.t. calibration and evaluation of the systems becomes more and more important and is subject to on-going research. This paper contributes to this topic by using tools from geodetic configuration analysis in order to design and evaluate a plane-based calibration field for determining the lever arm and boresight angles of a 2D laser scanner w.r.t. a GNSS/IMU unit (Global Navigation Satellite System, Inertial Measurement Unit). In this regard, the impact of random, systematic, and gross observation errors on the calibration is analyzed leading to a plane setup that provides accurate and controlled calibration parameters. The designed plane setup is realized in the form of a permanently installed calibration field. The applicability of the calibration field is tested with a real mobile laser scanning system by frequently repeating the calibration. Empirical standard deviations of <1 ... 1.5 mm for the lever arm and <0.005 ∘ for the boresight angles are obtained, which was priorly defined to be the goal of the calibration. In order to independently evaluate the mobile laser scanning system after calibration, an evaluation environment is realized consisting of a network of control points as well as TLS (Terrestrial Laser Scanning) reference point clouds. Based on the control points, both the horizontal and vertical accuracy of the system is found to be < 10 mm (root mean square error). This is confirmed by comparisons to the TLS reference point clouds indicating a well calibrated system. Both the calibration field and the evaluation environment are permanently installed and can be used for arbitrary mobile laser scanning systems.},
    doi = {10.3390/rs12030555},
    }

2019

  • D. Laha, N. Parvin, A. Hofer, R. Giehl, N. Fernandez-Rebollo, N. Wirén, A. Saiardi, H. Jessen, and G. Schaaf, "Arabidopsis ITPK1 and ITPK2 have an Evolutionary Conserved Phytic Acid Kinase Activity," ACS Chemical Biology, vol. 14, iss. 10, pp. 2127-2133, 2019. doi:10.1021/acschembio.9b00423
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @article{laha2019arabidopsis,
    title={Arabidopsis ITPK1 and ITPK2 have an evolutionarily conserved phytic acid kinase activity},
    author = {Laha, Debabrata and Parvin, Nargis and Hofer, Alexandre and Giehl, Ricardo and Fernandez-Rebollo, Nicolas and Wirén, Nicolaus and Saiardi, Adolfo and Jessen, Henning and Schaaf, Gabriel},
    title = {Arabidopsis ITPK1 and ITPK2 have an Evolutionary Conserved Phytic Acid Kinase Activity},
    journal = {ACS Chemical Biology},
    year = {2019},
    volume= {14},
    number= {10},
    pages= {2127-2133},
    doi = {10.1021/acschembio.9b00423},
    url= {https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335845870_Arabidopsis_ITPK1_and_ITPK2_have_an_Evolutionary_Conserved_Phytic_Acid_Kinase_Activity}
    }

  • F. Seiffarth, T. Horvath, and S. Wrobel, "Maximal Closed Set and Half-Space Separations in Finite Closure Systems," in ECML/PKDD 2019 and has appeared in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases - European Conference , 2019. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-46150-8_2
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{seiffarth2019maximal,
    title = {Maximal Closed Set and Half-Space Separations in Finite Closure Systems},
    author = {Florian Seiffarth and Tamas Horvath and Stefan Wrobel},
    year = {2019},
    url={https://arxiv.org/pdf/2001.04417.pdf},
    doi={10.1007/978-3-030-46150-8_2},
    booktitle = {ECML/PKDD 2019 and has appeared in the Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases - European Conference},
    }

  • J. Behley, M. Garbade, A. Milioto, J. Quenzel, S. Behnke, C. Stachniss, and J. Gall, "SemanticKITTI: A Dataset for Semantic Scene Understanding of LiDAR Sequences." 2019. doi:doi.org/10.1109/iccv.2019.00939
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{behley2019iccv,
    author = {J. Behley and M. Garbade and A. Milioto and J. Quenzel and S. Behnke and C. Stachniss and J. Gall},
    title = {{SemanticKITTI: A Dataset for Semantic Scene Understanding of LiDAR Sequences}},
    doi={doi.org/10.1109/iccv.2019.00939},
    booktitle = iccv,
    year = {2019},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/behley2019iccv.pdf},
    videourl = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/html/projects/semantic_kitti/videos/teaser.mp4},
    }

  • E. Palazzolo, J. Behley, P. Lottes, P. Giguère, and C. Stachniss, "ReFusion: 3D Reconstruction in Dynamic Environments for RGB-D Cameras Exploiting Residuals," in Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2019. doi:10.1109/iros40897.2019.8967590
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @InProceedings{palazzolo2019iros,
    author = {E. Palazzolo and J. Behley and P. Lottes and P. Gigu\`ere and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{ReFusion: 3D Reconstruction in Dynamic Environments for RGB-D Cameras Exploiting Residuals}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    doi={10.1109/iros40897.2019.8967590},
    year = {2019},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/palazzolo2019iros.pdf},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/refusion},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/1P9ZfIS5-p4},
    }

  • X. Chen, A. Milioto, E. Palazzolo, P. Giguère, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "SuMa++: Efficient LiDAR-based Semantic SLAM," in Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2019. doi:10.1109/iros40897.2019.8967704
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @InProceedings{chen2019iros,
    author = {X. Chen and A. Milioto and E. Palazzolo and P. Giguère and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{SuMa++: Efficient LiDAR-based Semantic SLAM}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    doi={10.1109/iros40897.2019.8967704 },
    year = {2019},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/semantic_suma/},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/uo3ZuLuFAzk},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/chen2019iros.pdf},
    }

  • A. Milioto, I. Vizzo, J. Behley, and C. Stachniss, "RangeNet++: Fast and Accurate LiDAR Semantic Segmentation," in Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS) , 2019. doi:10.1109/iros40897.2019.8967762
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @InProceedings{milioto2019iros,
    author = {A. Milioto and I. Vizzo and J. Behley and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{RangeNet++: Fast and Accurate LiDAR Semantic Segmentation}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/iros40897.2019.8967762},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/PRBonn/lidar-bonnetal},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/wuokg7MFZyU},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/milioto2019iros.pdf},
    }

  • F. Yan, O. Vysotska, and C. Stachniss, " Global Localization on OpenStreetMap Using 4-bit Semantic Descriptors," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR) , 2019. doi:10.1109/ecmr.2019.8870918
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{yan2019ecmr,
    author = {F. Yan and O. Vysotska and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{ Global Localization on OpenStreetMap Using 4-bit Semantic Descriptors}},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/ecmr.2019.8870918},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/yan2019ecmr.pdf},
    }

  • R. Schirmer, P. Bieber, and C. Stachniss, "Coverage Path Planning in Belief Space ," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2019. doi:10.1109/icra.2019.8793969
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{schirmer2019icra,
    author = {R. Schirmer and P. Bieber and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Coverage Path Planning in Belief Space }},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/icra.2019.8793969},
    url = {https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/schirmer2019icra.pdf},
    }

  • K. Huang and C. Stachniss, "Accurate Direct Visual-Laser Odometry with Explicit Occlusion Handling and Plane Detection," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2019. doi:10.1109/icra.2019.8793629
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{huang2019icra,
    author = {K. Huang and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Accurate Direct Visual-Laser Odometry with Explicit Occlusion Handling and Plane Detection}},
    url={https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Cyrill_Stachniss/publication/335144116_Accurate_Direct_Visual-Laser_Odometry_with_Explicit_Occlusion_Handling_and_Plane_Detection/links/5f60a58a299bf1d43c05021b/Accurate-Direct-Visual-Laser-Odometry-with-Explicit-Occlusion-Handling-and-Plane-Detection.pdf},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/icra.2019.8793629},
    }

  • A. Bonerath, B. Niedermann, and J. -H. Haunert, "Retrieving alpha-Shapes and Schematic Polygonal Approximations for Sets of Points within Queried Temporal Ranges," in Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems , New York, NY, USA, 2019, p. 249–258. doi:10.1145/3347146.3359087
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    The interactive exploration of data requires data structures that can be repeatedly queried to obtain simple visualizations of parts of the data. We consider the scenario that the data is a set of points each associated with a time stamp and that the result of each query is visualized by an α-shape, which generalizes the concept of convex hulls. Instead of computing each shape independently, we suggest and analyze a simple data structure that aggregates the α-shapes of all possible queries. Once the data structure is built, it particularly allows us to query single α-shapes without retrieving the actual (possibly large) point set and thus to rapidly produce small previews of the queried data. We discuss the data structure for the original α-shapes as well as for a schematized version of α-shapes, which further simplifies the visualization. We evaluate the data structure on real-world data. The experiments indicate linear memory consumption with respect to the number of points, which makes the data structure applicable in practice, although the size is quadratic for a theoretic worst case example.

    @InProceedings{bhn-rasspa-19,
    author = {Bonerath, A. and Niedermann, B. and Haunert, J.-H.},
    title = {{Retrieving alpha-Shapes and Schematic Polygonal Approximations for Sets of Points within Queried Temporal Ranges}},
    abstract = {The interactive exploration of data requires data structures that can be repeatedly queried to obtain simple visualizations of parts of the data. We consider the scenario that the data is a set of points each associated with a time stamp and that the result of each query is visualized by an α-shape, which generalizes the concept of convex hulls. Instead of computing each shape independently, we suggest and analyze a simple data structure that aggregates the α-shapes of all possible queries. Once the data structure is built, it particularly allows us to query single α-shapes without retrieving the actual (possibly large) point set and thus to rapidly produce small previews of the queried data. We discuss the data structure for the original α-shapes as well as for a schematized version of α-shapes, which further simplifies the visualization. We evaluate the data structure on real-world data. The experiments indicate linear memory consumption with respect to the number of points, which makes the data structure applicable in practice, although the size is quadratic for a theoretic worst case example.},
    booktitle = {Proceedings of the 27th ACM SIGSPATIAL International Conference on Advances in Geographic Information Systems},
    series = {SIGSPATIAL '19},
    year = {2019},
    isbn = {978-1-4503-6909-1},
    location = {Chicago, IL, USA},
    pages = {249--258},
    numpages = {10},
    url = {http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3347146.3359087},
    doi = {10.1145/3347146.3359087},
    acmid = {3359087},
    publisher = {ACM},
    address = {New York, NY, USA},
    keywords = {alpha-shape, data structure, point set, temporal range queries},
    }

  • D. Laha, N. Parvin, A. Hofer, R. F. H. Giehl, N. Fernandez-Rebollo, N. von Wirén, A. Saiardi, H. J. Jessen, and G. Schaaf, "Arabidopsis ITPK1 and ITPK2 Have an Evolutionarily Conserved Phytic Acid Kinase Activity," ACS Chemical Biology, vol. 14, iss. 10, pp. 2127-2133, 2019. doi:10.1021/acschembio.9b00423
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{doi:10.1021/acschembio.9b00423,
    author = {Laha, Debabrata and Parvin, Nargis and Hofer, Alexandre and Giehl, Ricardo F. H. and Fernandez-Rebollo, Nicolas and von Wirén, Nicolaus and Saiardi, Adolfo and Jessen, Henning J. and Schaaf, Gabriel},
    title = {Arabidopsis ITPK1 and ITPK2 Have an Evolutionarily Conserved Phytic Acid Kinase Activity},
    journal = {ACS Chemical Biology},
    volume = {14},
    number = {10},
    pages = {2127-2133},
    year = {2019},
    doi = {10.1021/acschembio.9b00423},
    note = {PMID: 31525024},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00423},
    eprint = {https://doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.9b00423},
    }

  • H. Storm, K. Baylis, and T. Heckelei, "Machine learning in agricultural and applied economics," European Review of Agricultural Economics, 2019. doi:10.1093/erae/jbz033
    [BibTeX] [PDF]

    {This review presents machine learning (ML) approaches from an applied economist’s perspective. We first introduce the key ML methods drawing connections to econometric practice. We then identify current limitations of the econometric and simulation model toolbox in applied economics and explore potential solutions afforded by ML. We dive into cases such as inflexible functional forms, unstructured data sources and large numbers of explanatory variables in both prediction and causal analysis, and highlight the challenges of complex simulation models. Finally, we argue that economists have a vital role in addressing the shortcomings of ML when used for quantitative economic analysis.}

    @Article{10.1093/erae/jbz033,
    author = {Storm, Hugo and Baylis, Kathy and Heckelei, Thomas},
    title = "{Machine learning in agricultural and applied economics}",
    journal = {European Review of Agricultural Economics},
    year = {2019},
    month = {08},
    abstract = "{This review presents machine learning (ML) approaches from an applied economist’s perspective. We first introduce the key ML methods drawing connections to econometric practice. We then identify current limitations of the econometric and simulation model toolbox in applied economics and explore potential solutions afforded by ML. We dive into cases such as inflexible functional forms, unstructured data sources and large numbers of explanatory variables in both prediction and causal analysis, and highlight the challenges of complex simulation models. Finally, we argue that economists have a vital role in addressing the shortcomings of ML when used for quantitative economic analysis.}",
    issn = {0165-1587},
    doi = {10.1093/erae/jbz033},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbz033},
    note = {jbz033},
    eprint = {http://oup.prod.sis.lan/erae/advance-article-pdf/doi/10.1093/erae/jbz033/29194185/jbz033.pdf},
    }

  • A. Mahlein, M. T. Kuska, S. Thomas, M. Wahabzada, J. Behmann, U. Rascher, and K. Kersting, "Quantitative and qualitative phenotyping of disease resistance of crops by hyperspectral sensors: seamless interlocking of phytopathology, sensors, and machine learning is needed," Current Opinion in Plant Biology, vol. 50, 2019. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2019.06.007
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @Article{mahlein2020,
    author = {Mahlein, Anne-Katrin and Kuska, Matheus Thomas and Thomas, Stefan and Wahabzada, Mirwaes and Behmann, Jan and Rascher, Uwe and Kersting, Kristian},
    title = "{Quantitative and qualitative phenotyping of disease resistance of crops by hyperspectral sensors: seamless interlocking of phytopathology, sensors, and machine learning is needed}",
    journal = {Current Opinion in Plant Biology},
    volume = {50},
    year = {2019},
    month = {08},
    doi = {10.1016/j.pbi.2019.06.007},
    url = {https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pbi.2019.06.007},
    }

  • O. Vysotska and C. Stachniss, "Effective Visual Place Recognition Using Multi-Sequence Maps," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L), 2019. doi:10.1109/lra.2019.2897160
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @Article{vysotska2019ral,
    author = {O. Vysotska and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Effective Visual Place Recognition Using Multi-Sequence Maps}},
    journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters (RA-L)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/lra.2019.2897160},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/vysotska2019ral.pdf},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/wFU0JoXTH3c},
    }

  • N. Chebrolu, P. Lottes, T. Läbe, and C. Stachniss, "Robot Localization Based on Aerial Images for Precision Agriculture Tasks in Crop Fields," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2019. doi:10.1109/icra.2019.8794030
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{chebrolu2019icra,
    author = {N. Chebrolu and P. Lottes and T. Läbe and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Robot Localization Based on Aerial Images for Precision Agriculture Tasks in Crop Fields}},
    doi={10.1109/icra.2019.8794030},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = 2019,
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/chebrolu2019icra.pdf},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/TlijLgoRLbc},
    }

  • A. Milioto and C. Stachniss, "Bonnet: An Open-Source Training and Deployment Framework for Semantic Segmentation in Robotics using CNNs," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2019. doi:10.1109/icra.2019.8793510
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Code] [Video]
    @InProceedings{milioto2019icra,
    author = {A. Milioto and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Bonnet: An Open-Source Training and Deployment Framework for Semantic Segmentation in Robotics using CNNs}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/icra.2019.8793510},
    url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.08960},
    codeurl = {https://github.com/Photogrammetry-Robotics-Bonn/bonnet},
    videourl = {https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tfeFHCq6YJs},
    }

  • A. Milioto, L. Mandtler, and C. Stachniss, "Fast Instance and Semantic Segmentation Exploiting Local Connectivity, Metric Learning, and One-Shot Detection for Robotics," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2019. doi:10.1109/icra.2019.8793593
    [BibTeX] [PDF]
    @InProceedings{milioto2019icra-fiass,
    author = {A. Milioto and L. Mandtler and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Fast Instance and Semantic Segmentation Exploiting Local Connectivity, Metric Learning, and One-Shot Detection for Robotics}},
    url={https://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/wp-content/papercite-data/pdf/milioto2019icra-fiass.pdf},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/icra.2019.8793593},
    }

  • L. Nardi and C. Stachniss, "Uncertainty-Aware Path Planning for Navigation on Road Networks Using Augmented MDPs," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA) , 2019. doi:10.1109/icra.2019.8794121
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{nardi2019icra-uapp,
    author = {L. Nardi and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Uncertainty-Aware Path Planning for Navigation on Road Networks Using Augmented MDPs}},
    doi={10.1109/icra.2019.8794121},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics \& Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2019},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/nardi2019icra-uapp.pdf},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/3PMSamgYzi4},
    }

  • L. Nardi and C. Stachniss, "Actively Improving Robot Navigation On Different Terrains Using Gaussian Process Mixture Models," in Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) , 2019. doi:10.1109/icra.2019.8794079
    [BibTeX] [PDF] [Video]
    @InProceedings{nardi2019icra-airn,
    author = {L. Nardi and C. Stachniss},
    title = {{Actively Improving Robot Navigation On Different Terrains Using Gaussian Process Mixture Models}},
    booktitle = {Proc. of the IEEE Intl. Conf. on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)},
    year = {2019},
    doi={10.1109/icra.2019.8794079},
    url = {http://www.ipb.uni-bonn.de/pdfs/nardi2019icra-airn.pdf},
    videourl = {https://youtu.be/DlMbP3u1g2Y},
    }